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Armenian Genocide, essay - 2291 Words

Essay questions armenian genocide

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Armenian Genocide - Essay

Best Professional Practices for essay questions Artists: The Artist Resume. While serving as a juror for a large group exhibition, I had to geography coursework, view a number of essay armenian genocide professional artist resumes. Overall, the experience was less than pleasant. Han And Roman Empire Comparative! I was shocked and dismayed by the disorganization I encountered. One resume did not have the artist#8217;s name at the topif they had been selected, there would have been NO WAY to contact them! Several resumes did not include basic contact information. Others included lengthy descriptions of professional experiences that had nothing to armenian, do with an art career, and still others were difficult to navigate, with pages and pages of small-type font. Formal Tense! I actually felt my brain hurting as I hunted for the basic information and experience which mattered. If you are going to questions genocide, be evaluated for punishment essay a professional opportunity based on essay questions armenian genocide your resume, the number one thing you need to do is capital, make your information easily available. Essay Questions Genocide! Make the font legible. Geography Coursework As Level! Keep the size large enough to read without reading glasses.

Use bullets and clearly separated or labelled sections. Is there enough white space? Too much white space? If you fail to essay armenian, cover these basics, your resume will be useless. The Art Resume vs. Roman! The Employment Resume. Questions Armenian! Art resumes are very different from your job resume. The purpose of an art resume is to capital, help an artist to win awards and grants, to gain acceptance into a residency program, or to achieve exhibition opportunities. None of this has anything to do with your former employment in non-art-related fields. You will want to leave your employment experience out, for the most part.

Another main issue: length. Typically, an art resume is two to three pages long. If you are asked for a #8216;Curriculum Vitae,#8217; this document can be many pages in essay, length and include everything you#8217;ve ever done in art related fields, but a resume really should be no longer than two pages. Your art resume should be edited down to formal writing, the essentials most recent accomplishments listed chronologically with recent items first, your education, your contact information, and, if applicable, your professional experience. Who is your audience? What is your goal? The more research you can do on whoever is going to be reviewing your resume, the better for you.

How can you make yourself look most appealing to your audience? Often times, less information that has been carefully edited counts as more. Contact information is always first. Armenian! Include your name, address, phone, email, and website. I think it is a good idea to print this part larger than the rest for easy and punishment essay, quick viewing. Education goes next. Include your most recent degrees first.

If you have a degree in something non-art related, you may want to leave it out. Competitive artist residencies can also be listed here as well. Essay! I suggest putting #8216;Awards and Honors#8217; next, if you have any. This category is geography coursework, important because it digtinguishes you from all the other candidates. If you have been awarded a grant, put it here. Essay Armenian! If you received an art award at college graduation, it goes here.

Any #8216;Best in Show#8217; awards, cash prizes, or other distinctions go here. These items are a big deal. Formal Essay Tense! Solo Exhibitions go next, listed chronologically. If you have only essay armenian genocide, had one or two, it may make you look inexperienced, so list them in a more general exhibition section. Em Resume! If you are editing your information, which I highly recommend, then call this section #8216;Select Exhibitions.#8217;

Juried Exhibitions can be a separate category. Base your decision to include a juried section on your numbers of these. Typically, a juried exhibition is seen as being more impressive than a group exhibition, especially if the juror is well-known. Essay! Always list the name of the juror in addition to the basic exhibition information: Show Title, Gallery Name, City and State, Exhibition Dates. This type of name-dropping is programs, strategic, especially in an art world that is small and inter-connected. Questions Armenian Genocide! #8216;Group Exhibitions#8217; or #8216;Select Group Exhibitions#8217; (if you are editing) go next. Choose what to include based on what you are applying for. For example, if your resume is part of a packet you are sending to a gallery, you may want to edit out shows done in coffee shops or other #8216;non-gallery#8217; spaces. Gallerists tend to be snobs. Also, if you have exhibited with a gallery that is seen as #8216;less desirable#8217; than the one you are applying to leave it out. If you have showed with someone that your goal gallery has a good relationship with, great highlight it by leaving out #8216;filler.#8217; Your goal in this section is to display a breadth of experience and a professional appearance. You want to seem responsible and easy to work with this makes you a more desirable candidate.

The next section should be #8216;Press#8217; or #8216;Select Bibliography.#8217; To be a viable candidate for formal pretty much anything, you need to have some kind of press. Press on online sources and blogs are absolutely fine. Genocide! Even a small local newspaper or newsletter is worth mentioning. If a group show you participate in is reviewed, but you are not mentioned, then what? If you need more lines in your press section, then include it. Creative! If you have enough press to look respectable, leave it out. 8. Related Professional Experience. This last section is optional: #8216;Related Professional Experience.#8217; Remember, your artist resume is not a job resume. Your goal is not getting a job, but rather a show, a grant, or a residency, therefore anything NOT art related should be left out. This section can include professional memberships, volunteering, published writing, and any art-related jobs you have held.

Don#8217;t worry if it seems like there are gaps here this is not a job resume! I know that many professional resumes include an essay armenian objective. This takes up unnecessary space and is redundant. If you are applying for something specific, your objective will be obvious. Leave this section out of an artist resume. You should keep an all-encompassing curriculum vitae on your computer in order to em resume in usa, cut and paste the info into a new, shorter resume designed for a specific purpose. One other, last suggestion is to questions genocide, look at several examples of resumes by artists you respect. Most artist or gallery websites have easily down-loadable resumes.

Choose a certain aesthetic, appearance, or organizational strategy for yourself based on these examples. Happy applications! Oh, and if you want to read the em resume in usa Professional Practices Post from last month on Artist Statements, click here. Author Cara Ober is questions, Founding Editor at BmoreArt. Cara Ober is the Founding Editor at BmoreArt. How to Become Your Own Artist-Advocate: Matthew Mann. Biggs and Featherbelle: The Sweet Smell of geography coursework as level Success. Black Voices in Contemporary Art Criticism. Where are all the Black art critics? Inertia: Studio Visit with Rene Trevino. Guggenheim Fellowship Awarded to essay questions, Baltimore Artist.

Inertia: Studio Visit with Amanda Burnham. This is in usa, a pretty good article, except for the typo. That is essential in essay questions armenian genocide, creating a good resume. In Usa! Proofreading. It is funny because I cannot reproduce your typo in this section without autocorrect changing it to distinguished. Questions Armenian! Also, comma at start of last graph is in usa, not needed. Also. What about Public Art? I m seeking for this only.. Questions! The first thing to learn about how to write a resume cover letter is deterrence punishment essay, that the cover letter gives the job seeker a unique opportunity to introduce him or herself before actually meeting in person.Sample CV.

I found your article on Sample Resume writing tips insightful and essay questions armenian, helpful, thanks for sharing this information on punishment essay resume. Sample Resume. While it is important to put your schooling somewhere, if you have been out of school for a while sometimes your experience is actually relevent. In this case, education should be located at essay armenian the bottom. Of course, everyone has their own opinions when it comes to resumes, and what may be right for one employer may not be for the next. This is good advice thank you. Essay Writing Tense! But reading it had me thinking that, given all the protocols, would be nice if the enclosed work spoke for itself right? Shouldn#8217;t this be the over-riding consideration?

Great post- thank you so much! All of this is such a mystery to many of us. @Radar Redux- Good luck to you in creative or nontraditional formatting. In my experience, people find it arrogant and irritating, and choose not to deal with you. There is something to questions armenian, be said for being courteous, respectful and INFORMATIVE when communicating about yourself to potential patrons, funders, galleries or curators. No one wants to work with someone who they perceive will be difficult.

If you have had success with this approach, I#8217;d love to hear about it. It seems so trivial, though its not. The idea of as level editing the information is great. Very useful post. Thanks. This is a very helpful blog post for artists. I will pass it on to all the recent art grads I know. Let me rephrase. We am not judging anyone who chooses to essay, conform to any process so as to get grants/jobs, whatever they participate in so as to make a living, get shown, etc. Han And Roman Empire Essay! The advice here is genocide, all excellent regarding this.

That said, we had asked should an artist feel compelled to fill out resumes or artist statements in traditional ways in the first place, if they feel the process does not represent them in the way they wish to be represented. For example some artists we know question why this almost corporate formulaic format exists at all. They believe it to geography coursework, be archaic. They ask who does it really serve anyone and how? This questioning at least deserves consideration/ examination. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide! And if one has a real deep desire to deconstruct and em resume in usa, recontextualize the #8220;resume/artist statement process/construct#8221; why wait for the project part of, say, a grant. Why not jump in questions armenian genocide, from the start in formal essay tense, this way it is a real #8220;action#8221;instead of a simulation. The results may be illuminating. how does an questions artist apply for grant $$ without a resume if it is part of the requirement? i would save the tense #8216;challenging the formula#8217; for my grant proposal. i think online exhibits are fine to list as group shows. as you do more exhibits, you will want to edit and choose the questions armenian most competitive ones for writing your resume. if you see the online ones as being #8216;less#8217; desirable, then leave them out down the road. Great advice and thanks. One question: Do you think online shows or competitions count as something for questions your resume?

Even if its decent? This comment has been removed by the author. You can order it direct from us or pick it up next week at geography area retailers like the BMA Museum Shop, Ivy Bookstore, Trohv, and Atomic Books. Designed by Wickerham Lomax, our cover artists for Issue 04! The BmoreArt calendar features arts and events and armenian genocide, is updated daily. Tag your art and Balti-centric photos #bmoreart! We want to see your art, your exhibits, and your Baltimore. BmoreArt#8217;s Picks: Baltimore Art Galleries, Openings, and Events October 3 9. The Internet is Exploding: 10 Must-Read Articles this Week. Essays Human Management! ABOUT ME | Call for Book Publication. Order the BmoreArt Journal of Art + Ideas directly from us or from essay armenian genocide area retailers.

BmoreArt is as level, Best Cultural Resource in questions armenian, Baltimore! Bmoreart is a creative and critical daily online journal. We believe that Baltimore's creative class deserves to be discussed, critiqued, and well-informed.

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Armenian Genocide, essay - 2291 Words

manet-thesis-99mar - 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing. Click to edit the essay questions armenian, document details. Unformatted text preview: 1998:362 MASTER'S THESIS Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Tony Larsson, Nicklas Hedman Civilingenjorsprogrammet 1998:362 • ISSN: 1402-1617 • ISRN: LTU-EX--98/362--SE Master’s thesis in Computer Science and Engineering Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks A Simulation Study Stockholm, 1998 Tony Larsson and Nicklas Hedman Lulea University of Technology Supervisor: Per Johansson Switchlab Ericsson Telecom AB Examiner: Mikael Degermark Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering Division of Computer Communications, Lulea University of Technology Abstract Ad-hoc networking is a concept in capital punishment essay, computer communications, which means that users wanting to communicate with each other form a temporary network, without any form of essay questions armenian centralized administration. Each node participating in han and roman comparative essay, the network acts both as host and a router and must therefore be willing to forward packets for other nodes. For this purpose, a routing protocol is needed. Essay Genocide? An ad-hoc network has certain characteristics, which imposes new demands on the routing protocol. The most important characteristic is the dynamic topology, which is a consequence of node mobility. Creative Writing? Nodes can change position quite frequently, which means that we need a routing protocol that quickly adapts to topology changes. The nodes in an ad-hoc network can consist of armenian laptops and personal digital assistants and are often very limited in resources such as CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and bandwidth.

This means that the routing protocol should try to minimize control traffic, such as periodic update messages. Instead the routing protocol should be reactive, thus only calculate routes upon receiving a specific request. Han And Roman Empire Essay? The Internet Engineering Task Force currently has a working group named Mobile Ad-hoc Networks that is working on routing specifications for ad-hoc networks. This master thesis evaluates some of the protocols put forth by the working group. This evaluation is done by means of essay questions genocide simulation using Network simulator 2 from Berkeley.

The simulations have shown that there certainly is a need for a special ad-hoc routing protocol when mobility increases. More conventional routing protocols like DSDV have a dramatic decrease in performance when mobility is high. Two of the proposed protocols are DSR and roman comparative essay AODV. They perform very well when mobility is essay armenian high. However, we have found that a routing protocol that entirely depends on messages at the IP-level will not perform well. Some sort of support from the lower layer, for instance link failure detection or neighbor discovery is necessary for high performance. Essays On International Human Resource? The size of the essay questions genocide, network and geography coursework the offered traffic load affects protocols based on source routing, like DSR, to some extent. Questions Genocide? A large network with many mobile nodes and high offered load will increase the overhead for writing DSR quite drastically.

In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is essay armenian more desirable. Writing? Preface This report is the result of our master thesis project carried out at Ericsson Telecom, Switchlab in questions armenian, Stockholm. This master thesis is also the creative writing programs, last part of our Master of Science degree at Lulea University of Technology. Switchlab is an applied research organization within Ericsson, working on network studies and technologies for products in the foreseeable future. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? This master thesis project has been a cooperation between Switchlab in Stockholm and in usa Ericsson Mobile Data Design (ERV) in Gothenburg.

Our master thesis consisted of conducting a simulation study of proposed routing protocols in ad-hoc networks. The thesis work done at ERV implemented one of the proposed routing protocols and tested it in a simple scenario. Essay Questions? This has made it possible to han and comparative, share thoughts and ideas with each other. We would like to thank the following persons: Per Johansson for being our supervisor at Switchlab, Bartosz Mielczarek for contribution of the realistic scenarios and Mikael Degermark for being our Examiner at Lulea University of Technology. Also thanks to Johan Kopman and Jerry Svedlund in Gothenburg for discussions and comments regarding AODV. Finally, we would also like to essay armenian genocide, thank Mats Westin and Henrik Eriksson for giving us feedback on this report. Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION . 9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2 BACKGROUND . 9 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION . 9 RELATED WORK . Human Management? 10 PROJECT ORGANIZATION . Essay Armenian? 10 DISPOSITION . Geography As Level? 11 ABBREVIATIONS . Questions Armenian? 11 GENERAL CONCEPTS.

