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19th century reform movements essay

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nature emerson essay A subtle chain of countless rings. The next unto the farthest brings; The eye reads omens where it goes, And speaks all languages the rose;

And, striving to be man, the worm. Mounts through all the spires of form. Introduction Our age is retrospective. It builds the sepulchres of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and reform movements essay, criticism. The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to high school scholarships, the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of 19th reform tradition, and a religion by revelation to gun control persuasive introduction, us, and not the history of theirs? Embosomed for 19th movements a season in nature, whose floods of life stream around and through us, and invite us by english homework, the powers they supply, to action proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the past, or put the living generation into masquerade out of century its faded wardrobe? The sun shines to-day also.

There is more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. Undoubtedly we have no questions to ask which are unanswerable. We must trust the perfection of the creation so far, as to believe that whatever curiosity the order of things has awakened in our minds, the a cruel mp3, order of things can satisfy. Every man's condition is a solution in hieroglyphic to those inquiries he would put. He acts it as life, before he apprehends it as truth. In like manner, nature is already, in its forms and tendencies, describing its own design.

Let us interrogate the great apparition, that shines so peacefully around us. Let us inquire, to what end is 19th reform movements essay, nature? All science has one aim, namely, to find a theory of nature. We have theories of races and of functions, but scarcely yet a remote approach to an idea of creation. We are now so far from the road to truth, that religious teachers dispute and hate each other, and speculative men are esteemed unsound and frivolous. But to a sound judgment, the most abstract truth is the most practical. Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is, that it will explain all phenomena. Angel's Thesis Takahashi! Now many are thought not only unexplained but inexplicable; as language, sleep, madness, dreams, beasts, sex. Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul.

Strictly speaking, therefore, all that is movements essay, separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the NOT ME, that is, both nature and art, all other men andmy own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE. School English Essay! In enumerating the values of nature and casting up their sum, I shall use the word in both senses; -- in its common and in its philosophical import. Century Reform Movements! In inquiries so general as our present one, the inaccuracy is not material; no confusion of thought will occur. Nature, in the common sense, refers to essences unchanged by man; space, the air, the river, the leaf. Art is applied to the mixture of his will with the school essay homework, same things, as in a house, a canal, a statue, a picture. But his operations taken together are so insignificant, a little chipping, baking, patching, and washing, that in an impression so grand as that of the world on the human mind, they do not vary the result. Chapter I NATURE To go into solitude, a man needs to century movements, retire as much from his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and what he touches.

One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to essay, give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the sublime. Seen in the streets of 19th reform movements essay cities, how great they are! If the motivation essay, stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for 19th century movements many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown! But every night come out these envoys of business motivation beauty, and light the reform essay, universe with their admonishing smile. The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance.

Neither does the gun control essay introduction, wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her perfection. Nature never became a toy to 19th reform, a wise spirit. The flowers, the essay on black power, animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood. When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in 19th century movements essay the mind. We mean the integrity of essay introduction impression made by 19th century movements, manifold natural objects.

It is this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. Gun Control Persuasive! Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But none of century movements essay them owns the deterrence essay, landscape. There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the 19th reform, poet.

This is the best part of these men's farms, yet to this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to essay power, each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of manhood.

His intercourse with heaven and 19th essay, earth, becomes part of his daily food. In the school essay, presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of real sorrows. Nature says, -- he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of delight; for every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind, from breathless noon to grimmest midnight. Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece.

In good health, the air is a cordial of incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of fear. In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of life, is always a child. In the woods, is perpetual youth. Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years. In the woods, we return to reason and 19th movements, faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, -- my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance.

I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape, and especially in deterrence the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. The greatest delight which the 19th century reform movements essay, fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable. I am not alone and unacknowledged.

They nod to me, and I to them. The waving of the boughs in the storm, is new to deterrence punishment essay, me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Its effect is like that of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over century essay me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is certain that the angel's yoko mp3, power to 19th reform movements essay, produce this delight, does not reside in school english nature, but in 19th century reform movements man, or in a harmony of deterrence punishment both.

It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in 19th reform holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for business essay the frolic of the nymphs, is overspread with melancholy today. Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in it. 19th Reform Essay! Then, there is a kind of contempt of the landscape felt by him who has just lost by death a dear friend. The sky is less grand as it shuts down over less worth in the population. Chapter II COMMODITY Whoever considers the final cause of the world, will discern a multitude of usesthat result. Business Essay! They all admit of being thrown into one of the following classes; Commodity; Beauty; Language; and Discipline.

Under the general name of century reform movements essay Commodity, I rank all those advantages which our senses owe to nature. This, of course, is a benefit which is temporary and mediate, not ultimate, like its service to the soul. Deterrence! Yet although low, it is perfect in 19th reform essay its kind, and high essay scholarships, is the only use of nature which all men apprehend. The misery of man appears like childish petulance, when we explore the steady and prodigal provision that has been made for his support and 19th reform movements, delight on this green ball which floats him through the heavens. What angels invented these splendid ornaments, these rich conveniences, this ocean of air above, this ocean of water beneath, this firmament of earth between? this zodiac of high school 2013 lights, this tent of dropping clouds, this striped coat of climates, this fourfold year?

Beasts, fire, water, stones, and corn serve him. The field is at once his floor, his work-yard, his play-ground, his garden, and his bed. Century Reform! More servants wait on man. Than he 'll take notice of. ------ Nature, in its ministry to man, is not only the material, but is also the process and the result. All the parts incessantly work into each other's hands for the profit of man. The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the animal; and thus the business, endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man. The useful arts are reproductions or new combinations by the wit of man, of the same natural benefactors.

He no longer waits for favoring gales, but by century, means of steam, he realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag, and carries the two and thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. To diminish friction, he paves the road with iron bars, and, mounting a coach with a ship-load of punishment essay men, animals, and merchandise behind him, he darts through the country, from town to town, like an eagle or a swallow through the air. By the aggregate of these aids, how is the face of the world changed, from the era of Noah to that of Napoleon! The private poor man hath cities, ships, canals, bridges, built for him. He goes to the post-office, and the human race run on century reform movements essay his errands; to the book-shop, and the human race read and write of all that happens, for him; to the court-house, and nations repair his wrongs. He sets his house upon the road, and angel's takahashi, the human race go forth every morning, and shovel out the snow, and cut a path for him.

But there is no need of specifying particulars in this class of uses. The catalogue is endless, and 19th reform essay, the examples so obvious, that I shall leave them to the reader's reflection, with the general remark, that this mercenary benefit is one which has respect to a farther good. A man is fed, not that he may be fed, but that he may work. High Scholarships! Chapter III BEAUTY A nobler want of man is 19th century, served by nature, namely, the love of Beauty. The ancient Greeks called the world , beauty. Gun Control! Such is the 19th, constitution of all things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the essay, tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves; a pleasure arising from century reform movements, outline, color, motion, and grouping.

This seems partly owing to the eye itself. The eye is the best of artists. By the mutual action of school english essay homework its structure and of the laws of light, perspective is produced, which integrates every mass of objects, of what character soever, into a well colored and shaded globe, so that where the particular objects are mean and unaffecting, the landscape which they compose, is round and 19th century reform, symmetrical. Deterrence Capital Essay! And as the eye is the best composer, so light is the first of painters. There is no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful. And the stimulus it affords to the sense, and a sort of infinitude which it hath, like space and time, make all matter gay. Even the corpse has its own beauty. But besides this general grace diffused over nature, almost all the individual forms are agreeable to the eye, as is proved by our endless imitations of some of reform essay them, as the acorn, the grape, the pine-cone, the wheat-ear, the egg, the wings and forms of most birds, the motivation essay, lion's claw, the serpent, the butterfly, sea-shells, flames, clouds, buds, leaves, and the forms of many trees, as the palm. For better consideration, we may distribute the aspects of Beauty in a threefold manner.

1. First, the simple perception of natural forms is a delight. The influence of the forms and actions in nature, is so needful to man, that, in 19th century essay its lowest functions, it seems to lie on the confines of commodity and power, beauty. Century Reform Movements! To the body and mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company, nature is medicinal and business motivation, restores their tone. The tradesman, the attorney comes out of the din and 19th century essay, craft of the street, and sees the sky and the woods, and is a man again. In their eternal calm, he finds himself. The health of the eye seems to demand a horizon. We are never tired, so long as we can see far enough.

But in other hours, Nature satisfies by its loveliness, and without any mixture of corporeal benefit. I see the spectacle of morning from the hill-top over against my house, from english essay homework, day-break to 19th century essay, sun-rise, with emotions which an angel might share. The long slender bars of takahashi mp3 cloud float like fishes in the sea of crimson light. From the earth, as a shore, I look out into that silent sea. I seem to partake its rapid transformations: the active enchantment reaches my dust, and I dilate and conspire with the morning wind. How does Nature deify us with a few and cheap elements! Give me health and 19th reform, a day, and I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. Business Motivation Essay! The dawn is movements, my Assyria; the sun-set and moon-rise my Paphos, and unimaginable realms of faerie; broad noon shall be my England of the school, senses and the understanding; the night shall be my Germany of mystic philosophy and dreams.

Not less excellent, except for 19th century movements our less susceptibility in the afternoon, was the charm, last evening, of deterrence punishment a January sunset. The western clouds divided and subdivided themselves into pink flakes modulated with tints of unspeakable softness; and the air had so much life and sweetness, that it was a pain to century reform movements essay, come within doors. Gun Control Persuasive Essay! What was it that nature would say? Was there no meaning in the live repose of the valley behind the mill, and which Homer or Shakspeare could not reform for me in century movements words? The leafless trees become spires of flame in the sunset, with the essay on black, blue east for their back-ground, and the stars of the dead calices of flowers, and every withered stem and stubble rimed with frost, contribute something to the mute music. The inhabitants of cities suppose that the country landscape is 19th century movements essay, pleasant only half the deterrence capital essay, year. I please myself with the graces of the winter scenery, and believe that we are as much touched by it as by the genial influences of summer. To the attentive eye, each moment of the year has its own beauty, and in the same field, it beholds, every hour, a picture which was never seen before, and which shall never be seen again. The heavens change every moment, and 19th essay, reflect their glory or gloom on the plains beneath. The state of the crop in the surrounding farms alters the expression of the earth from week to week. The succession of on black native plants in the pastures and roadsides, which makes the silent clock by essay, which time tells the business essay, summer hours, will make even the divisions of the day sensible to a keen observer.

The tribes of birds and insects, like the plants punctual to their time, follow each other, and the year has room for all. By water-courses, the variety is greater. Century Reform! In July, the blue pontederia or pickerel-weed blooms in school scholarships large beds in the shallow parts of 19th century reform movements our pleasant river, and swarms with yellow butterflies in continual motion. Art cannot rival this pomp of purple and gold. Indeed the river is a perpetual gala, and boasts each month a new ornament. But this beauty of Nature which is seen and felt as beauty, is the least part. The shows of day, the dewy morning, the rainbow, mountains, orchards in blossom, stars, moonlight, shadows in still water, and the like, if too eagerly hunted, become shows merely, and school scholarships 2013, mock us with their unreality. Go out of the house to century reform, see the moon, and 't is mere tinsel; it will not please as when its light shines upon your necessary journey. The beauty that shimmers in the yellow afternoons of October, who ever could clutch it? Go forth to find it, and it is gone: 't is only a mirage as you look from the windows of diligence.

2. The presence of a higher, namely, of the homework, spiritual element is essential to its perfection. The high and divine beauty which can be loved without effeminacy, is that which is found in combination with the human will. Beauty is the essay, mark God sets upon virtue. Every natural action is graceful. Every heroic act is also decent, and school essay scholarships, causes the movements essay, place and the bystanders to shine. We are taught by great actions that the universe is the property of every individual in it. Every rational creature has all nature for his dowry and estate.

It is his, if he will. He may divest himself of it; he may creep into persuasive introduction a corner, and abdicate his kingdom, as most men do, but he is entitled to the world by his constitution. In proportion to the energy of his thought and will, he takes up the 19th century, world into himself. All those things for which men plough, build, or sail, obey virtue; said Sallust. The winds and waves, said Gibbon, are always on the side of the ablest navigators. So are the sun and moon and all the on black, stars of heaven. When a noble act is done, -- perchance in a scene of great natural beauty; when Leonidas and his three hundred martyrs consume one day in 19th reform movements dying, and the sun and moon come each and look at them once in the steep defile of Thermopylae; when Arnold Winkelried, in the high Alps, under the high school essay scholarships 2013, shadow of the avalanche, gathers in his side a sheaf of Austrian spears to reform essay, break the line for his comrades; are not these heroes entitled to add the beauty of the gun control persuasive essay, scene to the beauty of the deed? When the bark of Columbus nears the shore of reform America; -- before it, the beach lined with savages, fleeing out of all their huts of essay homework cane; the sea behind; and the purple mountains of the Indian Archipelago around, can we separate the man from the living picture? Does not the 19th century reform movements essay, New World clothe his form with her palm-groves and savannahs as fit drapery? Ever does natural beauty steal in like air, and envelope great actions.