12 2.1 WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORKS . 12 2.1.1 General. 12 2.1.2 Usage. 13 2.1.3 Characteristics . 13 2.2 ROUTING . Han And Roman Empire Comparative Essay? 14 2.2.1 Conventional protocols . 14 2.2.2 Link State. 14 2.2.3 Distance Vector . 14 2.2.4 Source Routing . Essay Questions Genocide? 14 2.2.5 Flooding . 15 2.2.6 Classification. 15 3 AD-HOC ROUTING PROTOCOLS. 16 3.1 DESIRABLE PROPERTIES . 16 3.2 MANET. 17 3.3 DESTINATION SEQUENCED DISTANCE VECTOR - DSDV . 17 3.3.1 Description . 17 3.3.2 Properties . 17 3.4 AD-HOC ON DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR - AODV . 18 3.4.1 Description . Creative Writing Programs? 18 3.4.2 Properties . Genocide? 19 3.5 DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING - DSR.

20 3.5.1 Description . 20 3.5.2 Properties . 20 3.6 ZONE ROUTING PROTOCOL - ZRP . 21 3.6.1 Description . Formal Writing? 21 3.6.2 Properties . 22 3.7 TEMPORALLY-ORDERED ROUTING ALGORITHM - TORA . 22 3.7.1 Description . 22 3.7.2 Properties . 23 3.8 INTERNET MANET ENCAPSULATION PROTOCOL - IMEP. 24 3.8.1 Description . 24 3.8.2 Properties . 24 3.9 CLUSTER BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL - CBRP. 24 3.9.1 Description . 24 3.9.2 Properties . 26 3.10 COMPARISON. 26 4 SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT . 28 4.1 NETWORK SIMULATOR. 28 4.2 MOBILITY EXTENSION . Essay Questions Genocide? 29 4.2.1 Shared media. Roman Empire? 30 4.2.2 Mobile node. Questions? 30 4.3 SIMULATION OVERVIEW . 31 4.4 MODIFICATIONS . 32 4.4.1 AODV . Em Resume? 32 4.4.2 DSR. Questions Armenian Genocide? 33 4.4.3 DSDV. 34 4.4.4 Flooding . 34 4.4.5 The simulator.

34 5 SIMULATION STUDY . 35 5.1 MEASUREMENTS . 35 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics . 35 5.1.2 Parameters . 35 5.1.3 Mobility . 35 5.2 SIMULATION SETUP . 38 5.3 MOBILITY SIMULATIONS . 39 5.3.1 Setup . 39 5.3.2 Fraction of em resume received packets. 40 5.3.3 End-to-end delay . 41 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput . 42 5.3.5 Overhead . 43 5.3.6 Optimal path. 44 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations. 46 5.4 OFFERED LOAD SIMULATIONS . 46 5.4.1 Setup . 46 5.4.2 Fraction of received packets. Essay? 47 5.4.3 End-to-end delay . 48 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput . 49 5.4.5 Overhead . Comparative? 49 5.4.6 Optimal path.

51 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations . 51 5.5 NETWORK SIZE SIMULATIONS. Armenian Genocide? 52 5.6 REALISTIC SCENARIOS . 52 5.6.1 Setup . 52 5.6.2 Conference. 53 5.6.3 Event coverage . 55 5.6.4 Disaster area . 57 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios. 60 5.7 OBSERVATIONS . 60 5.7.1 Ability to in usa, find routes . 60 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes. 61 5.7.3 Buffers . 62 5.8 DISCUSSION. 62 5.9 CLASSIFICATION. Genocide? 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks . 63 5.9.2 Size of networks . 63 5.9.3 Network scenarios . 64 5.10 IMPROVEMENTS . 64 6 IMPLEMENTATION STUDY . Geography As Level? 65 DESIGN. 65 6.1.1 Main . 65 6.1.2 Event queue . 66 6.1.3 Route table. 66 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders . Questions Armenian? 66 6.1.5 Request buffer.

66 6.1.6 Message . 66 6.2 SETUP . 66 6.3 TESTING . 67 6.3.1 Correctness. 67 6.3.2 Performance . 67 6.4 6.5 6.6 7 CONCLUSIONS. 69 7.1 7.2 8 PROBLEMS / LIMITATIONS . 67 IMPROVEMENTS . 68 IMPLEMENTATION CONCLUSIONS . 68 RESULTS. 69 FURTHER STUDIES . Essay Tense? 69 REFERENCES . 71 APPENDIX A - TERMINOLOGY. 73 A.1 A.2 GENERAL TERMS . Armenian Genocide? 73 AD-HOC RELATED TERMS . 74 APPENDIX B - AODV IMPLEMENTATION FOR NS. 75 B.1 MESSAGE FORMATS. 75 B.1.1 Route Request – RREQ. 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP. 76 B.1.3 Hello . 76 B.1.4 Link failure . 76 B.2 DESIGN . 77 B.3 IMPORTANT ROUTINES.

78 B.3.1 Sending RREQ. 78 B.3.2 Receiving RREQ . 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ. Essay Writing Tense? 79 B.3.4 Forwarding RREP . Questions Armenian Genocide? 79 B.3.5 Receiving RREP . 79 B.3.6 Hello handling . 80 B.3.7 Forwarding packets. 80 B.3.8 Sending Triggered RREP . On International Human? 80 B.3.9 Receiving Triggered RREP. 80 APPENDIX C - SIMULATOR SCREENSHOTS . 81 C.1 C.2 NETWORK ANIMATOR . 81 AD-HOCKEY . 82 List of Figures Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Figure 19: Figure 20: Figure 21: Figure 22: Figure 23: Figure 24: Figure 25: Figure 26: Figure 27: Figure 28: Figure 29: Figure 30: Figure 31: Figure 32: Figure 33: Figure 34: Figure 35: Example of a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. . 12 Block diagram of a mobile node acting both as hosts and as router. . Questions Armenian Genocide? 13 Network using ZRP. The dashed squares show the geography coursework, routing zones for nodes S and D. 22 Directed acyclic graph rooted at destination. 23 IMEP in the protocol stack. . 24 Bi-directional linked clusters. 25 Network simulator 2. . 28 Shared media model. . 30 A mobile node. . 31 Simulation overview. 32 Example of mobility. . 37 Relation between the number of link changes and mobility. Essay Questions Armenian? . Geography Coursework? 37 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. Armenian Genocide? . 40 Mobility simulations - delay. 41 Mobility simulations - throughput. . Geography Coursework? 42 Mobility simulations - overhead.

43 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. . 45 Offered load simulations - fraction of received packets. . 47 Offered load simulations - average delay. . Essay? 48 Offered load simulations - average throughput. . 49 Offered load simulations - overhead. Geography Coursework As Level? 50 Offered load simulations – optimal path. 51 Conference scenario. Questions Armenian? . 54 Event coverage scenario. . 56 Disaster area scenario. . 58 Simple example scenario. . 60 Overview of em resume in usa AODV daemon. . 65 Different router identification approaches. From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. 70 Route request format. . 75 Route reply format. 76 AODV design of implementation for simulator. . 77 Screenshot – Network animator. 81 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Conference scenario. . 82 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Event coverage scenario. Essay Armenian? . 83 Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Disaster area. . 83 List of Tables Table 1: Table 2: Table 3: Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9: Table 10: Table 11: Table 12: Table 13: Table 14: Table 15: Table 16: Table 17: Table 18: Table 19: Table 20: Table 21: Neighbor table. . 25 Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. . 27 Constants used in the AODV implementation. 33 Constants used in the DSR implementation. . 33 Constants used in the DSDV implementation. . 34 Mobility variables. 36 Parameters used during mobility simulations. 39 Optimal path difference for all protocols. 45 Parameters used during offered load simulations. . Deterrence Punishment? 47 Parameters used during realistic simulations.

53 Parameters used during conference scenario. Essay Questions? . 53 Conference simulation results. . 54 Packet drops in em resume in usa, conference scenario. Armenian? 55 Parameters used during event coverage scenario. . 55 Event coverage simulation results. . 57 Packet drops in event coverage scenario. . 57 Parameters used during disaster area scenario. 57 Disaster area simulation results. . Essay? 59 Packet drops in disaster area. Essay? 59 Routing tables for AODV after a route discovery process. . 60 Routing caches for DSR, after a route discovery process. 61 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Wireless communication between mobile users is becoming more popular than ever before. This due to recent technological advances in laptop computers and essay wireless data communication devices, such as wireless modems and essay wireless LANs. This has lead to lower prices and higher data rates, which are the on international management, two main reasons why mobile computing continues to enjoy rapid growth.

There are two distinct approaches for enabling wireless communication between two hosts. The first approach is to let the existing cellular network infrastructure carry data as well as voice. The major problems include the questions armenian genocide, problem of handoff, which tries to essays human resource management, handle the situation when a connection should be smoothly handed over from one base station to another base station without noticeable delay or packet loss. Another problem is that networks based on the cellular infrastructure are limited to places where there exists such a cellular network infrastructure. The second approach is to genocide, form an ad-hoc network among all users wanting to communicate with each other. This means that all users participating in the ad-hoc network must be willing to geography coursework as level, forward data packets to make sure that the packets are delivered from source to destination. This form of networking is limited in range by the individual nodes transmission ranges and is typically smaller compared to essay genocide, the range of geography cellular systems. This does not mean that the essay armenian genocide, cellular approach is better than the ad-hoc approach. Ad-hoc networks have several advantages compared to traditional cellular systems. These advantages include: N N N On demand setup Fault tolerance Unconstrained connectivity Ad-hoc networks do not rely on em resume in usa any pre-established infrastructure and can therefore be deployed in places with no infrastructure. This is useful in questions, disaster recovery situations and places with non-existing or damaged communication infrastructure where rapid deployment of a communication network is needed.

Adhoc networks can also be useful on conferences where people participating in the conference can form a temporary network without engaging the services of any pre-existing network. Formal? Because nodes are forwarding packets for each other, some sort of routing protocol is essay questions armenian genocide necessary to programs, make the routing decisions. Essay Armenian? Currently there does not exist any standard for a routing protocol for ad-hoc networks, instead this is work in progress. Many problems remain to be solved before any standard can be determined. This thesis looks at essays on international resource management, some of questions armenian genocide these problems and tries to evaluate some of the currently proposed protocols. Em Resume? 1.2 Problem description The objective for this master thesis was to evaluate proposed routing protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks based on questions genocide performance.

This evaluation should be done theoretically and em resume through simulation. Genocide? It was also desirable to compare the results with the results for routing protocols in a traditional wired network. At the beginning of this master thesis, no implementation of the deterrence, protocols had been released, so the first main task was to implement some of the protocols. The thesis also included the goal to generate a simulation environment that could be used as a platform for further studies within the area of ad-hoc networks. This simulation environment should if possible, be based on Network simulator 2 from Berkeley. Essay Armenian Genocide? 9 The goal of punishment this master thesis was to: N N N N N N Get a general understanding of ad-hoc networks. Essay Questions Armenian? Generate a simulation environment that could be used for further studies. Implement some of the capital, proposed routing protocols for wireless ad-hoc networks.

Analyze the questions armenian genocide, protocols theoretically and through simulation. Produce a classification of the protocols with respect to applicability in combinations of small/large networks, and mobile/semi-mobile nodes. Recommend protocols for han and essay specific network scenarios. 1.3 Related work Many routing protocols have been proposed [2][4][6][8][10][11][12][16][19][22][26], but few comparisons between the armenian, different protocols have been made. Of the work that has been done in this field, only the work done by the Monarch1 project at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) has compared some of the different proposed routing protocols and evaluated them based on the same quantitative metrics. The result was presented in geography coursework as level, the article “A performance comparison of questions armenian multi-hop ad hoc wireless network routing protocols” [3] that was released in the beginning of October 1998. There exist some other simulation results [13][17] that have been done on individual protocols. These simulations have however not used the em resume in usa, same metrics and are therefore not comparable with each other. In parallel with our master thesis, a master thesis project in Gothenburg [28] implemented the essay armenian genocide, AODV [19] protocol and tested it in a environment that consisted of 5 computers with wireless interfaces. The cooperation between our projects and their project made it possible to share thoughts and ideas with each other. 1.4 Project organization The following persons have been involved in this master thesis project: Simulation study and master thesis authors M.Sc.

Tony Larsson M.Sc. Nicklas Hedman Supervisor at Ericsson Telecom AB, Switchlab Tekn.Lic. Per Johansson Examiner at Lulea University of Technology Ph. Creative Writing? D. Mikael Degermark Implementation study at Ericsson Mobile data design (ERV) in Gothenburg M.Sc. Johan Kopman M.Sc.

Jerry Svedlund Supervisor at ERV M.Sc. Christoffer Kanljung Contribution of realistic scenarios Ph.D. student at Chalmers University of Technology: Bartosz Mielczarek 1 MObile Networking ARCHitectures 10 1.5 Disposition This report consists of 8 chapters and two appendices. Chapters 1 and 2 explain the concept of ad-hoc networks and routing in general. Chapter 3 describes the essay armenian, different routing protocols, analyzes and compares them. Chapters 4 and writing programs 5 describe the simulator and the simulations that were made. Chapter 6 describes the implementation study of genocide AODV that was made in Gothenburg.

Chapter 7 concludes the whole report and writing tense chapter 8 is the references that we have used. The appendices contain some terminology, details about the implementation of AODV that we did for the simulator and some screenshots of the simulator. 1.6 Abbreviations AODV CBR CBRP DSDV DSR IEEE IETF LAN IP MAC MANET OLSR PDA QoS TCP TORA UDP WINET ZRP Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Constant Bit Rate Cluster Based Routing Protocol Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Dynamic Source Routing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Internet Engineering Task Force Local Area Network Internet Protocol Media Access Protocol Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks Optimized Link State Routing Protocol Personal Digital Assistant Quality of Service Transmission Control Protocol Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm User Datagram Protocol Wireless InterNET Zone Routing Protocol 11 2 General Concepts 2.1 Wireless ad-hoc networks 2.1.1 General A wireless ad-hoc network is a collection of mobile/semi-mobile nodes with no pre-established infrastructure, forming a temporary network. Each of the nodes has a wireless interface and essay genocide communicate with each other over geography coursework as level, either radio or infrared. Questions Armenian? Laptop computers and personal digital assistants that communicate directly with each other are some examples of nodes in an ad-hoc network.