When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill, sitting on a sled, to suffer death, as the champion of the English laws, one of the deterrence punishment essay, multitude cried out to him, You never sate on so glorious a seat. Charles II., to intimidate the citizens of London, caused the patriot Lord Russel to be drawn in an open coach, through the principal streets of the city, on his way to the scaffold. But, his biographer says, the multitude imagined they saw liberty and virtue sitting by his side. In private places, among sordid objects, an 19th century reform act of truth or heroism seems at gun control persuasive once to draw to itself the sky as its temple, the sun as its candle. Nature stretcheth out her arms to embrace man, only let his thoughts be of equal greatness. Willingly does she follow his steps with the rose and the violet, and 19th century movements, bend her lines of grandeur and grace to the decoration of her darling child. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope, and the frame will suit the picture.

A virtuous man is in unison with her works, and makes the central figure of the visible sphere. Homer, Pindar, Socrates, Phocion, associate themselves fitly in our memory with the geography and climate of Greece. The visible heavens and deterrence essay, earth sympathize with Jesus. 19th! And in common life, whosoever has seen a person of powerful character and happy genius, will have remarked how easily he took all things along with him, -- the persons, the opinions, and the day, and nature became ancillary to a man. 3. Business Motivation! There is still another aspect under which the beauty of the world may be viewed, namely, as it become s an 19th century reform essay object of the intellect. Beside the relation of things to virtue, they have a relation to thought. The intellect searches out the absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of God, and without the high school 2013, colors of affection. The intellectual and the active powers seem to succeed each other, and century essay, the exclusive activity of the one, generates the exclusive activity of the other. There is something unfriendly in each to the other, but they are like the alternate periods of feeding and working in animals; each prepares and will be followed by the other. High Essay Scholarships 2013! Therefore does beauty, which, in relation to actions, as we have seen, comes unsought, and comes because it is unsought, remain for the apprehension and pursuit of the intellect; and then again, in its turn, of the active power. 19th Reform Movements! Nothing divine dies.

All good is eternally reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind, and not for barren contemplation, but for new creation. All men are in some degree impressed by the face of the world; some men even to delight. This love of beauty is Taste. Others have the same love in such excess, that, not content with admiring, they seek to embody it in new forms. The creation of beauty is Art. The production of a work of art throws a light upon essay, the mystery of humanity. A work of art is an abstract or epitome of the world. It is the result or expression of nature, in 19th movements essay miniature.

For, although the deterrence punishment essay, works of nature are innumerable and all different, the result or the expression of them all is similar and single. Nature is 19th reform movements, a sea of forms radically alike and even unique. A leaf, a sun-beam, a landscape, the ocean, make an on black analogous impression on the mind. What is common to them all, -- that perfectness and harmony, is beauty. The standard of beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms, -- the totality of nature; which the Italians expressed by 19th century reform essay, defining beauty il piu nell' uno. Nothing is quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in the whole. A single object is only so far beautiful as it suggests this universal grace. The poet, the painter, the sculptor, the musician, the architect, seek each to concentrate this radiance of the world on one point, and each in his several work to satisfy the gun control introduction, love of beauty which stimulates him to produce. Thus is Art, a nature passed through the alembic of man.

Thus in art, does nature work through the will of a man filled with the beauty of her first works. The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of beauty. Century Movements Essay! This element I call an ultimate end. No reason can be asked or given why the soul seeks beauty. Beauty, in its largest and profoundest sense, is one expression for the universe. God is the all-fair. Truth, and goodness, and beauty, are but different faces of the same All. But beauty in nature is not ultimate. It is the herald of inward and eternal beauty, and is not alone a solid and essay, satisfactory good.

It must stand as a part, and not as yet the last or highest expression of the final cause of Nature. Essay! Chapter IV LANGUAGE Language is a third use which Nature subserves to man. Gun Control Essay! Nature is the vehble, and threefold degree. 1. 19th Essay! Words are signs of natural facts. 2. Particular natural facts are symbols of gun control persuasive introduction particular spiritual facts. 3. Nature is the symbol of spirit.

1. Words are signs of natural facts. The use of natural history is to give us aid in century reform movements supernatural history: the use of the outer creation, to give us language for the beings and changes of the inward creation. Every word which is used to express a moral or intellectual fact, if traced to its root, is found to be borrowed from deterrence punishment, some material appearance. Right means straight ; wrong means twisted . Spirit primarily means wind ; transgression , the crossing of a line ; supercilious , the reform essay, raising of the eyebrow . We say the heart to express emotion, the head to denote thought; and thought and emotion a re words borrowed from school, sensible things, and now appropriated to spiritual nature. Most of the 19th century reform movements, process by which this transformation is gun control persuasive, made, is hidden from us in 19th the remote time when language was framed; but the same tendency may be daily observed in children. Children and savages use only nouns or names of things, which they convert into verbs, and apply to analogous mental acts. 2. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import, -- so conspicuous a fact in the history of language, -- is on black, our least debt to nature. It is not words only that are emblematic; it is things which are emblematic. Every natural fact is a symbol of some spiritual fact. Century Reform! Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the deterrence capital, mind, and that state of the mind can only be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. An enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch.

A lamb is innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections. Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and heat for love. Visible distance behind and before us, is respectively our image of memory and hope. Who looks upon century reform essay, a river in a meditative hour, and is not reminded of the flux of all things? Throw a stone into the stream, and the circles that propagate themselves are the beautiful type of all influence.

Man is conscious of a universal soul within or behind his individual life, wherein, as in a firmament, the natures of Justice, Truth, Love, Freedom, arise and shine. A Cruel Angel's Yoko Takahashi Mp3! This universal soul, he calls Reason: it is not mine, or thine, or his, but we are its; we are its property and men. And the blue sky in which the private earth is century, buried, the sky with its eternal calm, and persuasive essay, full of everlasting orbs, is the type of Reason. That which, intellectually considered, we call Reason, considered in relation to nature, we call Spirit. Spirit is the Creator. Spirit hath life in itself. And man in all ages and countries, embodies it in 19th century reform movements his language, as the a cruel, FATHER. It is easily seen that there is nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies, but that they are constant, and pervade nature.

These are not the century, dreams of a few poets, here and there, but man is an homework analogist, and century essay, studies relations in business essay all objects. Century Reform Movements Essay! He is placed in the centre of beings, and a ray of relation passes from every other being to him. And neither can man be understood without these objects, nor these objects without man. All the facts in natural history taken by themselves, have no value, but are barren, like a single sex. But marry it to human history, and it is full of life. Whole Floras, all Linnaeus' and Buffon's volumes, are dry catalogues of facts; but the most trivial of these facts, the school english essay, habit of a plant, the organs, or work, or noise of an insect, applied to the illustration of a fact in intellectual philosophy, or, in any way associated to human nature, affects us in the most lively and agreeable manner. The seed of a plant, -- to what affecting analogies in the nature of man, is that little fruit made use of, in all discourse, up to the voice of Paul, who calls the human corpse a seed, -- It is 19th century reform essay, sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. The motion of the earth round its axis, and round the sun, makes the day, and the year. Power! These are certain amounts of brute light and heat.

But is there no intent of an analogy between man's life and the seasons? And do the reform essay, seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from on black, that analogy? The instincts of the ant are very unimportant, considered as the ant's; but the moment a ray of relation is century reform movements, seen to extend from it to man, and the little drudge is seen to be a monitor, a little body with a mighty heart, then all its habits, even that said to be recently observed, that it never sleeps, become sublime. Because of this radical correspondence between visible things and human thoughts, savages, who have only what is necessary, converse in figures. As we go back in history, language becomes more picturesque, until its infancy, when it is business motivation essay, all poetry; or all spiritual facts are represented by natural symbols. Century! The same symbols are found to make the a cruel yoko takahashi, original elements of all languages.

It has moreover been observed, that the idioms of all languages approach each other in passages of the greatest eloquence and power. And as this is the first language, so is it the 19th century reform essay, last. This immediate dependence of gun control language upon nature, this conversion of an outward phenomenon into a type of somewhat in human life, never loses its power to affect us. It is this which gives that piquancy to the conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back-woodsman, which all men relish. A man's power to connect his thought with its proper symbol, and so to utter it, depends on the simplicity of 19th century reform movements essay his character, that is, upon his love of truth, and his desire to communicate it without loss. The corruption of man is followed by the corruption of language. When simplicity of character and the sovereignty of ideas is yoko, broken up by the prevalence of reform movements secondary desires, the desire of riches, of pleasure, of power, and of praise, -- and duplicity and falsehood take place of simplicity and truth, the power over nature as an gun control essay introduction interpreter of the will, is in a degree lost; new imagery ceases to century movements essay, be created, and old words are perverted to stand for things which are not; a paper currency is employed, when there is no bullion in the vaults. Essay! In due time, the fraud is manifest, and words lose all power to stimulate the understanding or the century movements, affections. Hundreds of writers may be found in every long-civilized nation, who for a short time believe, and make others believe, that they see and utter truths, who do not of themselves clothe one thought in its natural garment, but who feed unconsciously on the language created by the primary writers of the country, those, namely, who hold primarily on nature. But wise men pierce this rotten diction and essay, fasten words again to visible things; so that picturesque language is at once a commanding certificate that he who employs it, is a man in alliance with truth and God. The moment our discourse rises above the ground line of familiar facts, and is inflamed with passion or exalted by thought, it clothes itself in images.

A man conversing in earnest, if he watch his intellectual processes, will find that a material image, more or less luminous, arises in his mind, cotemporaneous with every thought, which furnishes the vestment of the thought. Hence, good writing and brilliant discourse are perpetual allegories. This imagery is spontaneous. It is the 19th movements, blending of experience with the present action of the mind. It is proper creation. It is the working of the high essay scholarships 2013, Original Cause through the instruments he has already made. These facts may suggest the advantage which the country-life possesses for a powerful mind, over the artificial and curtailed life of cities. We know more from nature than we can at will communicate. Its light flows into the mind evermore, and we forget its presence.

The poet, the orator, bred in the woods, whose senses have been nourished by their fair and century reform, appeasing changes, year after year, without design and without heed, -- shall not lose their lesson altogether, in the roar of cities or the gun control essay, broil of politics. Long hereafter, amidst agitation and terror in national councils, -- in century movements essay the hour of capital punishment revolution, -- these solemn images shall reappear in their morning lustre, as fit symbols and words of the thoughts which the passing events shall awaken. At the call of a noble sentiment, again the woods wave, the pines murmur, the river rolls and shines, and the cattle low upon the mountains, as he saw and heard them in his infancy. And with these forms, the spells of 19th century reform movements essay persuasion, the essay on black, keys of power are put into his hands. 3. We are thus assisted by natural objects in the expression of particular meanings. But how great a language to convey such pepper-corn informations! Did it need such noble races of creatures, this profusion of forms, this host of orbs in heaven, to furnish man with the dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech? Whilst we use this grand cipher to expedite the affairs of 19th century reform movements our pot and kettle, we feel that we have not yet put it to its use, neither are able. We are like travellers using the cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. Whilst we see that it always stands ready to clothe what we would say, we cannot avoid the question, whether the characters are not significant of themselves. Have mountains, and punishment essay, waves, and essay, skies, no significance but what we consciously give them, when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts?

The world is emblematic. Parts of speech are metaphors, because the whole of persuasive introduction nature is 19th century reform movements essay, a metaphor of the human mind. The laws of moral nature answer to those of matter as face to face in a glass. A Cruel Yoko Mp3! The visible world and the relation of its parts, is the dial plate of the invisible. The axioms of physics translate the laws of ethics. 19th Century Reform Essay! Thus, the whole is greater than its part; reaction is deterrence capital punishment essay, equal to action; the smallest weight may be made to lift the greatest, the difference of weight being compensated by time; and many the like propositions, which have an ethical as well as physical sense. These propositions have a much more extensive and 19th reform, universal sense when applied to human life, than when confined to technical use. In like manner, the memorable words of history, and the proverbs of nations, consist usually of a natural fact, selected as a picture or parable of a cruel angel's thesis a moral truth. Thus; A rolling stone gathers no moss; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; A cripple in the right way, will beat a racer in the wrong; Make hay while the sun shines; 'T is hard to carry a full cup even; Vinegar is the son of wine; The last ounce broke the camel's back; Long-lived trees make roots first; -- and the like. In their primary sense these are trivial facts, but we repeat them for the value of their analogical import. What is true of proverbs, is true of all fables, parables, and allegories.

This relation between the mind and matter is not fancied by some poet, but stands in century movements the will of God, and gun control, so is free to be known by all men. It appears to men, or it does not appear. When in fortunate hours we ponder this miracle, the wise man doubts, if, at all other times, he is not blind and 19th century, deaf; ------ Can these things be, And overcome us like a summer's cloud, Without our special wonder? for the universe becomes transparent, and the light of higher laws than its own, shines through it. It is the standing problem which has exercised the wonder and the study of every fine genius since the world began; from the era of the Egyptians and the Brahmins, to that of Pythagoras, of Plato, of Bacon, of Leibnitz, of Swedenborg. There sits the Sphinx at the road-side, and from age to age, as each prophet comes by, he tries his fortune at reading her riddle. There seems to be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material forms; and day and night, river and storm, beast and bird, acid and alkali, preexist in necessary Ideas in the mind of God, and are what they are by virtue of preceding affections, in the world of spirit. A Fact is the end or last issue of spirit. The visible creation is the terminus or the business motivation, circumference of the invisible world.

Material objects, said a French philosopher, are necessarily kinds of 19th century reform scoriae of the substantial thoughts of the Creator, which must always preserve an exact relation to their first origin; in other words, visible nature must have a spiritual and moral side. This doctrine is abstruse, and though the images of garment, scoriae, mirror, c., may stimulate the fancy, we must summon the aid of subtler and more vital expositors to make it plain. Every scripture is to be interpreted by the same spirit which gave it forth, -- is the fundamental law of criticism. A life in harmony with nature, the love of truth and of virtue, will purge the eyes to understand her text. By degrees we may come to know the primitive sense of the permanent objects of nature, so that the world shall be to a cruel angel's thesis takahashi mp3, us an open book, and every form significant of its hidden life and 19th reform movements essay, final cause. A new interest surprises us, whilst, under the view now suggested, we contemplate the fearful extent and multitude of objects; since every object rightly seen, unlocks a new faculty of the soul. High Scholarships! That which was unconscious truth, becomes, when interpreted and 19th century essay, defined in high school essay scholarships an object, a part of the domain of knowledge, -- a new weapon in the magazine of power. Chapter V DISCIPLINE In view of the significance of nature, we arrive at once at a new fact, that nature is a discipline. This use of the world includes the preceding uses, as parts of itself.

Space, time, society, labor, climate, food, locomotion, the 19th movements essay, animals, the mechanical forces, give us sincerest lessons, day by day, whose meaning is unlimited. They educate both the Understanding and high 2013, the Reason. Every property of matter is a school for the understanding, -- its solidity or resistance, its inertia, its extension, its figure, its divisibility. The understanding adds, divides, combines, measures, and finds nutriment and room for its activity in this worthy scene. Meantime, Reason transfers all these lessons into its own world of thought, by perceiving the analogy that marries Matter and reform, Mind. 1. Nature is a discipline of the understanding in intellectual truths.

Our dealing with sensible objects is a constant exercise in the necessary lessons of difference, of likeness, of order, of being and seeming, of progressive arrangement; of ascent from particular to general; of combination to one end of manifold forces. Proportioned to the importance of the organ to be formed, is the extreme care with which its tuition is provided, -- a care pretermitted in no single case. What tedious training, day after day, year after year, never ending, to form the common sense; what continual reproduction of annoyances, inconveniences, dilemmas; what rejoicing over us of little men; what disputing of prices, what reckonings of interest, -- and all to form the Hand of the mind; -- to capital, instruct us that good thoughts are no better than good dreams, unless they be executed! The same good office is performed by Property and 19th essay, its filial systems of debt and essay on black, credit. 19th Reform Essay! Debt, grinding debt, whose iron face the widow, the orphan, and the sons of genius fear and hate; -- debt, which consumes so much time, which so cripples and disheartens a great spirit with cares that seem so base, is a preceptor whose lessons cannot be forgone, and is needed most by those who suffer from it most. Moreover, property, which has been well compared to gun control, snow, -- if it fall level to-day, it will be blown into drifts to-morrow, -- is the century movements, surface action of internal machinery, like the index on the face of a clock. Whilst now it is the gymnastics of the understanding, it is hiving in the foresight of the spirit, experience in profounder laws. The whole character and fortune of the school english, individual are affected by the least inequalities in the culture of the understanding; for example, in the perception of differences. Therefore is Space, and therefore Time, that man may know that things are not huddled and lumped, but sundered and individual.

A bell and a plough have each their use, and neither can do the office of the other. Water is good to drink, coal to burn, wool to wear; but wool cannot be drunk, nor water spun, nor coal eaten. The wise man shows his wisdom in separation, in reform essay gradation, and business essay, his scale of creatures and of merits is as wide as nature. The foolish have no range in their scale, but suppose every man is movements essay, as every other man. What is not good they call the worst, and what is not hateful, they call the best. In like manner, what good heed, nature forms in us! She pardons no mistakes. Her yea is yea, and her nay, nay. The first steps in Agriculture, Astronomy, Zoology, (those first steps which the farmer, the hunter, and the sailor take,) teach that nature's dice are always loaded; that in her heaps and rubbish are concealed sure and a cruel angel's thesis yoko mp3, useful results. How calmly and genially the mind apprehends one after another the laws of physics!

What noble emotions dilate the mortal as he enters into the counsels of the creation, and feels by knowledge the reform, privilege to BE! His insight refines him. The beauty of nature shines in his own breast. Man is angel's thesis takahashi mp3, greater that he can see this, and the universe less, because Time and Space relations vanish as laws are known. Here again we are impressed and even daunted by the immense Universe to be explored. What we know, is a point to what we do not know. Open any recent journal of science, and weigh the problems suggested concerning Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, Physiology, Geology, and judge whether the interest of natural science is likely to be soon exhausted. Passing by many particulars of the discipline of nature, we must not omit to century movements essay, specify two.

The exercise of the Will or the lesson of power is taught in every event. From the child's successive possession of his several senses up to the hour when he saith, Thy will be done! he is learning the secret, that he can reduce under his will, not only particular events, but great classes, nay the whole series of events, and so conform all facts to his character. Angel's Thesis Yoko Takahashi Mp3! Nature is thoroughly mediate. 19th Reform Movements Essay! It is made to serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the Saviour rode. Gun Control Introduction! It offers all its kingdoms to man as the 19th century essay, raw material which he may mould into what is useful. Man is never weary of working it up.

He forges the subtile and delicate air into wise and melodious words, and gives them wing as angels of english essay persuasion and command. One after another, his victorious thought comes up with and reduces all things, until the century, world becomes, at last, only a realized will, -- the double of the man. 2. Sensible objects conform to the premonitions of Reason and reflect the conscience. All things are moral; and in their boundless changes have an unceasing reference to spiritual nature. Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and motion, that every globe in the remotest heaven; every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life; every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and antediluvian coal-mine; every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments. Therefore is nature ever the ally of Religion: lends all her pomp and riches to the religious sentiment. Angel's Thesis! Prophet and priest, David, Isaiah, Jesus, have drawn deeply from this source. This ethical character so penetrates the bone and century reform movements, marrow of nature, as to seem the end for which it was made. Whatever private purpose is answered by motivation essay, any member or part, this is its public and universal function, and is never omitted. Nothing in nature is exhausted in its first use. When a thing has served an end to the uttermost, it is wholly new for an ulterior service.

In God, every end is converted into a new means. Thus the use of commodity, regarded by itself, is mean and squalid. But it is to the mind an education in the doctrine of Use, namely, that a thing is good only so far as it serves; that a conspiring of parts and efforts to the production of an end, is century essay, essential to any being. The first and essay, gross manifestation of this truth, is our inevitable and hated training in values and wants, in corn and meat. It has already been illustrated, that every natural process is a version of a moral sentence.

The moral law lies at the centre of nature and century reform, radiates to the circumference. It is the pith and marrow of school homework every substance, every relation, and every process. All things with which we deal, preach to us. What is a farm but a mute gospel? The chaff and the wheat, weeds and plants, blight, rain, insects, sun, -- it is a sacred emblem from the first furrow of reform movements spring to the last stack which the snow of on black power winter overtakes in the fields. But the 19th reform movements essay, sailor, the shepherd, the miner, the merchant, in their several resorts, have each an experience precisely parallel, and leading to the same conclusion: because all organizations are radically alike. Nor can it be doubted that this moral sentiment which thus scents the air, grows in the grain, and impregnates the waters of the world, is caught by man and sinks into deterrence his soul. The moral influence of nature upon every individual is that amount of truth which it illustrates to him. Who can estimate this? Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the 19th century essay, fisherman? how much tranquillity has been reflected to power, man from the azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? how much industry and providence and 19th reform movements essay, affection we have caught from the pantomime of brutes?

What a searching preacher of self-command is the varying phenomenon of Health! Herein is especially apprehended the unity of angel's thesis yoko takahashi mp3 Nature, -- the unity in variety, -- which meets us everywhere. All the endless variety of things make an identical impression. Xenophanes complained in his old age, that, look where he would, all things hastened back to Unity. He was weary of century reform movements essay seeing the same entity in gun control persuasive the tedious variety of reform forms.

The fable of Proteus has a cordial truth. A leaf, a drop, a crystal, a moment of time is related to high school, the whole, and partakes of the century, perfection of the whole. Each particle is essay, a microcosm, and faithfully renders the likeness of the world. Not only resemblances exist in things whose analogy is obvious, as when we detect the type of the human hand in the flipper of the fossil saurus, but also in objects wherein there is great superficial unlikeness. Movements! Thus architecture is called frozen music, by De Stael and high school essay 2013, Goethe. Vitruvius thought an architect should be a musician. A Gothic church, said Coleridge, is a petrified religion. Michael Angelo maintained, that, to an architect, a knowledge of anatomy is essential. In Haydn's oratorios, the notes present to the imagination not only motions, as, of the snake, the stag, and 19th century movements essay, the elephant, but colors also; as the green grass. The law of 2013 harmonic sounds reappears in the harmonic colors.

The granite is differenced in its laws only by the more or less of heat, from the river that wears it away. 19th Reform Movements! The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the light which traverses it with more subtile currents; the light resembles the heat which rides with it through Space. Each creature is only a modification of the other; the likeness in them is more than the difference, and their radical law is one and the same. A rule of one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of nature, and school, betrays its source in century reform movements Universal Spirit. For, it pervades Thought also.

Every universal truth which we express in words, implies or supposes every other truth. Omne verum vero consonat. It is essay homework, like a great circle on a sphere, comprising all possible circles; which, however, may be drawn, and comprise it, in like manner. 19th Essay! Every such truth is the high scholarships, absolute Ens seen from one side. But it has innumerable sides. The central Unity is still more conspicuous in actions. Words are finite organs of the infinite mind. They cannot cover the dimensions of what is in truth.

They break, chop, and impoverish it. An action is the perfection and publication of thought. A right action seems to fill the eye, and to be related to all nature. The wise man, in doing one thing, does all; or, in the one thing he does rightly, he sees the likeness of all which is done rightly. Words and 19th century essay, actions are not the attributes of brute nature. They introduce us to the human form, of which all other organizations appear to be degradations. When this appears among so many that surround it, the spirit prefers it to all others.

It says, `From such as this, have I drawn joy and knowledge; in such as this, have I found and beheld myself; I will speak to it; it can speak again; it can yield me thought already formed and alive.' In fact, the eye, -- the mind, -- is always accompanied by these forms, male and female; and these are incomparably the school english essay, richest informations of the power and order that lie at the heart of things. Unfortunately, every one of 19th century them bears the marks as of some injury; is gun control, marred and superficially defective. Nevertheless, far different from the century reform, deaf and dumb nature around them, these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of thought and virtue whereto they alone, of all organizations, are the entrances. It were a pleasant inquiry to persuasive essay, follow into detail their ministry to our education, but where would it stop? We are associated in adolescent and adult life with some friends, who, like skies and waters, are coextensive with our idea; who, answering each to a certain affection of the soul, satisfy our desire on that side; whom we lack power to put at such focal distance from us, that we can mend or even analyze them.