Nodes in essays, the adhoc network are often mobile, but can also consist of stationary nodes, such as access points to the Internet. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Semi mobile nodes can be used to writing, deploy relay points in areas where relay points might be needed temporarily. Armenian? Figure 1 shows a simple ad-hoc network with three nodes. Deterrence Essay? The outermost nodes are not within transmitter range of each other. However the middle node can be used to forward packets between the outermost nodes.

The middle node is acting as a router and the three nodes have formed an ad-hoc network. Essay Genocide? Figure 1: Example of a simple ad-hoc network with three participating nodes. Resource? An ad-hoc network uses no centralized administration. This is to be sure that the network wont collapse just because one of the mobile nodes moves out of essay transmitter range of the others. Nodes should be able to enter/leave the as level, network as they wish. Questions Genocide? Because of the limited transmitter range of the nodes, multiple hops may be needed to reach other nodes.

Every node wishing to participate in an ad-hoc network must be willing to forward packets for other nodes. Thus every node acts both as a host and creative programs as a router. A node can be viewed as an essay questions genocide, abstract entity consisting of geography coursework as level a router and a set of affiliated mobile hosts (Figure 2). A router is an entity, which, among other things runs a routing protocol. A mobile host is simply an IP-addressable host/entity in essay, the traditional sense. Em Resume? Ad-hoc networks are also capable of handling topology changes and malfunctions in nodes. It is fixed through network reconfiguration. For instance, if a node leaves the network and causes link breakages, affected nodes can easily request new routes and the problem will be solved. This will slightly increase the delay, but the network will still be operational.

12 Wireless ad-hoc networks take advantage of the nature of the wireless communication medium. Essay Questions? In other words, in a wired network the physical cabling is done a priori restricting the connection topology of the nodes. Han And Roman Empire Comparative Essay? This restriction is not present in questions armenian genocide, the wireless domain and, provided that two nodes are within transmitter range of geography each other, an instantaneous link between them may form. Host Host Router Host Figure 2: Block diagram of a mobile node acting both as hosts and as router. 2.1.2 Usage There is no clear picture of what these kinds of networks will be used for.

The suggestions vary from document sharing at conferences to infrastructure enhancements and military applications. In areas where no infrastructure such as the Internet is available an essay genocide, ad-hoc network could be used by em resume in usa, a group of wireless mobile hosts. This can be the armenian genocide, case in areas where a network infrastructure may be undesirable due to reasons such as cost or convenience. Examples of such situations include disaster recovery personnel or military troops in cases where the normal infrastructure is either unavailable or destroyed. Other examples include business associates wishing to share files in an airport terminal, or a class of students needing to interact during a lecture. If each mobile host wishing to communicate is equipped with a wireless local area network interface, the empire comparative, group of questions armenian genocide mobile hosts may form an ad-hoc network.

Access to the Internet and access to resources in networks such as printers are features that probably also will be supported. 2.1.3 Characteristics Ad-hoc networks are often characterized by a dynamic topology due to the fact that nodes change their physical location by essay writing, moving around. This favors routing protocols that dynamically discover routes over conventional routing algorithms like distant vector and link state [23]. Another characteristic is armenian that a host/node have very limited CPU capacity, storage capacity, battery power and bandwidth, also referred to as a “thin client”. This means that the power usage must be limited thus leading to a limited transmitter range. On International Human? The access media, the radio environment, also has special characteristics that must be considered when designing protocols for ad-hoc networks. Essay Questions Armenian? One example of this may be unidirectional links. These links arise when for example two nodes have different strength on their transmitters, allowing only one of the host to hear the other, but can also arise from disturbances from the surroundings.

Multihop in writing, a radio environment may result in armenian, an overall transmit capacity gain and han and essay power gain, due to questions armenian genocide, the squared relation between coverage and required output power. Deterrence Punishment Essay? By using multihop, nodes can transmit the packets with a much lower output power. 13 2.2 Routing Because of the fact that it may be necessary to hop several hops (multi-hop) before a packet reaches the destination, a routing protocol is genocide needed. The routing protocol has two main functions, selection of creative writing programs routes for various source-destination pairs and the delivery of messages to their correct destination. The second function is conceptually straightforward using a variety of essay questions armenian genocide protocols and data structures (routing tables). Essays Human Resource Management? This report is focused on selecting and finding routes. 2.2.1 Conventional protocols If a routing protocol is needed, why not use a conventional routing protocol like link state or distance vector? They are well tested and most computer communications people are familiar with them. The main problem with link-state and distance vector is that they are designed for a static topology, which means that they would have problems to converge to a steady state in an ad-hoc network with a very frequently changing topology. Link state and distance vector would probably work very well in an ad-hoc network with low mobility, i.e. a network where the topology is not changing very often. The problem that still remains is that link-state and distance-vector are highly dependent on periodic control messages.

As the number of network nodes can be large, the potential number of destinations is also large. This requires large and frequent exchange of data among the network nodes. This is in essay armenian genocide, contradiction with the writing tense, fact that all updates in a wireless interconnected ad hoc network are transmitted over the air and essay genocide thus are costly in resources such as bandwidth, battery power and CPU. Because both link-state and distance vector tries to maintain routes to all reachable destinations, it is necessary to maintain these routes and this also wastes resources for the same reason as above. Another characteristic for conventional protocols are that they assume bi-directional links, e.g. that the geography, transmission between two hosts works equally well in armenian genocide, both directions. In the wireless radio environment this is not always the deterrence essay, case. Because many of the proposed ad-hoc routing protocols have a traditional routing protocol as underlying algorithm, it is necessary to questions genocide, understand the basic operation for conventional protocols like distance vector, link state and source routing. Essay Writing? 2.2.2 Link State In link-state routing [23], each node maintains a view of the complete topology with a cost for each link. To keep these costs consistent; each node periodically broadcasts the link costs of armenian genocide its outgoing links to all other nodes using flooding. As each node receives this information, it updates its view of the network and applies a shortest path algorithm to geography as level, choose the next-hop for essay armenian each destination. Some link costs in essays on international, a node view can be incorrect because of long propagation delays, partitioned networks, etc.

Such inconsistent network topology views can lead to formation of routing-loops. These loops are however short-lived, because they disappear in the time it takes a message to questions armenian genocide, traverse the diameter of the network. 2.2.3 Distance Vector In distance vector [23] each node only monitors the writing programs, cost of its outgoing links, but instead of broadcasting this information to all nodes, it periodically broadcasts to each of its neighbors an estimate of the shortest distance to questions armenian, every other node in the network. The receiving nodes then use this information to recalculate the routing tables, by essays on international human resource management, using a shortest path algorithm. Compared to link-state, distance vector is more computation efficient, easier to questions genocide, implement and requires much less storage space. Essays Human? However, it is well known that distance vector can cause the formation of both short-lived and long-lived routing loops. The primary cause for this is that the nodes choose their next-hops in a completely distributed manner based on information that can be stale. 2.2.4 Source Routing Source routing [23] means that each packet must carry the complete path that the packet should take through the essay questions armenian, network. The routing decision is therefore made at the source. The advantage with this approach is that it is very easy to avoid routing loops.

The disadvantage is that each packet requires a slight overhead. 14 2.2.5 Flooding Many routing protocols uses broadcast to distribute control information, that is, send the control information from an origin node to all other nodes. A widely used form of broadcasting is flooding [23] and operates as follows. The origin node sends its information to its neighbors (in the wireless case, this means all nodes that are within transmitter range). The neighbors relay it to empire essay, their neighbors and so on, until the questions armenian genocide, packet has reached all nodes in the network.

A node will only relay a packet once and to in usa, ensure this some sort of sequence number can be used. Essay Armenian Genocide? This sequence number is deterrence essay increased for essay questions each new packet a node sends. 2.2.6 Classification Routing protocols can be classified [1] into different categories depending on writing programs their properties. Genocide? N N N Centralized vs. Distributed Static vs.

Adaptive Reactive vs. Deterrence Capital Punishment Essay? Proactive One way to categorize the routing protocols is to divide them into centralized and distributed algorithms. In centralized algorithms, all route choices are made at a central node, while in distributed algorithms, the armenian genocide, computation of routes is punishment shared among the network nodes. Another classification of essay routing protocols relates to whether they change routes in response to the traffic input patterns. In static algorithms, the tense, route used by essay questions, source-destination pairs is fixed regardless of traffic conditions. Deterrence? It can only change in response to a node or link failure. This type of algorithm cannot achieve high throughput under a broad variety of traffic input patterns. Most major packet networks uses some form of adaptive routing where the routes used to route between source-destination pairs may change in response to congestion A third classification that is more related to ad-hoc networks is to essay armenian, classify the routing algorithms as either proactive or reactive. Proactive protocols attempt to continuously evaluate the deterrence capital punishment essay, routes within the network, so that when a packet needs to be forwarded, the route is already known and can be immediately used. The family of Distance-Vector protocols is an example of a proactive scheme.

Reactive protocols, on the other hand, invoke a route determination procedure on demand only. Thus, when a route is needed, some sort of global search procedure is employed. The family of classical flooding algorithms belongs to the reactive group. Proactive schemes have the advantage that when a route is needed, the delay before actual packets can be sent is very small. Essay Armenian Genocide? On the as level, other side proactive schemes needs time to converge to a steady state. This can cause problems if the topology is changing frequently. 15 3 Ad-hoc routing protocols This chapter describes the different ad-hoc routing protocols that we have chosen to simulate and analyze.

3.1 Desirable properties If the conventional routing protocols do not meet our demands, we need a new routing protocol. The question is what properties such protocols should have? These are some of the properties [5] that are desirable: Distributed operation The protocol should of course be distributed. It should not be dependent on a centralized controlling node. This is the case even for stationary networks. The difference is that nodes in an ad-hoc network can enter/leave the network very easily and because of mobility the network can be partitioned. Loop free To improve the overall performance, we want the questions armenian genocide, routing protocol to guarantee that the routes supplied are loop-free. This avoids any waste of bandwidth or CPU consumption. Demand based operation To minimize the control overhead in the network and thus not wasting network resources more than necessary, the protocol should be reactive. Em Resume In Usa? This means that the protocol should only react when needed and that the protocol should not periodically broadcast control information. Unidirectional link support The radio environment can cause the formation of unidirectional links.

Utilization of these links and questions not only the bi-directional links improves the human management, routing protocol performance. Security The radio environment is especially vulnerable to impersonation attacks, so to ensure the wanted behavior from the routing protocol, we need some sort of questions preventive security measures. Authentication and as level encryption is probably the way to go and the problem here lies within distributing keys among the essay armenian, nodes in em resume, the ad-hoc network. There are also discussions about using IP-sec [14] that uses tunneling to armenian genocide, transport all packets. Power conservation The nodes in an ad-hoc network can be laptops and em resume thin clients, such as PDAs that are very limited in battery power and therefore uses some sort of essay stand-by mode to save power.

It is therefore important that the routing protocol has support for these sleep-modes. Multiple routes To reduce the number of reactions to topological changes and congestion multiple routes could be used. Writing? If one route has become invalid, it is possible that another stored route could still be valid and thus saving the routing protocol from initiating another route discovery procedure. Quality of service support Some sort of Quality of essay Service support is probably necessary to incorporate into programs the routing protocol. This has a lot to do with what these networks will be used for. It could for instance be real-time traffic support. None of the essay genocide, proposed protocols from MANET have all these properties, but it is necessary to remember that the protocols are still under development and are probably extended with more functionality. The primary function is still to find a route to geography coursework as level, the destination, not to find the best/optimal/shortest-path route. The remainder of this chapter will describe the different routing protocols and essay questions genocide analyze them theoretically.

16 3.2 MANET IETF has a working group named MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks) [15] that is working in the field of adhoc networks. Essay Writing Tense? They are currently developing routing specifications for ad-hoc IP networks that support scaling to a couple of hundred nodes. Their goal is to be finished in essay questions armenian genocide, the end of year 1999 and then introduce these specifications to the Internet standard tracks. Deterrence Capital Punishment? Even if MANET currently is working on routing protocols, it also serves as a meeting place and forum, so people can discuss issues concerning ad-hoc networks. Questions Genocide? Currently they have seven routing protocol drafts: N N N N N N N N AODV - Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector [19] ZRP - Zone Routing Protocol [8] TORA / IMEP - Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm / Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol [6][16][17] DSR - Dynamic Source Routing [12][13] CBRP - Cluster Based Routing Protocol [11] CEDAR - Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing [26] AMRoute – Ad-hoc Multicast Routing Protocol [2] OLSR - Optimized Link State Routing Protocol [10] Of these proposed protocols we have chosen to analyze AODV, DSR, ZRP, CBRP and TORA theoretically. We have also analyzed DSDV, which is a proactive approach, as opposed to the other reactive protocols. We have not analyzed AMRoute because it is in usa a multicast routing protocol, neither CEDAR because it is essay armenian genocide primary a QoS routing protocol, nor OLSR, because it was submitted as an Internet draft so late. In those cases where a protocol supports both unicast and multicast routing we have only looked at the unicast routing part.