We cannot choose but love them. When much intercourse with a friend has supplied us with a standard of excellence, and has increased our respect for the resources of God who thus sends a real person to outgo our ideal; when he has, moreover, become an object of thought, and, whilst his character retains all its unconscious effect, is essay, converted in the mind into solid and sweet wisdom, -- it is a sign to us that his office is closing, and he is commonly withdrawn from our sight in a short time. Chapter VI IDEALISM Thus is the unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the world conveyed to man, the immortal pupil, in every object of sense. To this one end of Discipline, all parts of nature conspire. A noble doubt perpetually suggests itself, whether this end be not the Final Cause of the Universe; and whether nature outwardly exists. School Essay Scholarships 2013! It is 19th reform movements essay, a sufficient account of school english essay that Appearance we call the World, that God will teach a human mind, and so makes it the receiver of a certain number of congruent sensations, which we call sun and century essay, moon, man and woman, house and trade. In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul? The relations of parts and on black power, the end of the whole remaining the same, what is the difference, whether land and century, sea interact, and worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end, -- deep yawning under deep, and galaxy balancing galaxy, throughout absolute space, -- or, whether, without relations of time and space, the same appearances are inscribed in the constant faith of man? Whether nature enjoy a substantial existence without, or is only in the apocalypse of the motivation, mind, it is alike useful and alike venerable to me. Reform Movements! Be it what it may, it is ideal to me, so long as I cannot try the accuracy of my senses.

The frivolous make themselves merry with the Ideal theory, as if its consequences were burlesque; as if it affected the a cruel angel's thesis takahashi, stability of nature. It surely does not. God never jests with us, and will not compromise the end of movements nature, by permitting any inconsequence in its procession. Any distrust of the high school essay, permanence of laws, would paralyze the faculties of man. Their permanence is essay, sacredly respected, and his faith therein is perfect. The wheels and springs of man are all set to the hypothesis of the permanence of nature. We are not built like a ship to a cruel yoko mp3, be tossed, but like a house to stand. It is a natural consequence of this structure, that, so long as the active powers predominate over the reflective, we resist with indignation any hint that nature is more short-lived or mutable than spirit. Reform Movements! The broker, the wheelwright, the carpenter, the toll-man, are much displeased at the intimation.

But whilst we acquiesce entirely in the permanence of natural laws, the question of the absolute existence of nature still remains open. Business Essay! It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to 19th movements, shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to thesis mp3, spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and an effect. To the senses and the unrenewed understanding, belongs a sort of instinctive belief in the absolute existence of nature. In their view, man and 19th reform essay, nature are indissolubly joined. Things are ultimates, and they never look beyond their sphere. Angel's Takahashi! The presence of Reason mars this faith.

The first effort of thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat. 19th Century Movements! Until this higher agency intervened, the animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and colored surfaces. When the eye of Reason opens, to outline and surface are at once added, grace and expression. These proceed from imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of objects. If the Reason be stimulated to more earnest vision, outlines and surfaces become transparent, and are no longer seen; causes and spirits are seen through them. The best moments of life are these delicious awakenings of the higher powers, and high essay, the reverential withdrawing of nature before its God. Let us proceed to indicate the effects of culture. 1. Essay! Our first institution in the Ideal philosophy is a hint from nature herself. Nature is made to conspire with spirit to emancipate us. Certain mechanical changes, a small alteration in our local position apprizes us of a dualism.

We are strangely affected by seeing the shore from a moving ship, from a balloon, or through the tints of an unusual sky. The least change in our point of view, gives the whole world a pictorial air. A man who seldom rides, needs only to get into a coach and traverse his own town, to turn the high school, street into a puppet-show. The men, the women, -- talking, running, bartering, fighting, -- the earnest mechanic, the lounger, the beggar, the boys, the 19th, dogs, are unrealized at once, or, at least, wholly detached from all relation to the observer, and seen as apparent, not substantial beings. What new thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of country quite familiar, in the rapid movement of the rail-road car! Nay, the most wonted objects, (make a very slight change in the point of business motivation essay vision,) please us most. In a camera obscura, the butcher's cart, and the figure of one of our own family amuse us. So a portrait of a well-known face gratifies us. Movements! Turn the eyes upside down, by looking at gun control essay introduction the landscape through your legs, and how agreeable is the picture, though you have seen it any time these twenty years! In these cases, by mechanical means, is suggested the difference between the observer and the spectacle, -- between man and nature.

Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe; I may say, a low degree of the reform movements essay, sublime is felt from the fact, probably, that man is power, hereby apprized, that, whilst the century movements essay, world is a spectacle, something in himself is stable. 2. In a higher manner, the poet communicates the same pleasure. By a few strokes he delineates, as on air, the sun, the mountain, the camp, the city, the hero, the maiden, not different from what we know them, but only lifted from the ground and afloat before the eye. He unfixes the land and the sea, makes them revolve around the axis of his primary thought, and disposes them anew. Possessed himself by a heroic passion, he uses matter as symbols of it. The sensual man conforms thoughts to things; the poet conforms things to his thoughts. The one esteems nature as rooted and fast; the other, as fluid, and impresses his being thereon.

To him, the refractory world is ductile and flexible; he invests dust and stones with humanity, and makes them the words of the Reason. The Imagination may be defined to be, the use which the essay, Reason makes of the material world. Shakspeare possesses the power of subordinating nature for the purposes of expression, beyond all poets. His imperial muse tosses the creation like a bauble from hand to hand, and uses it to embody any caprice of thought that is upper-most in his mind. The remotest spaces of nature are visited, and the farthest sundered things are brought together, by a subtle spiritual connection. We are made aware that magnitude of material things is relative, and all objects shrink and expand to serve the passion of the poet. Reform Movements! Thus, in his sonnets, the lays of birds, the scents and dyes of school english flowers, he finds to be the shadow of his beloved; time, which keeps her from him, is his chest ; the suspicion she has awakened, is her ornament ; The ornament of beauty is Suspect, A crow which flies in heaven's sweetest air.

His passion is 19th century reform, not the fruit of chance; it swells, as he speaks, to a city, or a state. No, it was builded far from accident; It suffers not in persuasive essay smiling pomp, nor falls. Under the brow of thralling discontent; It fears not policy, that heretic, That works on leases of short numbered hours, But all alone stands hugely politic In the strength of 19th his constancy, the Pyramids seem to a cruel takahashi mp3, him recent and transitory. The freshness of youth and love dazzles him with its resemblance to morning. Take those lips away. Which so sweetly were forsworn; And those eyes, -- the break of day,

Lights that do mislead the morn. The wild beauty of this hyperbole, I may say, in passing, it would not be easy to match in literature. This transfiguration which all material objects undergo through the passion of the poet, -- this power which he exerts to dwarf the great, to magnify the small, -- might be illustrated by century reform movements, a thousand examples from his Plays. I have before me the Tempest, and will cite only these few lines. ARIEL. The strong based promontory.

Have I made shake, and by the spurs plucked up. The pine and cedar. Prospero calls for music to soothe the frantic Alonzo, and high school essay scholarships 2013, his companions; A solemn air, and 19th reform movements, the best comforter. To an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains. Now useless, boiled within thy skull. Again; The charm dissolves apace,

And, as the school essay homework, morning steals upon the night, Melting the darkness, so their rising senses. Begin to 19th essay, chase the ignorant fumes that mantle. Their clearer reason. Begins to swell: and the approaching tide. Will shortly fill the reasonable shores.

That now lie foul and muddy. The perception of essay real affinities between events, (that is to say, of ideal affinities, for those only are real,) enables the poet thus to make free with the century reform movements, most imposing forms and phenomena of the world, and to assert the predominance of the english homework, soul. 3. Whilst thus the poet animates nature with his own thoughts, he differs from the philosopher only century essay herein, that the one proposes Beauty as his main end; the other Truth. But the philosopher, not less than the poet, postpones the apparent order and relations of things to homework, the empire of thought. The problem of philosophy, according to Plato, is, for all that exists conditionally, to find a ground unconditioned and absolute. It proceeds on the faith that a law determines all phenomena, which being known, the phenomena can be predicted. That law, when in the mind, is an idea. Its beauty is infinite. The true philosopher and the true poet are one, and a beauty, which is truth, and a truth, which is beauty, is the aim of both.

Is not the century reform, charm of one of Plato's or Aristotle's definitions, strictly like that of the Antigone of Sophocles? It is, in both cases, that a spiritual life has been imparted to nature; that the essay homework, solid seeming block of matter has been pervaded and dissolved by a thought; that this feeble human being has penetrated the vast masses of nature with an century informing soul, and recognised itself in their harmony, that is, seized their law. In physics, when this is attained, the memory disburthens itself of its cumbrous catalogues of particulars, and carries centuries of motivation observation in a single formula. Thus even in 19th reform movements essay physics, the material is degraded before the spiritual. The astronomer, the geometer, rely on their irrefragable analysis, and disdain the results of observation. The sublime remark of Euler on his law of arches, This will be found contrary to all experience, yet is true; had already transferred nature into the mind, and left matter like an outcast corpse. 4. Intellectual science has been observed to beget invariably a doubt of the existence of matter. Turgot said, He that has never doubted the existence of matter, may be assured he has no aptitude for metaphysical inquiries. It fastens the attention upon immortal necessary uncreated natures, that is, upon Ideas; and in their presence, we feel that the outward circumstance is a dream and a shade. Whilst we wait in this Olympus of gods, we think of nature as an appendix to the soul.

We ascend into their region, and know that these are the thoughts of the Supreme Being. These are they who were set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. When he prepared the heavens, they were there; when he established the clouds above, when he strengthened the fountains of the deep. Then they were by him, as one brought up with him. Of them took he counsel. Their influence is proportionate. As objects of science, they are accessible to few men. Yet all men are capable of being raised by piety or by passion, into introduction their region. And no man touches these divine natures, without becoming, in some degree, himself divine.

Like a new soul, they renew the 19th reform essay, body. We become physically nimble and lightsome; we tread on air; life is no longer irksome, and we think it will never be so. No man fears age or misfortune or death, in essay homework their serene company, for he is transported out of the district of century movements change. Motivation! Whilst we behold unveiled the nature of Justice and Truth, we learn the difference between the absolute and the conditional or relative. We apprehend the absolute. As it were, for the first time, we exist. We become immortal, for we learn that time and 19th reform movements, space are relations of thesis takahashi mp3 matter; that, with a perception of truth, or a virtuous will, they have no affinity.

5. Reform Essay! Finally, religion and ethics, which may be fitly called, -- the practice of ideas, or the introduction of ideas into life, -- have an persuasive essay introduction analogous effect with all lower culture, in degrading nature and suggesting its dependence on spirit. 19th Essay! Ethics and religion differ herein; that the one is the persuasive essay introduction, system of human duties commencing from 19th century essay, man; the other, from God. Religion includes the personality of homework God; Ethics does not. They are one to our present design. They both put nature under foot. The first and 19th century reform essay, last lesson of religion is, The things that are seen, are temporal; the essay homework, things that are unseen, are eternal. It puts an affront upon nature. It does that for 19th century reform essay the unschooled, which philosophy does for Berkeley and Viasa. The uniform language that may be heard in the churches of the most ignorant sects, is,------Contemn the unsubstantial shows of the world; they are vanities, dreams, shadows, unrealities; seek the realities of religion. The devotee flouts nature. Some theosophists have arrived at a certain hostility and indignation towards matter, as the Manichean and Plotinus.

They distrusted in themselves any looking back to these flesh-pots of Egypt. Plotinus was ashamed of his body. In short, they might all say of essay matter, what Michael Angelo said of external beauty, it is the frail and weary weed, in which God dresses the soul, which he has called into time. It appears that motion, poetry, physical and intellectual science, and religion, all tend to affect our convictions of the reality of the external world. But I own there is 19th century, something ungrateful in expanding too curiously the particulars of the general proposition, that all culture tends to imbue us with idealism. I have no hostility to nature, but a child's love to deterrence capital essay, it. I expand and live in the warm day like corn and melons. Let us speak her fair.

I do not wish to fling stones at my beautiful mother, nor soil my gentle nest. I only wish to indicate the true position of century reform movements nature in regard to man, wherein to establish man, all right education tends; as the ground which to attain is the object of human life, that is, of man's connection with nature. Culture inverts the high school 2013, vulgar views of nature, and brings the mind to call that apparent, which it uses to call real, and that real, which it uses to call visionary. Children, it is true, believe in the external world. The belief that it appears only, is an afterthought, but with culture, this faith will as surely arise on the mind as did the first. The advantage of the ideal theory over the popular faith, is this, that it presents the century movements, world in precisely that view which is most desirable to the mind. It is, in fact, the view which Reason, both speculative and a cruel thesis yoko, practical, that is, philosophy and virtue, take. For, seen in the light of thought, the world always is phenomenal; and 19th essay, virtue subordinates it to a cruel angel's thesis yoko, the mind. Idealism sees the world in God. It beholds the 19th century, whole circle of persons and things, of actions and events, of country and religion, not as painfully accumulated, atom after atom, act after act, in business essay an aged creeping Past, but as one vast picture, which God paints on the instant eternity, for the contemplation of the soul.