Of the geography coursework as level, theoretically analyzed protocols we have done simulations on AODV and genocide DSR. Punishment? 3.3 Destination Sequenced Distance Vector - DSDV 3.3.1 Description DSDV [22] is a hop-by-hop distance vector routing protocol that in essay, each node has a routing table that for geography coursework all reachable destinations stores the next-hop and number of hops for that destination. Like distance-vector, DSDV requires that each node periodically broadcast routing updates. The advantage with DSDV over essay questions armenian, traditional distance vector protocols is that DSDV guarantees loop-freedom. To guarantee loop-freedom DSDV uses a sequence numbers to tag each route. The sequence number shows the creative writing programs, freshness of essay questions a route and routes with higher sequence numbers are favorable. A route R is considered more favorable than R' if R has a greater sequence number or, if the em resume in usa, routes have the same sequence number but R has lower hop-count. The sequence number is increased when a node A detects that a route to a destination D has broken. Questions Genocide? So the next time node A advertises its routes, it will advertise the han and essay, route to D with an infinite hop-count and a sequence number that is larger than before. Essay? DSDV basically is distance vector with small adjustments to make it better suited for ad-hoc networks.

These adjustments consist of as level triggered updates that will take care of topology changes in the time between broadcasts. Essay? To reduce the amount of information in in usa, these packets there are two types of essay armenian genocide update messages defined: full and incremental dump. The full dump carries all available routing information and the incremental dump that only carries the information that has changed since the last dump. 3.3.2 Properties Because DSDV is dependent on periodic broadcasts it needs some time to writing programs, converge before a route can be used. This converge time can probably be considered negligible in essay questions armenian genocide, a static wired network, where the topology is not changing so frequently. In an ad-hoc network on essays management the other hand, where the topology is expected to essay questions armenian, be very dynamic, this converge time will probably mean a lot of dropped packets before a valid route is detected. Han And Empire? The periodic broadcasts also add a large amount of overhead into the network. 17 3.4 Ad-hoc On Demand Distance vector - AODV 3.4.1 Description The Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) [19] routing protocol enables multi-hop routing between participating mobile nodes wishing to establish and questions maintain an ad-hoc network. AODV is based upon the distance vector algorithm. The difference is that AODV is reactive, as opposed to proactive protocols like DV, i.e. AODV only requests a route when needed and does not require nodes to maintain routes to destinations that are not actively used in in usa, communications.

As long as the endpoints of questions armenian genocide a communication connection have valid routes to each other, AODV does not play any role. Features of this protocol include loop freedom and that link breakages cause immediate notifications to be sent to the affected set of han and empire comparative essay nodes, but only that set. Additionally, AODV has support for genocide multicast routing and avoids the Bellman Ford counting to infinity problem [27]. The use of destination sequence numbers guarantees that a route is fresh. The algorithm uses different messages to discover and maintain links. Whenever a node wants to try and find a route to another node, it broadcasts a Route Request (RREQ) to all its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the network until it reaches the creative programs, destination or a node with a fresh enough route to the destination. Then the essay genocide, route is made available by essay writing tense, unicasting a RREP back to the source. The algorithm uses hello messages (a special RREP) that are broadcasted periodically to the immediate neighbors. These hello messages are local advertisements for the continued presence of the node and essay questions armenian neighbors using routes through the geography as level, broadcasting node will continue to essay questions, mark the geography, routes as valid. Essay Armenian? If hello messages stop coming from a particular node, the resource management, neighbor can assume that the node has moved away and essay genocide mark that link to coursework as level, the node as broken and essay armenian notify the affected set of nodes by sending a link failure notification (a special RREP) to that set of nodes.

AODV also has a multicast route invalidation message, but because we do not cover multicast in this report we will not discuss this any further. Route table management AODV needs to keep track of the following information for each route table entry: N N N N N N N Destination IP Address: IP address for the destination node. Destination Sequence Number: Sequence number for this destination. Hop Count: Number of hops to the destination. Roman Comparative Essay? Next Hop: The neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets to the destination for essay questions this route entry. Lifetime: The time for which the route is considered valid. As Level? Active neighbor list: Neighbor nodes that are actively using this route entry. Request buffer: Makes sure that a request is only processed once. Route discovery A node broadcasts a RREQ when it needs a route to a destination and does not have one available. This can happen if the route to questions genocide, the destination is unknown, or if a previously valid route expires. After broadcasting a RREQ, the node waits for resource management a RREP.

If the reply is essay questions not received within a certain time, the node may rebroadcast the han and roman empire, RREQ or assume that there is essay armenian genocide no route to the destination. Forwarding of RREQs is done when the node receiving a RREQ does not have a route to the destination. It then rebroadcast the RREQ. Deterrence Capital Punishment? The node also creates a temporary reverse route to essay questions genocide, the Source IP Address in its routing table with next hop equal to roman comparative essay, the IP address field of the neighboring node that sent the essay questions, broadcast RREQ. This is done to keep track of creative programs a route back to the original node making the request, and essay armenian might be used for resource management an eventual RREP to essay armenian genocide, find its way back to the requesting node. The route is temporary in the sense that it is valid for han and roman empire comparative a much shorter time, than an questions genocide, actual route entry. When the RREQ reaches a node that either is the destination node or a node with a valid route to the destination, a RREP is generated and unicasted back to the requesting node.

While this RREP is forwarded, a route is created to the destination and when the deterrence punishment essay, RREP reaches the source node, there exists a route from the source to the destination. 18 Route maintenance When a node detects that a route to essay genocide, a neighbor no longer is valid, it will remove the routing entry and send a link failure message, a triggered route reply message to the neighbors that are actively using the route, informing them that this route no longer is valid. For this purpose AODV uses a active neighbor list to keep track of the neighbors that are using a particular route. The nodes that receive this message will repeat this procedure. Han And Roman? The message will eventually be received by the affected sources that can chose to questions genocide, either stop sending data or requesting a new route by sending out geography, a new RREQ. 3.4.2 Properties The advantage with AODV compared to classical routing protocols like distance vector and link-state is that AODV has greatly reduced the essay, number of routing messages in the network. AODV achieves this by using a reactive approach. Creative? This is probably necessary in an ad-hoc network to get reasonably performance when the topology is changing often. Essay Armenian? AODV is also routing in the more traditional sense compared to for instance source routing based proposals like DSR (see 3.5). The advantage with a more traditional routing protocol in an ad-hoc network is geography as level that connections from the ad-hoc network to a wired network like the questions armenian genocide, Internet is most likely easier.

The sequence numbers that AODV uses represents the freshness of a route and is increased when something happens in the surrounding area. The sequence prevents loops from geography as level, being formed, but can however also be the cause for new problems. What happens for instance when the sequence numbers no longer are synchronized in the network? This can happen when the essay questions, network becomes partitioned, or the sequence numbers wrap around. AODV only support one route for each destination. It should however be fairly easy to punishment essay, modify AODV, so that it supports several routes per destination. Instead of requesting a new route when an old route becomes invalid, the next stored route to that destination could be tried.

The probability for essay armenian that route to still be valid should be rather high. Although the Triggered Route Replies are reduced in number by essays on international human resource management, only sending the Triggered Route Replies to essay armenian genocide, affected senders, they need to traverse the whole way from the failure to the senders. This distance can be quite high in on international human resource, numbers of hops. AODV sends one Triggered RREP for every active neighbor in the active neighbor list for all entries that have been affected of a link failure. This can mean that each active neighbor can receive several triggered RREPs informing about the same link failure, but for different destinations, if a large fraction of the network traffic is genocide routed through the same node and this node goes down. An aggregated solution would be more appropriate here.

AODV uses hello messages at the IP-level. This means that AODV does not need support from the link layer to work properly. It is on international however questionable if this kind of protocol can operate with good performance without support from the link layer. The hello messages adds a significant overhead to the protocol. AODV does not support unidirectional links.

When a node receives a RREQ, it will setup a reverse route to essay armenian genocide, the source by using the formal writing, node that forwarded the essay questions genocide, RREQ as nexthop. This means that the route reply, in most cases is unicasted back the same way as the route request used. Unidirectional link support would make it possible to utilize all links and not only the capital punishment, bi-directional links. It is essay armenian however questionable if unidirectional links are desirable in han and roman empire essay, a real environment. The acknowledgements in the MAC protocol IEEE 802.11 would for instance not work with unidirectional links. 19 3.5 Dynamic Source Routing - DSR 3.5.1 Description Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [3][12][13] also belongs to the class of armenian genocide reactive protocols and geography coursework allows nodes to dynamically discover a route across multiple network hops to any destination. Source routing means that each packet in its header carries the complete ordered list of nodes through which the essay questions armenian, packet must pass. DSR uses no periodic routing messages (e.g. no router advertisements), thereby reducing network bandwidth overhead, conserving battery power and in usa avoiding large routing updates throughout the ad-hoc network. Instead DSR relies on support from the MAC layer (the MAC layer should inform the essay armenian genocide, routing protocol about link failures). The two basic modes of operation in comparative essay, DSR are route discovery and route maintenance. Route discovery Route discovery is the mechanism whereby a node X wishing to send a packet to Y, obtains the questions, source route to Y. Node X requests a route by broadcasting a Route Request (RREQ) packet.

Every node receiving this RREQ searches through its route cache for deterrence a route to questions armenian genocide, the requested destination. DSR stores all known routes in its route cache. If no route is found, it forwards the RREQ further and adds its own address to the recorded hop sequence. This request propagates through the geography as level, network until either the destination or a node with a route to the destination is reached. Questions Genocide? When this happen a Route Reply (RREP) is unicasted back to the originator. This RREP packet contains the sequence of network hops through which it may reach the on international human resource management, target. In Route Discovery, a node first sends a RREQ with the maximum propagation limit (hop limit) set to zero, prohibiting its neighbors from rebroadcasting it.

At the cost of a single broadcast packet, this mechanism allows a node to essay questions genocide, query the creative programs, route caches of all its neighbors. Essay Armenian? Nodes can also operate their network interface in promiscuous mode, disabling the interface address filtering and essay writing tense causing the essay questions genocide, network protocol to receive all packets that the interface overhears. These packets are scanned for useful source routes or route error messages and then discarded. The route back to geography coursework, the originator can be retrieved in questions genocide, several ways. Essays On International Human? The simplest way is to reverse the hop record in the packet. However this assumes symmetrical links. To deal with this, DSR checks the route cache of the replying node. If a route is found, it is questions genocide used instead.

Another way is to piggyback the reply on a RREQ targeted at geography coursework, the originator. This means that DSR can compute correct routes in the presence of asymmetric (unidirectional) links. Once a route is found, it is stored in the cache with a time stamp and essay questions the route maintenance phase begins. Route maintenance Route maintenance is the mechanism by which a packet sender S detects if the network topology has changed so that it can no longer use its route to the destination D. Coursework As Level? This might happen because a host listed in a source route, move out of wireless transmission range or is turned off making the route unusable. A failed link is detected by questions armenian, either actively monitoring acknowledgements or passively by running in promiscuous mode, overhearing that a packet is forwarded by a neighboring node. When route maintenance detects a problem with a route in use, a route error packet is sent back to the source node. When this error packet is received, the hop in formal essay, error is removed from this hosts route cache, and all routes that contain this hop are truncated at essay genocide, this point.

3.5.2 Properties DSR uses the key advantage of source routing. Intermediate nodes do not need to maintain up-to-date routing information in order to route the packets they forward. Essay Writing Tense? There is also no need for periodic routing advertisement messages, which will lead to reduce network bandwidth overhead, particularly during periods when little or no significant host movement is taking place. Battery power is also conserved on armenian genocide the mobile hosts, both by not sending the coursework as level, advertisements and by not needing to receive them, a host could go down to sleep instead. Armenian? This protocol has the advantage of learning routes by han and roman essay, scanning for information in packets that are received. Questions Genocide? A route from A to C through B means that A learns the route to programs, C, but also that it will learn the route to B. The source route will also mean that B learns the route to A and C and that C learns the route to A and B. This form of active learning is very good and reduces overhead in the network. 20 However, each packet carries a slight overhead containing the source route of the packet. This overhead grows when the packet has to go through more hops to essay armenian, reach the deterrence capital punishment, destination. So the packets sent will be slightly bigger, because of the overhead.

Running the interfaces in promiscuous mode is a serious security issue. Since the address filtering of the interface is turned off and all packets are scanned for information. A potential intruder could listen to all packets and scan them for useful information such as passwords and essay armenian credit card numbers. In Usa? Applications have to provide the security by encrypting their data packets before transmission. The routing protocols are prime targets for impersonation attacks and must therefore also be encrypted. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? One way to achieve this is to em resume, use IPsec [14]. Essay Armenian? DSR also has support for unidirectional links by the use of piggybacking the source route a new request. This can increase the performance in scenarios where we have a lot of unidirectional links.

We must however have a MAC protocol that also supports this. 3.6 Zone Routing Protocol - ZRP 3.6.1 Description Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) [8] is a hybrid of a reactive and essays on international human resource a proactive protocol. It divides the network into several routing zones and specifies two totally detached protocols that operate inside and between the routing zones. The Intrazone Routing Protocol (IARP) operates inside the routing zone and learns the minimum distance and routes to all the armenian, nodes within the zone. The protocol is not defined and em resume in usa can include any number of proactive protocols, such as Distance Vector or link-state routing. Different zones may operate with different intrazone protocols as long as the protocols are restricted to essay armenian genocide, those zones. A change in topology means that update information only propagates within the affected routing zones as opposed to affecting the entire network. The second protocol, the roman empire essay, Interzone Routing Protocol (IERP) is reactive and is used for finding routes between different routing zones.

This is useful if the destination node does not lie within the routing zone. Essay Armenian Genocide? The protocol then broadcasts (i.e. bordercasts) a Route REQuest (RREQ) to all border nodes within the routing zone, which in han and empire essay, turn forwards the request if the destination node is not found within their routing zone. This procedure is repeated until the armenian genocide, requested node is found and a route reply is sent back to the source indicating the route. IERP uses a Bordercast Resolution Protocol (BRP) [8] that is included in ZRP. BRP provides bordercasting services, which do not exist in coursework as level, IP. Bordercasting is the process of sending IP datagrams from one node to all its peripheral nodes.

BRP keeps track of the peripheral nodes and resolves a border cast address to the individual IP-addresses of the peripheral nodes. The message that was bordercasted is then encapsulated into a BRP packet and sent to each peripheral node. Routing Zone A routing zone is essay questions defined as a set of em resume in usa nodes, within a specific minimum distance in number of armenian genocide hops from the node in question. Formal Tense? The distance is armenian referred to as the zone radius. In the example network (Figure 3), node S, A, F, B, C, G and H, all lie within a radius of two from node F. Even though node B also has a distance of in usa 3 hops from node F, it is included in the zone since the shortest distance is only 2 hops. Border nodes or peripheral nodes are nodes whose minimum distance to the node in question is equal exactly to questions, the zone radius. In Figure 3, nodes B and F are border nodes to S. Consider the tense, network in Figure 3. Node S wants to send a packet to node D. Since node D is not in the routing zone of S, a route request is sent to essay genocide, the border nodes B and F. Each border node checks to writing, see if D is in their routing zone. Neither B nor F finds the armenian genocide, requested node in their routing zone; thus the request is forwarded to the respectively border nodes. F sends the request to S, B, C and H while B sends the request to em resume, S, F, E and G. Now the requested node D is found within the questions armenian genocide, routing zone of both C and E thus a reply is generated and on international sent back towards the source node S. 21 B E A Zone for essay questions D C S D F Zone for S G H Zone for F Figure 3: Network using ZRP. The dashed squares show the routing zones for nodes S and D. To prevent the requests from going back to essay writing tense, previously queried routing zone, a Processed Request List is used. This list stores previously processed requests and if a node receives a request that it already has processed, it is simply dropped.

3.6.2 Properties ZRP is questions armenian a very interesting protocol and can be adjusted of its operation to the current network operational conditions (e.g. change the routing zone diameter). However this is not done dynamically, but instead it is suggested that this zone radius should be set by the administration of the network or with a default value by in usa, the manufacturer. The performance of this protocol depends quite a lot on this decision. Since this is a hybrid between proactive and essay questions reactive schemes, this protocol use advantages from both. Routes can be found very fast within the em resume in usa, routing zone, while routes outside the zone can be found by efficiently querying selected nodes in questions, the network. One problem is however that the proactive intrazone routing protocol is not specified. The use of essay tense different intrazone routing protocols would mean that the nodes would have to support several different routing protocols. Essay? This is not a good idea when dealing with thin clients. Han And Empire Comparative Essay? It is better to genocide, use the same intrazone routing protocol in the entire network. ZRP also limits propagation of information about topological changes to the neighborhood of the change only (as opposed to a fully proactive scheme, which would basically flood the roman empire comparative essay, entire network when a change in topology occurred).

However, a change in topology can affect several routing zones. 3.7 Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm - TORA 3.7.1 Description Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) [16][17] is a distributed routing protocol. Essay Armenian? The basic underlying algorithm is one in a family referred to as link reversal algorithms. TORA is geography as level designed to questions genocide, minimize reaction to topological changes. A key concept in its design is that control messages are typically localized to a very small set of nodes. It guarantees that all routes are loop-free (temporary loops may form), and typically provides multiple routes for roman empire comparative essay any source/destination pair.

It provides only the routing mechanism and genocide depends on Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP [6]) for other underlying functions. Han And Comparative? TORA can be separated into three basic functions: creating routes, maintaining routes, and erasing routes. The creation of routes basically assigns directions to links in an undirected network or portion of the network, building a directed acyclic graph (DAG) rooted at the destination (See Figure 4). 22 D Figure 4: Directed acyclic graph rooted at destination. TORA associates a height with each node in the network. All messages in the network flow downstream, from a node with higher height to a node with lower height. Routes are discovered using Query (QRY) and questions Update (UPD) packets. When a node with no downstream links needs a route to a destination, it will broadcast a QRY packet. This QRY packet will propagate through the network until it reaches a node that has a route or the destination itself. Essay? Such a node will then broadcast a UPD packet that contains the node height. Every node receiving this UPD packet will set its own height to a larger height than specified in questions armenian, the UPD message.

The node will then broadcast its own UPD packet. Roman Comparative? This will result in a number of directed links from the originator of the QRY packet to essay questions armenian genocide, the destination. This process can result in multiple routes. Maintaining routes refers to punishment essay, reacting to topological changes in the network in a manner such that routes to the destination are re-established within a finite time, meaning that its directed portions return to a destination-oriented graph within a finite time. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Upon detection of a network partition, all links in the portion of the network that has become partitioned from the destination are marked as undirected to erase invalid routes. The erasing of routes is done using clear (CLR) messages.

3.7.2 Properties The protocols underlying link reversal algorithm will react to link changes through a simple localized single pass of the distributed algorithm. This prevents CLR packets to propagate too far in the network. A comparison made by the CMU Monarch project has however shown that the overhead in TORA is quite large because of the use of IMEP. The graph is rooted at the destination, which has the lowest height. Formal Writing Tense? However, the source originating the QRY does not necessarily have the armenian, highest height. This can lead to the situation, where multiple routes are possible from the source to the destination, but only one route will be discovered. The reason for this is that the height is initially based on the distance in han and roman empire, number of hops from the destination.

23 3.8 Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol - IMEP 3.8.1 Description IMEP [5] is a protocol designed to support the operation of many routing protocols in questions armenian genocide, Ad-hoc networks. The idea is to have a common general protocol that all routing protocols can make use of (see Figure 5). It incorporates many common mechanisms that the upper-layer protocol may need. These include: N N N N N Link status sensing Control message aggregation and encapsulation Broadcast reliability Network-layer address resolution Hooks for interrouter security authentication procedures IMEP also provides an architecture for MANET router identification, interface identification and addressing. IMEPs purpose is to deterrence, improve overall performance by reducing the essay genocide, number of control messages and to put common functionality into formal essay writing one unified, generic protocol useful to all upper-level routing protocols. Routing IMEP IP Figure 5: IMEP in the protocol stack. Questions Armenian Genocide? Of the essays on international resource, currently purposed protocols, only TORA and genocide OLSR use IMEP. It must however be noted that TORA and IMEP where designed by the same author. 3.8.2 Properties The idea to have a general protocol for common basic features is good, but from em resume in usa, a performance point of essay questions genocide view this is not such a good idea. Writing Programs? It adds another layer to the protocol stack. As the work by the CMU Monarch projects has shown [3], IMEP generates a lot of overhead, mainly because of essay armenian genocide IMEPs neighbor discovery mechanism that generates at least one hello message per second, but also because of the reliable in-order delivery of the em resume in usa, packets that IMEP provides.

3.9 Cluster Based Routing Protocol - CBRP 3.9.1 Description The idea behind CBRP [11] is to divide the nodes of an questions, ad-hoc network into a number of formal essay overlapping or disjoint clusters. One node is elected as cluster head for each cluster. This cluster head maintains the membership information for the cluster. Inter-cluster routes (routes within a cluster) are discovered dynamically using the membership information. Questions? 24 CBRP is based on source routing, similar to DSR. This means that intracluster routes (routes between clusters) are found by flooding the network with Route Requests (RREQ). The difference is that the cluster structure generally means that the number of nodes disturbed are much less. Flat routing protocols, i.e. only one level of essay hierarchy, might suffer from excessive overhead when scaled up. CBRP is like the armenian, other protocols fully distributed. This is necessary because of the very dynamic topology of the ad-hoc network. Furthermore, the protocol takes into tense consideration the existence of unidirectional links.

Link sensing Each node in CBRP knows its bi-directional links to its neighbors as well as unidirectional links from its neighbors to itself. To handle this, each node must maintain a Neighbor Table (see Table 1). Table 1: Neighbor ID Neighbor 1 Neighbor 2 … Neighbor n Neighbor table. Link status Bi/unidirectional link to me Bi/unidirectional link to me … Bi/unidirectional link to me Role Is 1 a cluster head or member Is 2 a cluster head or member … Is n a cluster head or member Each node periodically broadcasts its neighbor table in a hello message. Essay Questions? The hello message contains the node ID, the nodes role (cluster head, cluster member or undecided) and the neighbor table. The hello messages are used to update the formal essay, neighbor tables at each node. Essay? If no hello message is received from a certain node, that entry will be removed from the table. Clusters The cluster formation algorithm is very simple, the geography as level, node with lowest node ID is essay genocide elected as the cluster head. The nodes use the information in the hello messages to decide whether or not they are the cluster heads. The cluster head regards all nodes it has bi-directinal links to as its member nodes.

A node regards itself as a member node to a particular cluster if it has a bi-directinal link to the cluster head. It is possible for a node to em resume, belong to several clusters. Cluster 1 Cluster 2 3 4 Cluster head Cluster head 1 2 6 Figure 6: 5 Bi-directional linked clusters. 25 Clusters are identified by their respective cluster heads, which means that the cluster head must change as infrequently as possible. The algorithm is therefore not a strict lowest ID clustering algorithm. A noncluster head never challenges the status of an existing cluster head. Only when two cluster-heads move next to each other, will one of them lose the role as cluster head. In Figure 6 node 1 is cluster head for cluster 1 and essay questions genocide node 2 is cluster head for cluster 2. Routing Routing in CBRP is creative programs based on essay questions armenian source routing and the route discovery is done, by flooding the network with Route Requests (RREQ). The clustering approach however means that fewer nodes are disturbed. Creative Writing Programs? This, because only the cluster heads are flooded.

If node X needs a route to node Y, node X will send out a RREQ, with a recorded source route listing only itself initially. Any node forwarding this packet will add its own ID in this RREQ. Each node forwards a RREQ only once and essay it never forwards it to node that already appears in formal writing, the recorded route. In CBRP, a RREQ will always follow a route with the following pattern: Source-Cluster head-Gateway-Cluster head-Gateway- . -Destination A gateway node for a cluster is questions armenian a node that knows that it has a bi-directional or a unidirectional link to a node in another cluster. In Figure 6, node 6 is gateway node for cluster 1 and node 4 is gateway node for deterrence capital cluster 2. Questions Armenian Genocide? The source unicasts the RREQ to its cluster head. Each cluster-head unicasts the RREQ to each of its bidirectionally linked neighbor clusters, which has not already appeared in the recorded route through the corresponding gateway. There does not necessarily have to be an actual bi-directional link to a bi-directional linked neighbor cluster. For instance, in Figure 6 cluster 1 has a unidirectional link to cluster 2 through node 3 and formal essay cluster 2 has a unidirectional link to questions armenian genocide, cluster 1 through node 5, and the clusters are therefore bidirectional linked neighbor clusters. Writing? This procedure continues until the armenian genocide, target is found or another node can supply the route. When the RREQ reaches the target, the target may chose to memorize the reversed route to the source. It then copies the recorded route to a Route Reply packet and sends it back to the source.

3.9.2 Properties This protocol has a lot of common features with the earlier discussed protocols. It has a route discovery and route removal operation that has a lot in common with DSR and AODV. The clustering approach is probably a very good approach when dealing with large ad-hoc networks. The solution is creative writing more scalable than the other protocols, because it uses the clustering approach that limits the number of essay genocide messages that need to be sent. CBRP also has the advantage that it utilizes unidirectional links.

One remaining question is however how large each cluster should be. This parameter is critical to how the protocol will behave. Punishment Essay? 3.10 Comparison So far, the protocols have been analyzed theoretically. Table 2 summarizes and compares the result from these theoretical/qualitative analyses and shows what properties the protocols have and do not have. Questions Armenian Genocide? As it can be seen from Table 2, none of the protocols support power conservation or Quality of Service. This is however work in deterrence essay, progress and will probably be added to the protocols. All protocols are distributed, thus none of the protocols is dependent on a centralized node and can therefore easily reconfigure in the event of topology changes.

26 Table 2: Comparison between ad-hoc routing protocols. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? DSDV AODV DSR ZRP Loop-free Yes Yes Yes Yes Multiple routes Distributed Reactive Unidirectional link support QoS Support Multicast Security Power conservation Periodic broadcasts No Yes No No No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Partially No No No No No Yes Requires reliable or sequenced data No No No No TORA/ IMEP No, short lived loops Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes (IMEP) Yes CBRP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No DSDV is the only proactive protocol in this comparison. It is also the protocol that have most in common with traditional routing protocol in wired networks. Human Management? The sequence numbers were added to ensure loop-free routes. DSDV will probably be good enough in armenian, networks, which allows the protocol to converge in reasonable time. This however means that the mobility cannot be too high. Writing Programs? The authors of DSDV came to the same conclusions and designed AODV, which is a reactive version of DSDV. They also added multicast capabilities, which will enhance the armenian genocide, performance significantly when one node communicates with several nodes.

The reactive approach in AODV has many similarities with the reactive approach of DSR. They both have a route discovery mode that uses request messages to essay, find new routes. The difference is that DSR is based on source routing and will learn more routes than AODV. DSR also has the advantage that it supports unidirectional links. DSR has however one major drawback and it is the source route that must be carried in each packet. This can be quite costly, especially when QoS is essay armenian going to be used. ZRP and as level CBRP are two very interesting proposals that divide the network into several zones/clusters. This approach is probably a very good solution for large networks. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Within the zones/clusters they have a more proactive scheme and between the zones/clusters they have a reactive scheme that have many similarities with the operation of AODV and DSR. As Level? They have for genocide instance a route discovery phase that sends request through the network. Geography As Level? The difference between ZRP and CBRP is how the network is divided.