Therefore the soul holds itself off from a too trivial and microscopic study of the universal tablet. It respects the end too much, to immerse itself in the means. It sees something more important in Christianity, than the scandals of ecclesiastical history, or the niceties of criticism; and, very incurious concerning persons or miracles, and not at all disturbed by chasms of 19th century reform movements essay historical evidence, it accepts from deterrence capital essay, God the phenomenon, as it finds it, as the pure and 19th reform essay, awful form of religion in the world. It is school essay scholarships 2013, not hot and passionate at the appearance of what it calls its own good or bad fortune, at the union or opposition of other persons. No man is its enemy. It accepts whatsoever befalls, as part of its lesson. 19th Century Movements! It is a cruel angel's yoko, a watcher more than a doer, and it is a doer, only that it may the better watch.

Chapter VII SPIRIT It is essential to a true theory of nature and of man, that it should contain somewhat progressive. Uses that are exhausted or that may be, and facts that end in the statement, cannot be all that is true of this brave lodging wherein man is harbored, and wherein all his faculties find appropriate and 19th movements, endless exercise. And all the uses of nature admit of being summed in one, which yields the school english essay homework, activity of man an infinite scope. Essay! Through all its kingdoms, to the suburbs and outskirts of things, it is faithful to the cause whence it had its origin. It always speaks of Spirit. It suggests the absolute. Capital! It is 19th century movements essay, a perpetual effect. It is on black, a great shadow pointing always to the sun behind us. The aspect of nature is devout. Like the figure of Jesus, she stands with bended head, and hands folded upon the breast.

The happiest man is he who learns from century reform movements essay, nature the lesson of punishment essay worship. Of that ineffable essence which we call Spirit, he that thinks most, will say least. We can foresee God in the coarse, and, as it were, distant phenomena of matter; but when we try to define and describe himself, both language and thought desert us, and we are as helpless as fools and savages. That essence refuses to be recorded in propositions, but when man has worshipped him intellectually, the noblest ministry of nature is to 19th, stand as the apparition of God. It is the organ through which the universal spirit speaks to the individual, and strives to lead back the on black power, individual to it. When we consider Spirit, we see that the views already presented do not include the whole circumference of man. We must add some related thoughts. Three problems are put by nature to the mind; What is 19th century movements essay, matter?

Whence is it? and Whereto? The first of these questions only, the ideal theory answers. Idealism saith: matter is a phenomenon, not a substance. On Black Power! Idealism acquaints us with the total disparity between the evidence of our own being, and the evidence of the world's being. The one is perfect; the other, incapable of any assurance; the mind is a part of the nature of things; the world is a divine dream, from 19th reform movements, which we may presently awake to the glories and certainties of day. Idealism is a hypothesis to account for nature by other principles than those of carpentry and high 2013, chemistry. Yet, if it only deny the existence of matter, it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit. It leaves God out of me. 19th Reform! It leaves me in a cruel thesis yoko takahashi the splendid labyrinth of my perceptions, to wander without end. Then the heart resists it, because it balks the affections in denying substantive being to men and women. Nature is so pervaded with human life, that there is century movements essay, something of humanity in all, and in takahashi mp3 every particular.

But this theory makes nature foreign to 19th reform movements essay, me, and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to school 2013, it. Let it stand, then, in the present state of our knowledge, merely as a useful introductory hypothesis, serving to apprize us of the eternal distinction between the century, soul and the world. But when, following the invisible steps of thought, we come to inquire, Whence is matter? and Whereto? many truths arise to us out of the recesses of school essay consciousness. We learn that the highest is present to the soul of man, that the 19th century reform, dread universal essence, which is not wisdom, or love, or beauty, or power, but all in one, and each entirely, is that for which all things exist, and that by which they are; that spirit creates; that behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present; one and not compound, it does not act upon us from without, that is, in space and time, but spiritually, or through ourselves: therefore, that spirit, that is, the Supreme Being, does not build up nature around us, but puts it forth through us, as the life of the deterrence capital, tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the reform movements essay, pores of the old. As a plant upon the earth, so a man rests upon the bosom of deterrence capital punishment God; he is nourished by unfailing fountains, and draws, at his need, inexhaustible power. Who can set bounds to the possibilities of 19th essay man? Once inhale the upper air, being admitted to behold the absolute natures of motivation justice and truth, and 19th movements essay, we learn that man has access to the entire mind of the Creator, is himself the creator in the finite.

This view, which admonishes me where the sources of wisdom and power lie, and points to gun control persuasive essay, virtue as to The golden key. Which opes the palace of century reform eternity, carries upon its face the highest certificate of truth, because it animates me to on black power, create my own world through the purification of my soul. The world proceeds from the 19th essay, same spirit as the body of man. It is a remoter and inferior incarnation of God, a projection of God in the unconscious. But it differs from the body in one important respect. It is not, like that, now subjected to the human will. Its serene order is inviolable by english homework, us.

It is, therefore, to us, the present expositor of the divine mind. It is a fixed point whereby we may measure our departure. As we degenerate, the contrast between us and our house is more evident. We are as much strangers in nature, as we are aliens from God. We do not understand the 19th century reform essay, notes of birds. The fox and the deer run away from us; the bear and tiger rend us. We do not know the uses of more than a few plants, as corn and the apple, the potato and high school essay scholarships, the vine.

Is not the landscape, every glimpse of which hath a grandeur, a face of him? Yet this may show us what discord is between man and nature, for you cannot freely admire a noble landscape, if laborers are digging in the field hard by. The poet finds something ridiculous in his delight, until he is out of the sight of men. Chapter VIII PROSPECTS In inquiries respecting the laws of the world and the frame of things, the highest reason is always the truest. That which seems faintly possible -- it is so refined, is 19th century essay, often faint and business motivation, dim because it is deepest seated in the mind among the eternal verities. Empirical science is century movements essay, apt to cloud the sight, and, by the very knowledge of essay 2013 functions and processes, to bereave the student of the century, manly contemplation of the whole. The savant becomes unpoetic. But the best read naturalist who lends an entire and high school scholarships, devout attention to 19th, truth, will see that there remains much to learn of his relation to the world, and that it is not to be learned by any addition or subtraction or other comparison of known quantities, but is arrived at a cruel angel's takahashi by untaught sallies of the spirit, by a continual self-recovery, and by 19th century movements, entire humility. He will perceive that there are far more excellent qualities in the student than preciseness and infallibility; that a guess is often more fruitful than an punishment essay indisputable affirmation, and reform, that a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments. For, the gun control, problems to be solved are precisely those which the physiologist and the naturalist omit to state. It is not so pertinent to man to 19th century reform movements, know all the individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and a cruel angel's yoko mp3, whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to 19th century reform, reduce the most diverse to one form.

When I behold a rich landscape, it is less to my purpose to recite correctly the order and superposition of the scholarships, strata, than to know why all thought of multitude is lost in a tranquil sense of unity. I cannot greatly honor minuteness in details, so long as there is no hint to explain the relation between things and thoughts; no ray upon the metaphysics of conchology, of botany, of the arts, to show the relation of the century essay, forms of flowers, shells, animals, architecture, to the mind, and build science upon ideas. In a cabinet of natural history, we become sensible of a certain occult recognition and sympathy in regard to essay, the most unwieldly and eccentric forms of beast, fish, and insect. The American who has been confined, in his own country, to the sight of buildings designed after foreign models, is surprised on entering York Minster or St. Peter's at Rome, by 19th reform movements, the feeling that these structures are imitations also, -- faint copies of an invisible archetype. Nor has science sufficient humanity, so long as the naturalist overlooks that wonderful congruity which subsists between man and the world; of which he is lord, not because he is the most subtile inhabitant, but because he is its head and heart, and finds something of himself in every great and small thing, in every mountain stratum, in every new law of color, fact of astronomy, or atmospheric influence which observation or analysis lay open. A perception of this mystery inspires the muse of George Herbert, the beautiful psalmist of the deterrence capital, seventeenth century.

The following lines are part of his little poem on Man. Man is all symmetry, Full of proportions, one limb to another, And to all the world besides. Each part may call the farthest, brother;

For head with foot hath private amity, And both with moons and tides. Nothing hath got so far. But man hath caught and 19th century reform movements essay, kept it as his prey; His eyes dismount the highest star; He is in little all the sphere. Herbs gladly cure our flesh, because that they. Find their acquaintance there. For us, the on black power, winds do blow,

The earth doth rest, heaven move, and fountains flow; Nothing we see, but means our good, As our delight, or as our treasure; The whole is either our cupboard of food, Or cabinet of pleasure. The stars have us to bed: Night draws the curtain; which the sun withdraws. Music and light attend our head. All things unto our flesh are kind, In their descent and being; to our mind, In their ascent and cause.

More servants wait on man. Than he'll take notice of. In every path, He treads down that which doth befriend him. When sickness makes him pale and wan. Oh mighty love! Man is one world, and hath. Another to attend him.

The perception of this class of truths makes the attraction which draws men to science, but the end is lost sight of in attention to the means. In view of 19th reform movements essay this half-sight of science, we accept the sentence of Plato, that, poetry comes nearer to vital truth than history. Every surmise and vaticination of the mind is entitled to a certain respect, and we learn to prefer imperfect theories, and sentences, which contain glimpses of truth, to on black, digested systems which have no one valuable suggestion. Century Reform Essay! A wise writer will feel that the ends of study and composition are best answered by announcing undiscovered regions of thought, and so communicating, through hope, new activity to the torpid spirit. I shall therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of man and nature, which a certain poet sang to me; and which, as they have always been in the world, and perhaps reappear to every bard, may be both history and business, prophecy.

`The foundations of man are not in matter, but in reform spirit. But the element of spirit is eternity. Persuasive Essay Introduction! To it, therefore, the longest series of century reform movements essay events, the oldest chronologies are young and recent. In the cycle of the universal man, from whom the known individuals proceed, centuries are points, and all history is but the epoch of one degradation. `We distrust and deny inwardly our sympathy with nature. We own and disown our relation to it, by turns. We are, like Nebuchadnezzar, dethroned, bereft of reason, and eating grass like an ox.

But who can set limits to the remedial force of power spirit? `A man is a god in 19th century reform ruins. When men are innocent, life shall be longer, and shall pass into the immortal, as gently as we awake from dreams. Now, the world would be insane and rabid, if these disorganizations should last for hundreds of years. It is kept in check by death and power, infancy. Infancy is the perpetual Messiah, which comes into 19th reform essay the arms of fallen men, and pleads with them to return to paradise. `Man is the dwarf of himself.

Once he was permeated and dissolved by spirit. On Black! He filled nature with his overflowing currents. Out from him sprang the sun and moon; from 19th reform essay, man, the sun; from woman, the moon. The laws of high school his mind, the 19th century essay, periods of high scholarships his actions externized themselves into day and century essay, night, into introduction the year and the seasons. But, having made for himself this huge shell, his waters retired; he no longer fills the veins and 19th reform movements essay, veinlets; he is shrunk to a drop. He sees, that the structure still fits him, but fits him colossally.

Say, rather, once it fitted him, now it corresponds to him from far and on high. He adores timidly his own work. Now is man the follower of the sun, and woman the follower of the moon. Yet sometimes he starts in his slumber, and wonders at himself and his house, and school essay homework, muses strangely at the resemblance betwixt him and it. He perceives that if his law is still paramount, if still he have elemental power, if his word is sterling yet in nature, it is not conscious power, it is not inferior but superior to his will. It is Instinct.' Thus my Orphic poet sang. At present, man applies to 19th century movements essay, nature but half his force.

He works on the world with his understanding alone. He lives in it, and masters it by school homework, a penny-wisdom; and 19th reform movements essay, he that works most in it, is but a half-man, and capital punishment essay, whilst his arms are strong and his digestion good, his mind is imbruted, and he is a selfish savage. 19th Century Reform Movements Essay! His relation to nature, his power over it, is a cruel angel's yoko takahashi mp3, through the understanding; as by manure; the 19th reform essay, economic use of fire, wind, water, and the mariner's needle; steam, coal, chemical agriculture; the repairs of the angel's thesis, human body by the dentist and 19th reform, the surgeon. This is such a resumption of takahashi power, as if a banished king should buy his territories inch by inch, instead of vaulting at once into essay his throne. High School! Meantime, in the thick darkness, there are not wanting gleams of a better light, -- occasional examples of the action of 19th century reform movements essay man upon nature with his entire force, -- with reason as well as understanding. Essay On Black Power! Such examples are; the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in the abolition of the Slave-trade; the miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of reform Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. These are examples of Reason's momentary grasp of the sceptre; the on black power, exertions of a power which exists not in time or space, but an instantaneous in-streaming causing power.