In ZRP all zones are overlapping and in CBRP clusters can be both overlapping and questions disjoint. None of the presented protocols are adaptive, meaning that the protocols do not take any smart routing decisions when the traffic load in the network is taken into writing consideration. As a route selection criteria the proposed protocols use metrics such as shortest number of hops and quickest response time to questions armenian genocide, a request. This can lead to the situation where all packets are routed through the han and, same node even if there exist better routes where the traffic load is not as large. 27 4 Simulation Environment The simulator we have used to simulate the ad-hoc routing protocols in is the Network Simulator 2 (ns) [7] from Berkeley. To simulate the mobile wireless radio environment we have used a mobility extension to ns that is developed by essay questions genocide, the CMU Monarch project at writing programs, Carnegie Mellon University. 4.1 Network Simulator Network simulator 2 is the result of an on-going effort of research and development that is administrated by researchers at Berkeley. It is a discrete event simulator targeted at networking research. It provides substantial support for simulation of TCP, routing, and multicast protocols. The simulator is written in genocide, C++ and a script language called OTcl2.

Ns uses an Otcl interpreter towards the user. In Usa? This means that the user writes an questions armenian, OTcl script that defines the em resume in usa, network (number of nodes, links), the essay armenian genocide, traffic in the network (sources, destinations, type of traffic) and which protocols it will use. This script is then used by ns during the coursework, simulations. The result of the simulations is an output trace file that can be used to essay questions armenian, do data processing (calculate delay, throughput etc) and to visualize the simulation with a program called Network Animator (NAM). See Appendix C for essay tense a screenshot of NAM. NAM is armenian genocide a very good visualization tool that visualizes the packets as they propagate through the formal essay tense, network. An overview of essay questions how a simulation is done in ns is shown in Figure 7. Otcl script Network Simulator 2 Output Data processing Network Animator Figure 7: Network simulator 2. The current version3 of the Network simulator does not support mobile wireless environments. The Network simulator alone is only intended for stationary networks with wired links. This caused us some problems in the beginning of coursework this master thesis.

We needed mobility and therefore started to design and implement a mobility model that would extend the simulator. We also started to implement the AODV protocol. This implementation of AODV is compatible with NAM and therefore gives a good picture of how AODV behaves. It is very easy to follow for instance the route discovery procedure. About two months later, in August 1998, two separate mobility extensions were released. These extensions had everything that we wanted from an extension, so we decided to use one of them. This however meant that the implementation of AODV that we made earlier no longer was compatible and essay questions genocide had to deterrence capital, be ported. 2 3 Object Tool Command Language Network simulator 2.1b3 28 4.2 Mobility extension There currently exist two mobility extensions to ns.

These are: N N Wireless mobility extension developed by the CMU Monarch projects [30]. Mobility support, mobile IP and wireless channel support developed by C. Perkins at Sun Microsystems [18]. The ns group at Berkeley has as intention to integrate both these extensions to ns. This work is however not complete yet. We have chosen to use the CMU Monarch extension, because this extension is targeted at ad-hoc networks. Armenian Genocide? The version of the extension that we have worked with4 adds the deterrence essay, following features5 to the Network simulator.

Node mobility Each mobile node is an independent entity that is essay questions armenian genocide responsible for computing its own position and velocity as a function of time. Nodes move around according to a movement pattern specified at the beginning of the simulation. Realistic physical layers Propagation models are used to decide how far packets can travel in air. These models also consider propagation delays, capture effects and carrier sense [25]. MAC 802.11 An implementation of the IEEE 802.11 Media Access Protocol (MAC) [9] protocol was included in the extension. The MAC layer handles collision detection, fragmentation and acknowledgements. This protocol may also be used to detect transmission errors. 802.11 is punishment a CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) protocol. It avoids collisions by checking the channel before using it. Questions Armenian? If the geography as level, channel is free, it can start sending, if not, it must wait a random amount of time before checking again. For each retry an exponential backoff algorithm will be used.

In a wireless environment it cannot be assumed that all stations hear each other. If a station senses the medium, as free, it does not necessarily mean that the medium is free around the receiver area. This problem is known as the hidden terminal problem and to essay genocide, overcome these problems the geography coursework, Collision Avoidance mechanism together with a positive acknowledgement scheme is used. Questions Genocide? The positive acknowledgement scheme means that the receiver sends an acknowledgement when it receives a packet. Essay Writing Tense? The sender will try to retransmit this packet until it receives the acknowledgement or the number of questions genocide retransmits exceeds the maximum number of retransmits. 802.11 also support power saving and security. Power saving allows packets to roman comparative essay, be buffered even if the system is asleep. Security is provided by an algorithm called Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP). It supports authentication and encryption. WEP is a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) and is based on essay questions genocide RSAs RC4. One of the most important features of roman comparative essay 802.11 is the ad-hoc mode, which allows users to build up Wireless LANs without an infrastructure (without an access point).

Address Resolution Protocol The Address Resolution Protocol, ARP [24] is implemented. ARP translates IP-addresses to hardware MAC addresses. Essay Genocide? This takes place before the packets are sent down to the MAC layer. Essays Resource? Ad-hockey Ad-hockey is an application that makes it possible to essay questions, visualize the essays management, mobile nodes as they move around and send/receives packets. Questions Genocide? Ad-hockey can also be used as a scenario generator tool to em resume, create the input files necessary for the simulations. This is done, by positioning nodes in a specified area.

Each node is then given a movement pattern consisting of movement directions at different waypoints, speed, pause times and communication patterns. Armenian Genocide? Screenshots of ad-hockey can be seen in Appendix C. 4 Version 1.0.0-beta, released in geography coursework, the middle of August. Armenian Genocide? At the end of November 1998, the CMU Monarch projects released version 1.1.0 of the in usa, extension. This new version contains some bug fixes and implementations of the AODV and armenian TORA protocols. Essays On International Human Resource? 5 29 Radio network interfaces This is questions genocide a model of the hardware that actually transmits the packet onto the channel with a certain power and roman modulation scheme [25].

Transmission power The radius of the transmitter with an essay, omni-directional antenna is about 250 meters in this extension. Antenna gain and receiver sensitivity Different antennas are available for simulations. Ad-hoc routing protocols Both DSR and DSDV have been implemented and added to this extension. Human Management? 4.2.1 Shared media The extension is based on a shared media model (Ethernet in essay questions, the air). This means that all mobile nodes have one or more network interfaces that are connected to a channel (see Figure 8). A channel represents a particular radio frequency with a particular modulation and tense coding scheme. Channels are orthogonal, meaning that packets sent on one channel do not interfere with the transmission and reception of packets on another channel. The basic operation is questions armenian as follows, every packet that is sent / put on the channel is received / copied to all mobile nodes connected to the same channel.

When a mobile nodes receive a packet, it first determines if it possible for it to receive the packet. This is determined by the radio propagation model, based on the transmitter range, the distance that the packet has traveled and the amount of bit errors. Mobile Node Mobile Node Mobile Node Channel Figure 8: Shared media model. 4.2.2 Mobile node Each mobile node (Figure 9) makes use of creative a routing agent for the purpose of calculating routes to other nodes in questions genocide, the ad-hoc network. Packets are sent from the geography as level, application and are received by the routing agent. Essay? The agent decides a path that the packet must travel in order to reach its destination and stamps it with this information. It then sends the packet down to the link layer. The link layer level uses an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to decide the creative programs, hardware addresses of neighboring nodes and map IP addresses to their correct interfaces. When this information is questions genocide known, the essay, packet is sent down to the interface queue and awaits a signal from the Multiple Access Control (MAC) protocol.

When the MAC layer decides it is ok to armenian genocide, send it onto punishment the channel, it fetches the packet from the queue and armenian genocide hands it over to the network interface which in turn sends the packet onto the radio channel. This packet is copied and is delivered to all network interfaces at the time at essays resource, which the questions, first bit of the packet would begin arriving at the interface in a physical system. Each network interface stamps the packet with the receiving interfaces properties and then invokes the propagation model. The propagation model uses the transmit and receive stamps to determine the power with which the interface will receive the packet. The receiving network interfaces then use their properties to determine if they actually successfully received the packet, and em resume sends it to the MAC layer if appropriate. If the essay questions armenian genocide, MAC layer receives the packet error- and collision- free, it passes the packet to the mobiles entry point. From there it reaches a demultiplexer, which decides if the packet should be forwarded again, or if it has reached its destination node. If the destination node is reached, the packet is sent to a port demultiplexer, which decides to what application the packet should be delivered. If the packet should be forwarded again the routing agent will be called and the procedure will be repeated. 30 Entry point M U X Application Routing Agent Link Layer ARP Queue MAC Propagation model Network Interface Channel Figure 9: A mobile node.

4.3 Simulation overview A typical simulation with ns and the mobility extension is shown in Figure 10. Basically it consists of writing generating the following input files to ns: N N A scenario file that describes the armenian genocide, movement pattern of the nodes. A communication file that describes the traffic in the network. These files can be generated by drawing them by hand using the visualization tool Ad-hockey (see 4.2) or by deterrence punishment essay, generating completely randomized movement and questions armenian communication patterns with a script. These files are then used for em resume the simulation and as a result from this, a trace file is generated as output. Prior to the simulation, the parameters that are going to be traced during the simulation must be selected. Essay Armenian? The trace file can then be scanned and formal analyzed for the various parameters that we want to measure.

This can be used as data for plots with for instance Gnuplot. The trace file can also be used to visualize the simulation run with either Ad-hockey or Network animator. 31 Scenario generation Scenario file Communication file Mobility extension Network Simulator 2 Output files Data processing Ad-hockey GnuPlot Figure 10: Network animator Simulation overview. 4.4 Modifications To be able to use ns for the simulations, we had to do some modifications. First of all, we did not have the routing protocols we wanted to simulate, so one of the genocide, first steps was to implement the protocols. 4.4.1 AODV We have implemented the creative, AODV protocol (for more details, see appendix B). The implementation is armenian done according to the AODV draft [19] released in August 1998. It must however be noted that a new version of the on international human, draft [20] was released in the end of essay questions November 1998. The new draft contains some changes that would enhance the performance. These changes that affect the in usa, unicast routing part is primarily: N N Reduced or complete elimination of hello messages. Questions? Updates to important parameters to on international human resource, reflect recent simulation experiences.

To be able to test how the hello messages and link layer support affects the behavior of the essay armenian, protocol we have implemented three versions: N N N AODV with only IP-based hello messages AODV with only em resume, Link Layer notification of broken links AODV with both IP-based hello messages and Link layer notification of broken links The implementation of the different versions has some major differences that will affect the performance. First of all AODV with only MAC-layer support will not get the routes to the neighbors installed in the routing table, neither will it update the routes to the neighbor who forwarded a message to you. Questions Genocide? Both AODV versions that have hello messages will have this neighbor detection process that keeps track of the neighbors. This means that the protocols with this feature will have more information in the 32 routing tables. Without this support, buffering of the packets may be necessary while a request is sent out in search for a node that could be a neighbor. It must however be noted that the removal of creative programs hello messages somewhat changes the behavior of the AODV protocol. The hello messages add overhead to the protocol, but also gives us some prior knowledge of link breakages. Armenian Genocide? Removing the capital essay, hello messages makes the protocol completely on-demand, broken links can only essay armenian genocide, be detected when actually sending something on the broken link. Coursework? The DSR implementation that was included in the mobility extension used a sendbuffer that buffered all packets that the armenian genocide, application sent while the routing protocol searched for a route. Roman Empire? To get a fair comparison of the questions armenian genocide, protocols we implemented the same feature for AODV. This buffer can hold 64 packets and packets are allowed to stay in the buffer for 8 seconds.

The parameters that can be adjusted for AODV and the values we have used is shown in Table 3. Deterrence Capital Punishment Essay? Some of essay questions genocide these parameters are very important and affects the performance of the protocol in drastic ways. The hello interval is maybe the em resume in usa, most important parameter when dealing with AODV that uses hello messages. If the interval is too long, link breakages would not be detected fast enough, but if the interval is to short, a great amount of essay extra control overhead would be added. Most of the parameters in Table 3 are obvious. On International Management? The maximum rate for sending replies prevents a node to do a triggered route reply storm.

This means that AODV in each node is only allowed to send one triggered RREP per second for each broken route. This could for instance happen if a forwarding node receives a lot of data packets that the node no longer has a route for. In this case the node should only send a triggered RREP, as a response to the first data packet and if the armenian, node keeps receiving data packets after that, a triggered RREP is in usa only allowed to be sent once per second. Table 3: Constants used in the AODV implementation. Parameter Hello interval Active route timeout Route reply lifetime Allowed hello loss Request retries Time between retransmitted requests Time to hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for a route Value 1,5 s 300 s 300 s 2 3 3s 8s 1/s 4.4.2 DSR The DSR implementation that came with the extension uses promiscuous mode (i.e. eavesdropping), which means that the protocol learns information from packets that it overhears. Essay Armenian Genocide? The question is how realistic this is in a real environment. In a real case scenario we will probably have some sort of encryption, probably IP-Sec that uses IP-Sec tunneling to in usa, transport messages. We have made some small change to DSR that makes it possible to turn the essay questions armenian, eavesdropping feature on and off. The parameters that are configurable for DSR are shown in Table 4. Geography? These values are the values specified in the DSR draft and have not been changed. The nonpropagating timeout is the essay questions, time a node waits for em resume in usa a reply for a nonpropagating search. A nonpropagating search is a request that first goes to the neighbors.

If the neighbors do not answer in this specified amount of a time, a new request that will be forwarded by the neighbors will be sent. Essay Armenian? The sendbuffer in the DSR can hold 64 packets and the packets are allowed to stay in the buffer for management 30 seconds Table 4: Constants used in the DSR implementation. Parameter Time between retransmitted requests Size of source route header carrying n addresses Timeout for nonpropagating search Time to genocide, hold packets awaiting routes Maximum rate for sending replies for han and empire a route 33 Value 500 ms 4n + 4 bytes 30 ms 30 s 1/s 4.4.3 DSDV The extension also included an implementation of the DSDV protocol. This implementation is questions armenian actually two implementations that handle the triggered update a little different. In the first version only a new metric for a destination causes a triggered update to be sent. In the second version, a new sequence number for a destination causes a triggered update to be sent. We have modified DSDV so it always uses the em resume in usa, version that triggers on new sequence numbers. This is the version that, we feel behaves according to the specification of DSDV. The parameters for DSDV are shown in Table 5 and are as specified in the DSDV paper [22].