The difference between the actual and the ideal force of man is 19th century reform movements essay, happily figured by the schoolmen, in saying, that the knowledge of man is an on black evening knowledge, vespertina cognitio, but that of God is a morning knowledge, matutina cognitio. The problem of restoring to the world original and eternal beauty, is solved by the redemption of the soul. 19th Reform Movements Essay! The ruin or the blank, that we see when we look at nature, is in our own eye. The axis of essay power vision is not coincident with the axis of things, and reform essay, so they appear not transparent but opake. The reason why the world lacks unity, and lies broken and in heaps, is, because man is disunited with himself. He cannot be a naturalist, until he satisfies all the demands of the spirit. Love is school homework, as much its demand, as perception. Indeed, neither can be perfect without the other. 19th Movements Essay! In the uttermost meaning of the words, thought is devout, and devotion is thought.

Deep calls unto deep. But in actual life, the marriage is not celebrated. There are innocent men who worship God after the tradition of their fathers, but their sense of duty has not yet extended to the use of all their faculties. And there are patient naturalists, but they freeze their subject under the wintry light of the understanding. Is not prayer also a study of school truth, -- a sally of the soul into 19th century essay the unfound infinite? No man ever prayed heartily, without learning something. But when a faithful thinker, resolute to detach every object from personal relations, and see it in the light of thought, shall, at the same time, kindle science with the fire of the holiest affections, then will God go forth anew into the creation. It will not need, when the a cruel thesis yoko, mind is prepared for study, to search for objects. The invariable mark of wisdom is to see the 19th reform movements essay, miraculous in the common. What is a day? What is a year?

What is summer? What is woman? What is a child? What is sleep? To our blindness, these things seem unaffecting. We make fables to hide the baldness of the fact and conform it, as we say, to the higher law of the mind. Capital! But when the fact is seen under the light of an 19th century reform essay idea, the gaudy fable fades and shrivels. We behold the real higher law.

To the wise, therefore, a fact is true poetry, and the most beautiful of fables. These wonders are brought to our own door. You also are a man. Man and woman, and their social life, poverty, labor, sleep, fear, fortune, are known to you. Learn that none of these things is superficial, but that each phenomenon has its roots in the faculties and gun control essay introduction, affections of the mind. Whilst the abstract question occupies your intellect, nature brings it in the concrete to be solved by 19th essay, your hands. It were a wise inquiry for the closet, to compare, point by point, especially at remarkable crises in life, our daily history, with the rise and takahashi, progress of ideas in the mind. So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes. It shall answer the reform movements essay, endless inquiry of the intellect, -- What is truth? and of the affections, -- What is good? by yielding itself passive to the educated Will.

Then shall come to pass what my poet said; `Nature is not fixed but fluid. Spirit alters, moulds, makes it. The immobility or bruteness of nature, is the absence of spirit; to pure spirit, it is fluid, it is volatile, it is obedient. Every spirit builds itself a house; and beyond its house a world; and beyond its world, a heaven. Know then, that the world exists for you. For you is the phenomenon perfect. What we are, that only can we see.

All that Adam had, all that Caesar could, you have and can do. Adam called his house, heaven and earth; Caesar called his house, Rome; you perhaps call yours, a cobler's trade; a hundred acres of ploughed land; or a scholar's garret. Yet line for school english essay homework line and point for point, your dominion is as great as theirs, though without fine names. Build, therefore, your own world. As fast as you conform your life to the pure idea in your mind, that will unfold its great proportions. A correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the 19th century essay, spirit. So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, spiders, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons, enemies, vanish; they are temporary and persuasive introduction, shall be no more seen. The sordor and filths of 19th reform movements essay nature, the sun shall dry up, and the wind exhale.

As when the summer comes from the south; the snow-banks melt, and the face of the earth becomes green before it, so shall the advancing spirit create its ornaments along its path, and carry with it the beauty it visits, and the song which enchants it; it shall draw beautiful faces, warm hearts, wise discourse, and heroic acts, around its way, until evil is no more seen. The kingdom of man over nature, which cometh not with observation, -- a dominion such as now is beyond his dream of God, -- he shall enter without more wonder than the blind man feels who is gradually restored to perfect sight.'

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Free Information Technology essays. FUNDAMENTALS OF WEB SERVICE MINING. Current Web services are created and 19th movements updated on the run. Web service mining is a relatively new area of research. This growing popularity of the Web and Web services presents an entirely new area in research. It is process aimed at discovering interesting and useful compositions in existing Web services.

The Web service composition approaches are very useful where primary goals are unavailable or unknown. School Homework! It differs from the conventional top down approaches driven by specific a criterion. The service does not assume any prior knowledge and 19th movements instead of searching specific compositions, it relies on business motivation essay, component services to explore data and the result may vary from a simple composition to a complex one. Though, the Web was invented in the 1990’s by 19th movements, Tim Berners-Lee for information sharing among scientists [1], only after 1993 the Web was available for essay public information sharing due to the Web browser Mosaic. Mosaic quickly captured the imagination of the public on 19th century reform movements essay, the Web through its graphical user interface.

Governmental Organizations, Business establishments realized the potential of the Web and took advantage of its popularity by sharing their data and applications on the Web. The web from its starting position as s a repository of information with text and images, evolved into a host for providing multimedia content and essay service providing application like map-finding, weather-reporting, e-commerce etc. Real-time applications involved hardware devices like temperature sensors and reform movements traffic monitoring cameras. Business and government integrated existing Web applications to provide new value-added services. Essay 2013! Customized interfaces required applications to access this data and the lack of semantics in data made integration of the applications a overwhelming challenge. Attempts to solve these problems resulted in underlying and enabling technologies. 19th Century Movements Essay! Many of the gun control introduction researches are driven by cross-enterprise workflow and AI planning. This thesis presents a novel approach in Web service mining by introducing a Web service. 19th Century Reform Movements Essay! A set of algorithms and a conceptual nut novel framework is also introduced for service compositions. The effectiveness of the framework and challenges addressed by essay on black, the framework are also discussed. The thesis also discusses transactional approaches [2].

1.2 WEB SERVICE MINING. Definition of Web Serving Mining: “Given a set of Web services WS with a set of rules that can be composed, CR, interesting measures IM for a user UR, a composite Web service is derived by using a subset of rules in CR in a subset of Web services WS, that exhibits values for a user UR, selected subset of interesting measures IM.” . The W3C consortium defines a Web service as an application or a software component identified by a URI with interfaces and 19th century reform binding described as XML, capable of being discovered by school scholarships, other Web services by definition and as a service which can interact directly with other Web services using XML and essay internet protocols Three major standardization initiatives were proposed by the consortium to business motivation support interactions between the Web services: SOAP(a protocol of transport allowing the exchange of 19th century reform essay, XML documents in a distributed and decentralized environment), UDDI (a specification, defining mechanisms which make it possible to publish services, discover and interact with other services on the Web) and WSDL(document describing a Web service, its location and the way to call the service). WSDL Web service mining requires Web services and the subject for mining information has to capital be clearly defined to target unambiguous items. Any Web service mining provides an 19th century essay, effective means of describing related Web service concepts and their relationships. The key concepts of Web service mining can be categorized as. • Message. Web services can communicate with each other using exchange of XML messages.

A message may contain one or more parameters where a parameter may have a value of a certain data type. Messages can be used to send parameters to a service operation or use results from persuasive introduction, a service operation. • Condition. A condition specifies the necessary condition for an operation to be activated. Conditions also describe the state of the information after execution and can also be related to parameters for retrieving information. • Domain. Web service operations can be categorized by 19th century reform movements essay, areas of capital, interest called domains. A domain has descriptions on the purpose of the domain and its functionalities like travel, entertainment, healthcare, drug design, etc. • Locale of reform movements essay, Interest. is essay homework a semantic restriction describing the applicability of an interface.

For Example restricting a regional or geographical boundary. • Quality of Web Service is evaluating an operation provided by a Web service with a quality attribute. Reform Movements Essay! The quality attributes to a Web service operation can be organized into three categories: runtime, business, and security. • Operation Interface. Deterrence Capital! Operation interface is specifying a Web service capability with a name, purpose, domain, locale of interest, quality attributes, conditions. There are four operation modes: o One-way – operation interface contains only 19th essay Message sent. o Notification – operation interface contains only results. o Request-response – operation gets results and send a Message. o Solicit-response – operation generates results and waits for a message. • Operation is a specific implementation of an Operation Interface by a Web service. An operation can also exhibit values for the quality attributes..

• Web Service is always defined by a tuple (Name, Description, Operations, other non functional properties), where: o • Name: name of the deterrence capital punishment essay Web service; o • Description: A text summary about service capabilities; o • Operations : Set of capabilities provided by a Web service. o • NFP : non functional property which describe the 19th century reform Web service. A simple web service model is shown in persuasive essay, Fig. 1. Fig. 1 A simple web service model. 1.3 WEB SERVICE MINING ARCHITECTURE.

Web services are self-describing, self-contained, modular applications published and invoked on the Web. Many organizations have implemented their core business applications on the Internet. The ability to efficiently and effectively select or integrate their heterogeneous services on the Web at 19th century movements essay, runtime is an important step towards the development of any Web service application. The ease of application integration and ontologies have contributed to the popularity of a Web service composition. It has attracted governments and businesses as a new way to facilitate business-to-business (B2B) collaborations. A Web service composition aims at english essay, providing value-added services.

The application necessarily takes advantage of 19th, existing services and assembles them to meet specific service requirements. School Essay! Two different types of approaches helped standardize compositions. The business world targeted an earlier Web service paradigm and developed a number of XML-based standards like WSFL [3], WSCI [4], XLANG [5] and BPEL4WS [6]) focusing on formalizing Web service specifications, flow composition and executions based on syntactical characteristics [7]. Recently the 19th century reform movements Semantic Web research community focused on using the concept of Semantic Web services and developed complementary standards like DAML-S, OWL-S [8.]. The standards complement each other and take a top down approach. On Black Power! The user provides search criteria and 19th reform movements essay defines the exact service functionality required. For Example composition of a travel service may require flight/train bookings, car hires or hotel reservations and the search may reflect the interest, knowledge of the service. A Simple Web Service Architecture is shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 2. Business Essay! A Simple Web Service Architecture.

Another technology is the use of ontologies in 19th reform movements essay, describing the content of the application processes [9]. Ontologies have their roots to the AI community for facilitating knowledge sharing and essay on black power reuse. 19th Century Essay! Ontology allows the specification of a shared conceptualization in an explicit readable format resulting in a standard interpretation. Ontologies help build a vocabulary of concepts that can be used by high school essay scholarships 2013, applications to unambiguously describe the century reform movements content generated and interpret the contents. Empowerment of Web services with semantics using ontologies has brought about the next generation of Web services called Semantic Web services. The Semantic deployment of independently developed applications allows applications to interoperate at high school essay scholarships, the application interface and information semantics levels. The integration for value-added services becomes an easier and inexpensive task compared to earlier approaches relying on technologies like EDI, CORBA and EJB. W3C had to revise its standard Web service architecture [10], with the advent of Semantic Web services.

The discovery service first obtains the Web Service Description (WSD) in WSDL [11] and its associated Functional Description (FD) of the provider. The functional description describes the functionality of the provider service and can be processed by a machine like RDF [12], DAMLS, OWL-S [13]). The requester supplies the criteria to the discovery service for selecting a WSD based on its associated FD. The next Step ensures that boh the requester and the provider agree on the semantics of the interaction with the use of ontologies as shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Sematic Web Service Architecture. 1.4 WEB SERVICE COMPOSITION APPROACHES. Data mining is extracting interesting information from data in 19th movements, databases. Essay! It is the sifting through databases to find patterns of data using computer programs. 19th! Data mining receives attention due to the voluminous data made available. Enterprises maintain terabytes of data due the availability of gun control persuasive essay introduction, cheap storage media. [14]. Data mining techniques classify data, detect anomalies and predict data. Reform Movements! The Data Mining techniques search for consistency in patterns and relationships between variables [15].

The results are then applied on new data sets for deterrence validating them. Data mining techniques have been used to century reform forecast weather [16.], predict stocks [17], sports analysis [18], medical diagnosis [19], and fraud detection [20]. Data mining is similar to Web service mining in extracting previously unknown and essay on black power useful information. Web services encapsulate behaviors using a set of dynamic operations and traditional data mining techniques cannot be used to determine the composability of two services. Service composition can be from two fundamentally different strategies. The first is the 19th century top down strategy requiring a specific goal based search criteria to motivation essay start the composition process like traditional Web service composition approaches.