Table 5: Constants used in the DSDV implementation. Armenian? Parameter Periodic route update interval Periodic updates missed before link declared broken Route advertisement aggregation time Maximum packets buffered per em resume, node per destination Value 15 s 3 1s 5 4.4.4 Flooding We have implemented a simple flooding protocol that simply floods all user data packets to essay questions, all nodes in deterrence capital punishment, the network. To have some sort cleverness in this flooding and avoiding data to essay, bounce back and forth we use a sequence number in each packet. This sequence number is incremented for each new packet. Each node keeps track of empire (source IP, sequence number) for all destinations and does not process a packet if the essay questions, packet has a sequence number smaller than the coursework as level, stored sequence number. The idea was to essay questions armenian, do the deterrence essay, simulations on essay genocide the flooding protocol and compare the results with the results for the routing protocols. After some initial simulations on flooding this plan was abandoned. The simulations took too long to complete.

The reason is deterrence essay that flooding generates too many packets (events in the simulator). 4.4.5 The simulator To the actual simulator (ns + extension) we have added some new features to allow us to make the questions genocide, wanted measurements. Obstacles The visualization/scenario generator tool, Ad-hockey, allows the user to place obstacles (lines and boxes) into the scenario. The problem is writing that ns do not use these obstacles for any kind of computation. Two nodes can communicate, even through a wall. We wanted to simulate the questions genocide, protocols in a few realistic scenarios, so we added these computations to ns. The calculations consisted of two parts. The first part was to comparative essay, store all obstacles in a database that we later could use when calculating the intersection points and genocide the second part was to extend the propagation model with the actual computations. The computations merely consisted of deciding if there existed an intersection point between the han and roman essay, straight line from the essay questions, sending node to the receiving node and any obstacle in the database.

If such an intersection point exists, the capital punishment essay, communication is simply cut of. Questions Armenian Genocide? No fading of the signal, reflections etc is taken into consideration. The model is therefore very simple. The problem with these computations is that it adds a lot of overhead in the simulations. The simulations will take significantly longer time to complete. The extra computation must be done for all packets. In a large scenario with many nodes that are sending a lot of traffic this will increase the simulation time significantly. Version management To allow us to test different versions of one protocol simultaneous, we have added a version control to formal essay, ns. Genocide? This means that it is possible to give a version number to a protocol when the resource, simulation starts. This version number is given to the specified protocol and it is then up to the programmer to use it.

We currently use this feature with both AODV and armenian DSR. The different versions are: N N N N N AODV 1 = AODV with only hello messages. AODV 2 = AODV with only MAC-layer feedback. AODV 3 = AODV with both hello messages and MAC-layer feedback. DSR 1 = DSR with eavesdropping. DSR 2 = DSR without eavesdropping. 34 5 Simulation study The protocols that we have simulated are DSDV, AODV and DSR. DSDV is only used to get a comparison of how much better/worse the MANET protocols are than an ordinary proactive protocol. Em Resume? The simulations were conducted on an Intel PC with a Pentium-2 processor at 400 MHz, 128 Mbytes of RAM running FreeBSD6. Armenian? 5.1 Measurements Before we go into the actual simulations, we will discuss which parameters [5] that are interesting to measure when studying routing protocols in an ad-hoc network.

There are two main performance measures that are substantially affected by the routing algorithm, the average end-to-end throughput (quantity of tense service) and the average end-to-end delay (quality of service). 5.1.1 Quantitative metrics The measurements that we have conducted can be seen from two angels: externally and internally. The external view is what the application/user sees and the internal view is how the routing protocol behaves. The external measurements are basically the end-to-end throughput and armenian genocide delay. The internal behavior can further be divided into creative writing routing accuracy and essay questions armenian routing efficiency. N N Routing Efficiency: How much of the sent data is actually delivered to the destination? How much routing overhead is required to find routes? Routing Accuracy: How accurate, measured in number of hops are the supplied routes compared to the optimal shortest path.

5.1.2 Parameters The metrics has to be measured against han and comparative essay, some parameter that describes the characteristic behavior of an adhoc network and can be varied in a controlled way. The parameters that we have chosen to essay questions, simulate with are: N N N Mobility, which probably is one of the most important characteristics of an ad-hoc network. Em Resume In Usa? This will affect the dynamic topology, links will go up and essay questions armenian down. Offered network load. The load that we actually offer the network. This can be characterized by essays on international human, three parameters: packet size, number of essay armenian genocide connections and the rate that we are sending the packets with. Network size (number of nodes, the size of the area that the nodes are moving within). The network size basically determines the connectivity. Fewer nodes in the same area mean fewer neighbors to send requests to, but also smaller probability for collisions.

5.1.3 Mobility Because mobility is an important metric when evaluating ad-hoc networks we need some definition of mobility. There exist many definitions of on international resource mobility. The CMU Monarch project [3] has for instance used the pause time in the waypoints as a definition of questions armenian mobility. Geography As Level? If a node has a low pause time, it will almost constantly be moving, which would mean a high mobility. If a node has a large pause time it will stand still most of the time and essay questions armenian have a low mobility. We did not think that this mobility definition was good enough, because even if the pause time is creative programs low and all nodes are constantly moving, they could all be moving with a very slow speed in the same area. We have defined mobility a little differently. Our definition is based on questions genocide the relative movement of the han and empire comparative, nodes. Armenian Genocide? This definition gives a very good picture of how the nodes are moving relatively to each other. The definition is as follows: 6 FreeBSD 2.2.6 35 If several nodes move for a certain time, then the mobility is the average change in distance between all nodes over that period of time.

This time is the simulation time T. Mobility is a function of both the speed and the movement pattern. It is calculated with a certain sampling rate. During the simulations, we have used 0.1 seconds as sampling rate. This is the default time when logging the movement in the simulations, so it was appropriate to use the same value when calculating the mobility. Table 6 shows all variables that are used in the equations for the mobility factor. Table 6: Variable name dist(nx, ny)t n i Ax(t) Mx T t Mob Mobility variables.

Description the distance between node x and node y at time t number of nodes Index Average distance for node x to all other nodes at time t Average mobility for creative writing programs node x relative to genocide, all other nodes during the formal essay tense, entire simulation time Simulation time Granularity, simulation step Mobility for entire scenario First of all, the average distance from each node to all other nodes has to be calculated. This has to be done at times t = 0, t = 0+X, t = 0+2X, . t = simulation time. For the node x at time t the formula is: n ¦ dist (n , n ) x Ax(t) = i i1 (5.1) n 1 After that, with the use of (5.1), the average mobility for genocide that particular node has to be calculated. This is the average change in distance during a whole simulation. The mobility for node x is: T t ¦ A (t ) A (t 't ) x Mx = x t0 (5.2) T 't Finally, the mobility for the whole scenario is the sum of the mobility for all nodes (5.2) divided with the number of nodes: n ¦M Mob = i i1 (5.3) n The unit for the mobility factor (5.3) is m/s.

The mobility factor therefore gives a picture of the average speed of the distance change between the nodes. Figure 11 shows some basic examples of essay writing tense how this mobility factor will reflect the questions armenian, actual movement. If the on international resource, nodes are standing still, this will of course lead to a mobility of 0, but this would also be the case when the nodes relative movement is zero, for example when the nodes are moving in parallel with the questions armenian, same speed. It is on international management only when the nodes have a movement relative to each other that the mobility factor will be greater than zero. 36 Our mobility definition reflects how the mobility affects the dynamic topology, without considering obstacles or surroundings. Standing still 0.0 Parallel movement 0.0 Figure 11: Relative movement 0.0 Example of mobility. Questions Genocide? The reason for choosing mobility as a parameter in the simulations is first of all that the essays on international human management, mobility is one of the essay questions, most important characteristics of an ad-hoc network. In Usa? But also because mobility is questions armenian a parameter that is easy to as level, grasp for people in general. Everyone has a rather good picture of what it means if the mobility is increased.

We have tested the mobility factor to see how it affects the dynamic topology. As it can be seen in Figure 12, the essay questions, number of link changes is human resource directly proportional to the mobility factor. A link change basically means that a link changes state from either up/down to down/up. The plot is the average values for all simulations that we have done using 50 nodes and essay armenian genocide an environment size of 1000x1000 meters. 3500 3000 Avg nr of link changes 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 0.5 Figure 12: 1 1.5 2 Mobility 2.5 3 3.5 Relation between the number of link changes and deterrence essay mobility. 37 4 5.2 Simulation setup In this chapter we will describe how the essay genocide, simulations were done. We have done 4 different types of simulations: N N N N Mobility simulations: We vary the mobility to empire essay, see how it affects the different metrics that we are measuring. Questions Armenian Genocide? Offered load simulations: We vary the load that we offer the network, to see how the protocols behave when for instance the load is high. Network size simulations: We vary the number of nodes in the network. Realistic simulations: A few realistic scenarios were designed.

These simulations do not give a general view of the protocol, but instead tests certain characteristics of the deterrence capital punishment, protocols. Because we had different versions of both AODV and DSR we decided to first compare the different versions of the same protocol. Armenian Genocide? After that we did a more general comparison where we used one version of essay each protocol and compared them against DSDV. The comparisons made are therefore: N N N Comparison of AODV with only hello messages, AODV with only link layer support and ADOV with both hello messages and link layer support. Essay Questions Armenian? Comparison of han and roman empire comparative essay DSR with and without eavesdropping. Comparison of essay questions DSDV, AODV with both hello messages and link layer support and DSR without eavesdropping. The reason for choosing DSR without eavesdropping in the last comparison, is as mentioned earlier that this is more realistic. Creative Programs? Security features like encryption will prohibit eavesdropping in the future. The choice of AODV with both link layer support and hello messages was made because first of all, link layer support is probably a necessity to questions armenian, achieve a performance that is good enough and secondly because the em resume, removal of essay questions hello messages somewhat changes the overall functionality of AODV. Removal of punishment hello messages would of essay questions genocide course save us from the geography coursework, overhead of the questions armenian, hello messages, but also makes the protocol completely on-demand. A broken link could only be detected when a packet needs to geography as level, be sent on essay genocide the link.

In all simulations, except the realistic scenario simulations, we have used a randomized scenario. The randomized scenarios have different parameters that affect the movement patterns. Geography Coursework? The parameters that can be changed are: N N N N N Maximum speed: Every time a speed is going to be randomized it is randomized in the interval [0,maximum speed]. Questions Armenian Genocide? Number of nodes: This was constant during the essays on international management, simulations. Genocide? We used 50 nodes for all simulation except the size simulation where we varied the number of nodes.

Environment size: Determines the size of the environment. We have used a size of 1000 x 1000 meters for in usa all simulations except the realistic simulations where we have used 1500 x 900. Simulation time: The time for which the essay questions armenian, simulations will be run at. We have used a simulation time of 250 seconds for all simulations except the realistic simulations where we used 900 seconds. Pause time: Pause time is the time for which a node stands still before randomizing a new destination and creative writing the speed that will be used to reach this destination.

We have used a pause time for 1 second in all simulations. Questions Armenian Genocide? The randomizing of scenarios works like this: first of all every node stands still for pause time seconds. After that each node selects a random destination, a waypoint somewhere in the environment space. On International Human Management? Each node also randomizes a speed that will be used when moving to the waypoint. This speed is randomized uniformly in the interval 0 to essay genocide, maximum speed. Every time a node reaches a waypoint, this procedure will be repeated. A factor that we have not taken into consideration with the writing, scenarios is the essay questions genocide, fact that a real person is human management not likely to stand on the same place if the connection goes down. A real person is more likely to find a place where the reception is good enough. The system would be to complex if this factor were included also. We have assumed bi-directional links during all our simulations, i.e. the links work equally well in both directions.

It is questionable if unidirectional links are desirable when using the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, because bi-directional links are necessary if 802.11 acknowledgements are supposed to be used. 38 5.3 Mobility simulations 5.3.1 Setup The simulations where we varied the mobility where done by randomizing scenario files. This method is very hard to essay genocide, perform, because we cannot prior a scenario generation say that we want a mobility factor of exactly X. Management? Instead we used the maximum speed parameter to control the scenario. Essay Questions? The simulation parameters that have been used for the mobility simulations are shown in Table 7. Table 7: Parameters used during mobility simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 The scenario is em resume in usa a very crucial part of the simulation. We have therefore collected 10 measurements for genocide each wanted mobility factor. The mobility factors that we simulated on on international human resource management are: 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5.

Because of the hard part of getting scenarios that are precise we have used an interval of r0.1 for the above mentioned mobility factors. The scenarios that where created where then analyzed in essay armenian, terms of unreachable hosts. We did not want to essays, investigate network partition at essay questions genocide, this stage, so all scenarios with extremely high degree of unreachable hosts where discarded. By increasing the maximum speed in the scenario generation, the mobility will also increase. Essays On International Human Management? A mobility factor of 3.5 approximately corresponds to a maximum speed of questions genocide 20 m/s. For the randomized simulations we have varied the maximum speed in the interval 0 to 20 m/s. Han And Empire? A speed of essay questions armenian 20 m/s corresponds the speed of a vehicle, which will lead to a high mobility. Punishment? We used the same communication pattern for all mobility simulations. The traffic pattern consisted of 15 CBR sources that started at different times. We did not use TCP for the simulations, because we did not want to questions armenian genocide, investigate TCP, which uses flow control, retransmit features and so on. We wanted to get a general view of han and empire how the questions armenian, routing protocol behaves.

The communication pattern was randomly created. The parameters that was specified when randomizing the communication pattern were the number of wanted sources, the packet size, the rate at em resume, which they were sending and the simulation time. Essay? In these simulations, we wanted to investigate how the mobility affected the protocols, so the load that we offer is very low. We only writing programs, use 15 CBR sources sending 64 bytes large packets with a rate of 5 packets/s. The bandwidth of the links are 2 Mbit. 39 5.3.2 Fraction of essay questions received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 13: 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility simulations - fraction of received packets. How many of the sent data packets are actually received and why have the dropped packets been dropped?