Since user provides the goal the movements type of composition is anticipated by the user. The evaluation of composition interestingness is not a major concern area in such approaches. The bottom up strategy is driven by the need to find interesting and potentially useful compositions of 2013, existing Web services and without using specific search criteria (Web service mining). Century Reform Movements! Web service mining techniques need to a cruel yoko mp3 address the interestingness of service compositions. 19th Century Essay! Semantics-based composition approaches use ontologies to an advantage while describing Web services. The use of ontologies allows unambiguous interpretation of essay, a Web service semantics by a computer. Based on the DARPA Agent Markup Language Ontology Inference Layer (DAML+OIL), Web Ontology Language for Services (OWL-S) [21]. Service ontology aims at enabling Web services composition planning , reasoning and automatic use of services by software agents. Fig. 4 shows the elements of a web composition model.

Fig. 4. Web Service Composition Model. A service profile is an abstract of what it can do. The abstract includes the required input of the service, the output the service, the preconditions and the after effects of the 19th reform execution, collectively known as the IOPEs of a given service. The service model describes behavior of the service as a sub-processes and uses a process graph. Atomic processes can be without sub-processes and motivation essay be invocable. Simple processes also can be without sub-processes and 19th century be revocable. Composite processes generally have sub-processes linked by control constructs like sequence, split, choice, iteration and if-then-else.

Service grounding describes the access control to a Web service by including descriptions for a cruel message formatting, mechanisms of transport, protocols, and century reform essay serializations. The more recent Web Service Modeling Language (WSML) [22] is based on gun control persuasive essay, the Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO) [23.]. The core language uses description logics and programming. WSML considers users not familiar with formal logic distinguishing conceptual and logical modeling. WSMO declares inputs, outputs, pre-conditions, and century movements results associated with services like OWL-S, but do not provide a notation for building composite processes in terms of controlling flow and school homework data. It alternatively focuses on 19th movements, specification of internal and external choreography using approach based abstract state machines. Business Essay! Web service mining contains several levels due to complexity and richness in the composition model. For Example the Web service WSDL interface level is a set of 19th movements, operations offered by the Web service, the high school scholarships 2013 Web service abstract process level is the execution order logic between the interfaces. Web services choreography level defines the interactions exchanged within a given choreography and the Orchestration model of a composite Web service is the 19th reform executable process implementing a composite Web service. Dustdar [24] relied on analyzing log data OF Web service executions to discover process workflow instances in these services.

Identifying interesting workflows is on black difficult when such logs are absent or component Web services are at the introductory stage. Web Service Logging is gathering the relevant Web data, to be analyzed for useful information about Web Service behaviors. Logging can produce richness in data needed for implementing additional features. The Web services logging can be trivial and advanced. Trivial levels provide a set of existing solutions to capture web services logs. 19th Reform Movements! Web service log collection can be from two main sources. The Web log collection corresponds to school 2013 the software systems data on the Web server and Web client. 19th Century Reform Movements! The collections are achieved by enabling Web servers logging facilities.

Web Usage Mining WUM [25] researches describe the most common mean of angel's thesis takahashi mp3, web log collection , since server logs are stored in the Common Log Format [26] or the recently Combined Log Format [27]. Most Web servers support the 19th century reform Common Log Format as a default option. The log tracks different elements of the Web transactions with each request recorded in a line of high scholarships, text, with elements of the request separated by spaces and items not sent as a hyphen or dash. The log conceived originally for administrative purposes, stores data as sequential strings containing: the century movements essay requestors IP address, user identification, timestamp, request method, request status code , sent data (number of bytes), authenticated user name, the User Agent. Capital! For Example. 127.0.0.1- -[02/Apr/2013:9:50:11+0100] “POST/MMS-Server/services/Document Delivery by DHL HTTP/1.0” 500 819 “-” ” MMS-Server /1.1? 1.5 BACKGROUND LITERATURE SURVEY. Researchers have addressed problems of 19th reform essay, interleaving web service discovery and compositions by considering simple workflows of web services with one input and one output parameter [28]. The web service composition is restricted to a sequence of limited web services corresponding to a linear workflow of web services. Persuasive Essay Introduction! The suggested solution retrieves a sequence of causal links between web services, Aiming to generate a composite service plan from existing services, a composition path was proposed in 19th reform, [29].

The path consisted of a sequence of operators computing data, and connectors with provision for high school essay data transport between operators. The search for operators to construct a sequence is reform essay based on the shortest path algorithm. Power! Only two kinds of services operator and connector, with an input and output parameter are considered, contrary to the model proposed with more than one input and output parameter [30,31]. 19th Century Reform Movements Essay! A composition of services as a directed graph with nodes linked by matching compatibility between input and output parameters is considered in [32],.The shortest sequence of web services are derived from the graph. The sequence corresponds to an ordered set of web services matching all expected output parameters for the given inputs by a user. Semantic web service compositions are performed by pre-computing the causal link matrix in [33]. The composition strategy is a cruel angel's yoko based on AI planning and performs a regression-based approach and returns a set of correct, complete and consistent plans. The services are actions semantically linked by causal links. The composition strategy is based on 19th century reform movements essay, AI planning and performs a regression-based approach and returns a set of essay power, correct, complete and consistent plans. The services are actions semantically linked by 19th century reform movements, causal links. However, these two approaches compute the best composition based on the semantic similarity of school essay, output and input parameters of movements essay, a web services and not considering any non-functional properties [34].A modelling tool called interface automata was introduced to essay represent web services and perform compositions where Atomic services are stored as a graph and each node represents input and output parameters while edges represent web services.

Each service has a description of inputs, outputs, and dependencies in other web services. The service descriptions and a graph used to discover composition results that satisfy a service request. A that composer that supports the 19th reform end user to select web services for each activity in the composition, create flow specifications to link them is introduced in [35]. Homework! After selecting a web service, the web services producing an output are fed as the input of a selected service based on profile descriptions. 19th Movements! The user can manually select the service fitting in a particular activity and the system generates a composite process in DAML-S. The composition is executed by calling each service separately, and passing the essay on black power results between services based on flow specifications. In Web Service Compositions, Several standardization and 19th century reform prototype efforts were undertaken[36]. Composition related approaches can be grouped into two different categories business process-oriented and semantics-based [37]. The Petri-net approach [38] graphically represents represent operations as a process and a connected graph where nodes (places) are used to represent states and other nodes ( transitions). One token in every place connected to an operation enables the operation. The operation may remove one token from every input and deposit the token as output .A service can be in one of the following states: not instantiated, ready, running, suspended, or completed, At any given time.

After each service is defined, a variety of compositions can be defined by including sequence, alternatives, iterations etc. A process can also be analyzed in many ways using Petri-nets due to the abundance of analysis techniques [39, 40,41]. Petri-nets can be used to essay determine the presence of live locks. 19th Reform! Algebraic Process Composition models processes are based on deterrence, calculus [42], in which the basic entity can be one of the following,: an empty process, a choice between I/O operations, a parallel composition, a recursive definition or invocation. I/O operations can receive or send. IBM’s Web Services Flow Language (WSFL) [43] is an XML based language for describing Web service compositions. WSFL is based on reform, Petri-nets and provides two models, the essay flow model and global model. The flow model aims at specifying the logic of a business process.

It uses a directed graph to model the sequence of the functionality provided by a composed service to control flow and 19th century reform movements data between component services. Each node in angel's takahashi mp3, the graph, is an reform movements, activity and represents a step in the business goal the angel's yoko composition tries to achieve. The control links type uses the links to connect activities and prescribe the activities order. The second type called data links, represent the 19th century reform flow of data between activities. The global model aims at defining the mutual exploitation of gun control introduction, Web services in century movements, decentralized or distributed business processes. Since no specification of an execution sequence is deterrence punishment essay provided, it relies on 19th century reform movements, the use of introduction, plug links to 19th century reform movements essay represent interactions.

WSFL also aims at power, supporting recursive compositions of services. In WSFL, every Web service composition (flow, global) can transform itself into a new Web Service and be a component for new compositions. BEA Systems’ Web Service Choreography Interface (WSCI) [44] a XML-based interface description language describes Web Service operations choreography in the context of a message exchange of participating Web Services. WSCI describes how the century reform essay choreography should expose relevant information like message correlation, exception handling, and descriptions of transactions. Essay! Message correlation is achieved by associating exchanged messages with correlation properties identifying a conversion. Exceptions occur due to the receipt of an out-of-context message, or a fault or a timeout. A transaction groups activities that are executed in an all-or-nothing fashion. Activities can be atomic or complex (recursively composed of other activities). 19th Century Reform! Choreography describes logical dependencies between activities.

Microsoft’s XLANG [45] is based on calculus [46] and a cruel thesis yoko takahashi mp3 extends a WSDL service description with a behavioral element and at the intra-service level. A behavior defines a list of actions belonging to the service and the order performing actions. XLANG supports two action types, WSDL operations and XLANG-specific actions which includes exceptions and 19th century reform movements essay deadline/duration based timeouts. Transactions are also supported in XLANG and at the inter-service level, XLANG details the connections between service ports used to join individual service descriptions. The incompatibility between WSFL and WSCI/XLANG resulted in essay on black, the development of Business Process Execution Language for century reform Web Services (BPEL4WS) [47]. It combines features of WSFL and WSCI/XLANG to support process-oriented service compositions. Process is essay composed of activities and the execution of a process might encounter exceptions. Message correlation and transactions(WSCI and XLANG) are supported. BPEL4WS has several implementations for both J2EE and 19th reform essay .NET platforms, including IBM WebSphere [48], Oracle BPEL Process Manager [49], Microsoft BizTalk [50], OpenStorm Service Orchestrator [51] and ActiveBPEL [52.]. Business Transaction Protocol (BTP) [53] is designed to 2013 support interactions crossing application and administrative boundaries. Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) [54] shares the century movements essay same root as WSCI with BPEL4WS.

It uses WSCI for essay scholarships 2013 expressing public interfaces and choreographies and povides advanced process model semantics like nested processes and complex compensated transactions. Electronic Business XML (ebXML) [55] is an 19th reform essay, international initiative by the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) and motivation the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). ebXML defines standard business processes and 19th century reform movements essay trading agreements among different organizations. The vocabulary consists of a process specification document describing the activities of the parties in an ebXML interaction, a collaboration protocol profile describing the organization’s profile and a collaborative partner agreement representing an agreement between partners. It includes an ebXML registry that stores important information about businesses along with products and services offered. ebXML registries have an advantage over UDDI registries since they allow SQL-based queries on keywords. A framework composed of a multilayered architecture and school 2013 a transactional model was presented [56].

Standards BTP [57], Web ServiceAtomic Transaction [57] and Web ServiceBusinessActivity [58] define transaction protocols between composed services. 19th Century! [59] presented a transaction management model based on tentative hold and compensation concepts. A Web service was announced by IBM, HP, Sun and gun control essay Microsoft in the year 2000. Century Reform Movements! The initiatives included IBM’s Web services, Sun’s Open Network Environment (ONE), HP’s e-speak and gun control Microsoft’s Dot net. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) published the specification of a Web service [60]. Movements Essay! Which records a Web service as a Web application whose functionalities can be accessed programmatically using a set of homogeneous interfaces.

Table 1 lists a comparison between different web composition technologies. Table 1. Comparison of motivation essay, BPEL4WS, BPML, WSCI, WS-CDL and century DAML-S. BPEL4WS BPML WS-CDL WSCI DAML-S. Modeling the collaboration Strong support Indirect support Strong support Strong support Strong support. Modeling the execution control Strong support Strong support No support No support Strong support. Representation of the Role Weak support No support Strong support Strong support No support.

Transaction and Compensation Indirect support Strong support Indirect support Strong support Indirect support. Exception handling Strong support Strong support Support Strong support Strong support. Semantic support No support No support No support No support Strong support. Business agreement support No support No support No support No support No support. Software vendor support Many Few No Few Few. 1.6 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY. The objectives include Identification of activities in the mining process, suggesting a new mining framework and suggest efficient algorithms to automate activities. The study also suggests measures to objectively evaluate the interestingness and usefulness of the mining results and determine strategies for evaluating the usefulness of the mining results. 1.7 MOTIVATION OF THE THESIS. The Web services are in transition from english homework, data based to Semantic based services. Century Movements! The Web services would be the primary objects with increasing opportunities to motivation essay compose new useful and interesting Web services from existing resources.

The collective opportunities of composing services will be an unexpected application to many. Further, the indefinite scope of search queries and the ability to discover them makes it motivating and 19th century movements can be equated to gaining competitive business advantages. Semantics for government agencies can help citizens receive useful and potentially life-saving or enhancing services in advance. The ability to essay proactively discover useful composite services even when the goals are unspecified is also a challenging area of research. Web service mining can be a key to realize the full potential of the Semantic Web services. An effective framework in Web service mining would generate interesting and 19th century movements essay usefully composed Web services.

1.8 ISSUES IN WEB COMPOSITIONS. Indistinctiveness or lack of standardization in dependencies of web compositions , can complicate design of a composition. Agreement might not be reached due to reasons like conflicting interests, lack of co-operation resulting in actor-oriented problems. The consequence of deterrence, unclear decisions results in heavy risks linking the failure of a composition. Thus, the characteristics of a web composition are an important set of requirements for creating a composition.

The requirements can also be viewed as a criteria evaluating the set of composition methods. Such problems determine the extent success and century reform failure of business, a composition The problems can be categorized into four as detailed below. • MULTI-ACTOR PERSPECTIVE: Decisions regarding the composition of a service within a network containing different stakeholder views on the service. 19th Essay! One stake holder may focus on user friendliness, one on scalability, one about cost.etc. The actors may have different interests and but be dependent on each other. a solution is a compromise that has to combine several contradictory goals and on black power interests. The actors in 19th reform movements, the network will need to cooperate to a certain extent in order to realize a solution and help realize the common goal. The decision making process culminates in a set of rules to which every actor involved will comply. • NON-FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS: A common division of requirement types is by differentiating functional and non-functional requirements.

Functional requirements relate to the tasks to be accomplished and the non-functional requirements relate to the QoS aspects. A Cruel Angel's Yoko! Composition are designed to assist users solve a problem like checking a license number. Starting a new service which is 19th reform movements undefined the business motivation user then invokes the corresponding function in 19th reform movements essay, the composition. A number of compositions are used before finally getting the result by iterations and trace. • ALTERNATIVES INSIGHT: A compositions performance is impacted when one service fails. An alternative service should be made available or specified for failures as a failsafe option. Any composition should support failure analysis and essay reasons for 19th century essay failure. • PLANNING SUPPORT: Absence of a shared view amongst actors hinders communications and gun control essay possibly block further development cycles in a composition. Lack of iterations also results in 19th reform essay, identifying limited number of alternatives and alternative compositions that can be evaluated. The composition has to provide possible services that can be changed when services are not available waiting for implementation. The composition should provide partners a plan for the realization of the composition, sine, the objectives are related to both the composition and resulting composition.

Processes should facilitate reuse, dependability and planning. The result should reuse services, contain an overview of functional and high essay scholarships non-functional specifications and planning. • PRIVACY ISSUES: A major factor limiting web mining is the century movements essay need to protect users privacy. Essay Power! Though Web Mining can use data available on the web anyway it can also induce general patterns from personalized data and inductively infer data that should be accessed in a controlled manner. remain private. Privacy is a major concern area because news contain many personal information for misuse. One major misuse is identity theft giving access to all private information.

Personalization helps users have a better experience and improves user efficiency but Personal information has names, addresses, telephone numbers, and other identifying information. Personal information gathered for marketing purposes without permissions is another area of 19th century, privacy infringement. The abundance of spy ware blockers shows users awareness on attempts by such Web sites with pop-up advertisements, to steal data from systems. Mining services using open Web Google API, can help developers address privacy issues by providing a privacy policy, since many users request a privacy policy and may not visit the site more than once if a privacy policy is business essay not provided. 1.9 CHALLENGES IN WEB SERVICE MINING. Since computing services are becoming dependent on web services, the Services they are more complex and depend on results provided by other web services.

The Quality and correctness of any web service depends upon the other services used and data mining techniques to get patters becomes in-applicable. Century Reform Essay! Challenges can be related to the collection, preparation processing of data. Power! This thesis addresses these problems with proposed solutions of 19th century reform, other research papers. In this world of business essay, cloud computing Cloud services can be used to provide an integrated infrastructure for data mining [71] and systems can be analyzed. The event logs can be used to verify the behavioral properties of 19th century movements, web service composition [72].

Knowledge discovery may no m ore be a challenging task but combining data mining techniques on web services logs to discover knowledge from the web service can be. Proposed Web services changes over a period of time [73] Another challenging aspect of service mining is to build semantic relations between Web services and construct a semantic relation-based web services registry with complementary functions [74.]. Further, discovered web services needs to be accurate and reliability of business motivation essay, social network has been used combining service mining by K optimal trust paths for the selection of century essay, trustworthy service in such a service oriented online social network [75.]. Business flows are an important mechanism to find or create enterprise web services. Deterrence Capital! Understanding a business control flow is again a challenging task. Century! Process mining has its own share of challenges in essay 2013, determining the scope of the 19th essay process without disturbances making existing algorithms less useful. Designing business intelligence solution with web service mining architecture is another major challenge [76]. School English! Each aspect of web service mining is a candidate for challenge. Composability with its syntactic operation structures, the semantics of messages, quality that determines services. Web service composition is sometimes beyond human capabilities to be dealt manually.

The complexity has its causes due to the number of services available over the Web, Web service changes since they are updated easily, making it important to update the century movements composition. Different organizations as actors to a composition do not have a unique language to define and evaluate the persuasive introduction Web services. Though this new area is applicable to governmental pr public organization for reducing overheads and deploys solutions more quickly, it is a concept which has to be acknowledged, accepted and standardized over a longer period of time. Web compositions incorporate information from various sources and domains to achieve a task in a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). One service may not be enough to cater to all functionally complex requirements, as different functional requirements require different compositions. Century Movements Essay! compositions for composing services into a coherent task may not be available readily. Deterrence! It is difficult to century movements essay find a single web service that produces the desired output from inputs. Also semi-automatic service compositions has evolved over the years, catering to single users or a community. Business! Tools and interfaces to facilitate this kind of 19th century movements essay, web composition are mashups, BPEL-tools etc. Gun Control Essay Introduction! The community compositions target the knowledge produced by communities. This research work proposes a General Purpose Web Composition Framework (GPWCF ) for automatic service composition. GPWCF is a different angle for web compositions and can be implemented by organizations.

The user selects and sets constraints. The requested service is reform movements essay fetched from the services repository. A Cruel Angel's! A scope definition is constructed and determines the search space and the return of information sets to the user. When a corresponding service is found, an error message is sent to the user and 19th century reform movements trapped in the error log. All errors like Errors on execution of a cruel thesis yoko takahashi mp3, a service, errors in fetching of results, network failures are logged in the error log, enabling improvement of the compositions in future versions. The GPWCF can be used by organizations as a starting point for web services compositions and developed for 19th century future requirements. In the semi automatic composition the researcher proposes a novel Web Composition For Users Social Interactions (SAWCUSI). Any social network composition should cater to an interaction between a user and services requested by him.

The SAWCUSI composition offers a complete solution to user’s requests. Takahashi! If a user’s service request is not found, SAWCUSI, connects to century reform essay other social network compositions, searches for the service’s availability and updates its services list on school homework, the service availability and services the request on movements essay, receiving the service from the other framework. The error log created at run time is looked up periodically to check services that are unavailable in on black, the frameworks list and gets transformed into a creation for 19th a new service. The error log is checked manually and the decision of creating a new service with the help of a domain expert is taken. The framework can also be used to extract useful knowledge on these social interactions. Web services that link applications need to address security policies in the development of web service security systems. Ensuring confidentiality and security in web services security model is critical to organizations and customers. Business Motivation! The systems have to work on any platform by adopting a neutral language and accept popular security mechanisms. The framework needs to be extended to existing security infrastructure, while allowing web service providers and requesters to develop solutions that meet individual security requirements of 19th century movements essay, applications.

WS-Security defines the core facilities for protecting the integrity and confidentiality of power, a message by providing a model with security functions and components for Web services. It also demands solutions in technological and business perspectives. The efforts require co-ordination between vendors, developers, service providers and customers. For example, a customer making an on-line purchase should not be impacted by the instrument used in the transaction. The goal has to be building interoperable solutions in heterogeneous environments.

WS-Security also describes enhancements to SOAP messaging for providing protection through integrity, confidentiality and century movements essay single message authentication. If a Web service provider does not accept requests from a specific IP address, a choice needs to essay power be given in compositions to overcome this constraint. This chapter discusses a security model with constraints that are compliant with existing standards and thus be adapted to varying business needs. It exploits a syntactic approach to model security requirements of a Web service and considers security requirements of both Web service requestors and 19th essay Web services taking part in the composition. Web services that link applications need to motivation essay address security policies in the development of web service security systems.

Ensuring confidentiality and security in web services security is critical to organizations and 19th reform essay customers. It also demands solutions in technological and essay introduction business perspectives. The efforts require co-ordination between vendors, developers, service providers and customers. This thesis proposes a security model called the SWS-Broker, a Web service. The SWS-Broker consists of movements, four main components namely WF-Modeler, WSs-Locator, Security Matchmaker and WSBPELgenerator It first performs the creation of an appropriate workflow (WF), to business motivation essay model the business process before generating the required service and with help of libraries of business processes. The Broker generates the WSBPEL document representing a secure composition. Web Services defined run complex applications encompassing several Web service calls and till a composition is tested it needs to be controlled manually. The semantics of 19th century movements, Web services and compositions are rather limited. The proposal for enriching Web services are quite restrictive since several Web service calls are considered to be in gun control persuasive essay introduction, one singleton Web service call and reform movements is treated independently.

Companies implementing composite Web Services would find integration of existing services a costly composition. interoperability certification will again play an important role in business process integration. The results are analogous to previous researches which may have certain variations due to advancements in current technology. Though the framework is a proposition for a faster and efficient composition, it has to be implemented in motivation, full by organizations to reap the benefits. Also, fully automatic compositions are not at 19th century, a stage where the essay power user can fully trust the composition and expect or predict the execution results. 1.11 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS. The rest of the document is century reform movements organized as follows: In Chapter 2, describes web service mining techniques. Chapter 3 discusses Web service compositions. Essay! Chapter 4 discusses the proposed Automatic Web Service Composition Framework For User Dependent Web Mining . Chapter 5 details a sem automatic web service composition for social interactions. 19th Reform Essay! Chapter 6 discusses web service implementations while chapter 7 proposes a generic model for web service security with a service broker.

Chapter 8 discusses the results and evaluates proposed architectures and models. The thesis concludes in chapter 9. WEB SERVICE MINING TECHNIQUES. Web services are being deployed at an accelerating rate. New services are created by extending or combing existing services. Process mining is angel's thesis yoko takahashi considered an extension of service mining, due to the inter dependence between business process and web services. Specific queries discovering patterns for a competitive advantage in a business environment may be unavailable.

Such mining is a bottom up search process proactively targeting potentially interesting and useful Web Services from existing ones. Systems demand a sophisticated design to answer to user needs and requirements with reliable executions. It is important to century movements track Web services utilization. Business opportunities can be discovered by analyzing different logs and tracking Web Service Interactions with autonomous parties. This chapter compares different web mining approaches for discovery, conformance and extension of examined properties and behaviors and algorithms to extract process trace data from the a cruel angel's thesis yoko takahashi process logs to 19th century reform movements develop a novel [61]. School English! Models aim to 19th reform essay improve processes used in angel's mp3, business process mining.

Service mining challenges and their solutions are discussed below proposed in reform, different service mining researches. 2.2 COMPOSITE PATTERNS EXTRACTION FROM EXECUTION LOGS. The service composition re-usage of patterns provides an deterrence punishment essay, efficient way to improve the quality of new applications. The service pattern is 19th century identified by locating associated services commonly used by different applications and understanding control flow in the set of associated services. The application infrastructure facilitates the monitoring of capital punishment essay, services-oriented applications from execution logs.

Composite service patterns constitute requirements of multiple organizations with a specific control flow and effects best practices. Re-using services pattern provides good quality composite web services. Service pattern composition can be built in 19th century movements essay, two ways. • Top-Down: The business processes from different organization are reviewed to identify patterns. • Bottom-UP: Execution logs of applications are analyzed to mine business patterns like frequently executed service patterns. Capital Punishment Essay! This pattern mining of execution logs can be broken in three sub tasks. o Pre-processing: A service-oriented application is 19th reform movements executed as multiple instances where each Instance is identified by a unique identifier. Different types of events of the instances are logged. Business Motivation Essay! Events like resource adaptor event, business rule event and service invocation event.etc.

The entry and exit points of a process are logged in the application logs along with its instance identifier and time stamp. 19th Century Reform Movements! Logs are processed to essay filter events. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of century, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

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