Of the different AODV versions, it can been seen in Figure 13 that both AODV versions that have MAClayer support are almost receiving all packets that are sent. AODV with both hello messages and roman MAC-layer support is slightly better than the version with only MAC-layer support. The reason for this is the same as mentioned earlier, the hello messages gets some prior knowledge of armenian link breakages. Essay Writing Tense? AODV with only hello messages is however dropping a very large portion of the genocide, packets when the on international, mobility increases. This large fraction of dropped packets is of course not acceptable and essay questions armenian genocide the reason for these drops has to do with the interval of the hello messages. Writing Tense? The interval between the hello messages and the number of allowed hello message losses are crucial for detection of link breakages. If the interval is decreased, link breakages are detected earlier, but it would also mean that the control overhead in the network increases. Essay Armenian? The issue here is to try to find optimal values for these parameters. The choice of these parameters is also very dependent on the behavior that is desired; a higher fraction of writing received packets, a high throughput, low delay or a low overhead. The fraction of questions armenian received packets for the DSR versions is very large even for high mobility.

The DSR version without eavesdropping has a slightly smaller fraction of received packets. This difference is however so small that it is negligible. DSR with eavesdropping gets better result for the simple reason that it has a little more information when calculating the formal, routes. A reason for the higher fraction received packets for DSR compared to genocide, AODV is that DSR allows packets to in usa, stay in questions genocide, the send buffer for as long as 30 seconds, AODV only 8 seconds (our implementation). It must however be noted that the essays resource management, AODV draft [19] does not specify how long a packet is allowed to stay in the sendbuffer. When comparing these results with the results for DSDV it can clearly be seen that a proactive approach is not acceptable at questions, all when the mobility increases. The fraction received packets drastically goes down to 56-57 %. This value is however for a very large mobility factor (vehicles).

But the essays on international, fraction of received packets is questions genocide not even 100 % when the mobility is 0, as for all other protocols. The reason for this is that packets are sent before the routing tables have had enough time to converge and coursework as level the packets are dropped. 40 The main reasons for dropping packets are that the protocol is sending packets on a broken route that it thinks is valid and that packet in the buffers are dropped because of congestion and timeouts. At this low load we only have a small fraction of the packets that have been dropped because of collision. It can also be seen that IP-based hello messages as only link breakage detection mechanism is not a good idea. The results are very poor, even DSDV have slightly better results. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Link layer feedback of creative writing programs link breakages informs the questions, upper layer routing protocol is deterrence capital punishment much quicker and essay armenian genocide it can therefore react immediately. 5.3.3 End-to-end delay AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 0.14 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 Avg packet delay (seconds) DSR-eaves dropping DSR 0.14 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.02 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 3.5 Mobility (m/s) AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 0.14 Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Figure 14: Mobility simulations - delay. As seen in Figure 14, of the essays human resource, different AODV versions AODV with only hello messages has lowest delay on the data packets that are received. The reason for questions this is han and not that it finds routes faster or that the essay questions armenian, routes are shorter or more optimal, instead AODV with only hello messages is the AODV version that gets significantly fewest packets through the formal, network. The packets that it successfully gets through the network have approximately the same low delay as for the other AODV versions.

The difference is that the other AODV versions have a portion of packets that have a higher delay (has been in a buffer a long time and still gets the questions armenian genocide, packets through the network). This affects the average delay, which becomes larger. In AODV with only hello messages, packets in em resume in usa, the buffers that have been there for a long time are dropped. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? The reason is that ADOV does not successfully find a new route for those packets and because broken links are not detected fast enough, resulting in that a source can keep sending packets on deterrence capital punishment a broken link believing that it is armenian still working properly. AODV with both hello messages and MAC layer support has a slightly lower delay than AODV with only MAC-layer support. The reason for this is coursework that as mentioned earlier, AODV with only MAC-layer support makes the protocol completely on-demand, it only detects link breakages when actually trying to send packets. Packets that are sent after this breakage is detected will have a higher delay, because they are buffered during the time it takes to find a new route.

AODV with both hello messages and Mac-layer support on the other hand will get some prior knowledge of the essay armenian genocide, link breakage and formal writing tense has a chance to find a new route before any new packets are sent. 41 Both DSR versions show a tendency to get higher delay when mobility is increased. The turning point comes at a mobility factor of essay approximately 1.0. DSR without eavesdropping has a negligible higher delay compared to geography coursework, DSR with eavesdropping. DSDV is the protocol that seems to have lowest delay in these results. The results are however somewhat misleading because DSDV drops so many packets that it cannot said to be valid. Genocide? The packets that are dropped in DSDV will successfully get through when using for instance DSR, but has a slightly higher delay, because of longer times in buffers etc.

These higher delay packets will make the average delay higher for DSR. The same can be said for coursework as level AODV with only armenian, hello messages. The other two AODV versions have a slightly higher delay than the capital, DSR versions. This has probably to do with the source routing concept of DSR. DSR gains so much information by the source routes that it will learn routes to armenian, many more destinations than a distance vector protocol like AODV.

This will mean that while DSR already has a route for a certain destination, AODV would have to send a specific request for that destination. The packets would in creative writing, the meanwhile stay in a buffer until a valid route is found. This will take some time and will therefore increase the average delay. In a packet based radio network without Quality of essay questions armenian Service, the tense, delays of the packets will vary much. The packets that do not have a route will be buffered until a route is found. A critical parameter here is how long a packet should be allowed to stay in the buffer before it is thrown away. If the packets are allowed to be in the buffer for a long time, the following situation could happen: A packet is sent, but there does not exist any route to that destination so the packet is buffered and a route request is sent. Genocide? The destination node is however unreachable so no route reply is returned to the sending node.

After a long time, the destination node suddenly becomes reachable and the packet is sent. This packet will have a very large delay. Should this situation be allowed to happen? Should the packet be dropped from the buffer at a much earlier stage or do we want all packets to get through the network, even though the delay can be very large. In the case where we are using TCP, the retransmit operation will probably retransmit the packet at an earlier stage anyway, because no acknowledgement was received.

The allowed time for packets to stay in writing programs, the sendbuffer in DSR is 30 seconds and only 8 seconds for AODV. Essay Armenian Genocide? If a packet is received 30 seconds after it was sent, this will increase the average delay to some degree. 5.3.4 End-to-end throughput 2.4 2.2 2.2 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.6 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 0 0.5 1 1.5 Mobility (m/s) 2.6 2.4 Throughput (Kbit/s) 2.2 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 15: Mobility simulations - throughput. 42 2 2.5 3 3.5 Figure 15 shows the creative writing, throughput curves for the different protocols with a packet size of 64 bytes. It must however be mentioned that the curves in armenian genocide, this case are only interesting from a relative view, as a comparison between the protocols. We have not tried to maximize the in usa, throughput, we have only tried to determine the relative difference in throughput for the different protocols with respect to the mobility factor and the specific load that we have used. The throughput curves for all protocols are very similar to the fraction received packet curves. This is logical because large packet drops will of course mean lower throughput. Both DSR versions and the AODV versions with link layer support have almost identical throughput. This throughput is also approximately constant, it decreases somewhat when mobility is as high as 2.5-3.5. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? AODV with only hello messages and DSDV have a throughput that drastically decreases when mobility increases.

AODV with only hello show a very poor result. The throughput curve drops almost immediately to essays on international resource management, half of what it is when mobility is essay genocide 0. 5.3.5 Overhead 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) AODV-HELLO-MAC AODV-MAC AODV-HELLO 1.6e+06 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 25000 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 2.5 3 3.5 1.8e+06 DSR-eaves dropping DSR DSR-eaves dropping DSR 1.6e+06 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 20000 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 25000 1.8e+06 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV 1.6e+06 20000 1.4e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 2 Mobility (m/s) 15000 10000 1.2e+06 1e+06 800000 600000 400000 5000 200000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 16: 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) Mobility simulations - overhead. Because the routing protocol need to send control information to achieve the task of finding routes, it is interesting to see how much control information that is actually sent for each protocol. On International Human? There exists some sort of tradeoff between the byte overhead and the number of control information packets sent. A large byte 43 overhead would of course mean a larger part of wasted bandwidth. Armenian? Many small control information packets would however mean that the radio medium on which packets are sent is acquired more frequently. This can be quite costly in terms of power and network utilization. The values that we have plotted do not include any physical layer framing or MAC layer overhead. We have only creative, looked at the overhead at the IP-level. A completely fair comparison would also include the above mentioned overheads. We have chosen not to include these for the simple reason that the essay questions armenian genocide, MAC layer can be different in a real life implementation.

We wanted to investigate the geography, overhead generally, not the overhead that is essay genocide dependent on particularly the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol. The results are shown in Figure 16. The first column is overhead calculated in number of essay packets and the second column is the byte overhead. The number of control packets and byte overhead is a total for all simulations done where we have varied mobility. Of the different AODV versions, it can be seen that the curves for armenian genocide the AODV versions that have link layer support are similar in appearance. The difference of about 8000-9000 packets and 270000-290000 bytes that can be seen corresponds to the hello packets. The AODV version with only hello messages has a much more stable form of the curve. The small rise that is visible is the triggered route replies that are sent when a link goes down and creative the new requests that are sent to find a new route during route failures.

A route failure therefore triggers both triggered replies and new requests. Armenian? This rise is much larger for the AODV versions with link layer support for the simple reason that it detects link failure much faster, which will lead to much more messages. DSR does not include the data packets in the number of control packet calculations, only the extra byte overhead from these packets is included. Worth noting when observing the DSR versions is that the DSR version that does not use eavesdropping has approximately the double amount of han and roman empire control overhead counted in questions armenian, number of messages and about 400000 bytes more of em resume in usa byte overhead than the DSR version with eavesdropping at the highest mobility 3.5. The somewhat strange behavior of the armenian genocide, byte overhead for human management DSR can be explained as a sum of essay armenian both the capital essay, sent packets and essay armenian genocide the sent control messages.

As mobility increases, fewer packets will get through the network. Fewer packets mean less byte overhead in the source route of the packets. Coursework? Increased mobility also means more topology changes, which will increase the number of update messages. The byte overhead is therefore decreasing and at approximately mobility 1.5 the essay genocide, increase of geography control messages will cause the byte overhead to increase. Essay Armenian Genocide? The number of control messages in writing, DSDV is fairly constant, even when the mobility is extremely high. This is the questions armenian genocide, nature of a proactive protocol that is dependent on periodic broadcasts. The byte overhead on the other hand, will increase as mobility increases. The reason for this is that the amount of information sent in each update message will be larger as the amount of link changes increases. 5.3.6 Optimal path One internal aspect of the routing protocol is the routing accuracy, e.g. In Usa? how good the actual routes are compared to the optimal routes. Essay Questions Armenian? To illustrate this we have compared the actual hop count with the optimal shortest route for all received packets. We have then, for each protocol, calculated how large fraction the received packets that have been routed through the in usa, optimal route, a route with hopcount that is essay one larger than the optimal, a route with hopcount that is two larger than the writing tense, optimal and so on.

The result is shown in Table 8. The results are the essay genocide, total results for all simulations done with varying mobility. Formal Tense? To better illustrate the difference between some of the protocols, we have also plotted the results for one AODV version, one DSR version and compared it with the only proactive protocol DSDV. Armenian? It can clearly be seen in Figure 17 that DSDV is the protocol that has the highest degree of deterrence optimality, almost 90 % of the received packets have been routed with optimal hop count. Essay Questions Armenian? The AODV and DSR versions are almost identical. AODV is em resume slightly better. This difference is however so small that it can neglected. The difference between the different DSR versions is quite large and can be explained with the extra information that DSR with eavesdropping has when calculating routes. This extra information is essay apparently very informative when calculating shortest possible routes. Human? AODV with only questions armenian, hello messages has best results of the different AODV versions. These due to the similarities with a proactive protocol like DSDV that is highly dependent on periodic broadcasts.

Because of the periodic updates DSDV needs some time before it converges to a steady state. This happens when we have high movement with a lot of topology changes. Em Resume In Usa? Most of the packets that are sent during this time are dropped and the rest of genocide them get a little higher hopcount. Han And Empire Comparative Essay? All packets that are sent after the routing tables have converged to a steady state do however most likely have the questions armenian, optimal shortest path. AODV with only hello messages have a similar behavior. Link breakages are dependent on the hello messages. This will mean that high movement and frequent topology changes will lead to many packet 44 drops during this time.

The packet that successfully gets through the network have done this during times when the network is somewhat stabile 1 AODV-HELLO-MAC DSR DSDV Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 17: 4 6 Nr of hops from optimal 8 10 Mobility simulations - optimal path difference. Because both DSR versions and the AODV versions with link layer support gets significantly more packets through the network when the number of topology changes is large, they will have a little lower fraction of packets that have a optimal route. Programs? In times of frequent movement it is easy to get a route that at first is optimal and then the moment later is 1-2 hops longer than another route that become the essay armenian, optimal route. The protocols will keep sending packets on the route that at first was optimal. A good relative comparison is to look at the average hop count difference for all packets received. Essays Management? DSDV has the smallest average with a hopcount at only 0.13 hops from the optimal path. Table 8: Protocol AODV 1 AODV 2 AODV 3 DSR 1 DSR 2 DSDV 0 79.1% 55.9% 68.4% 81.1% 63.2% 88.7% Optimal path difference for all protocols.

Number of questions armenian hops from optimal path (% packets) 1 2 3 4 5 6 14.8% 3.68% 1.08% 0.30% 0.55% 0.06% 29.9% 9.04% 2.62% 1.09% 0.56% 0.20% 23.0% 5.37% 1.48% 0.84% 0.47% 0.14% 15.3% 2.73% 0.54% 0.13% 0.08% 0.01% 26.6% 7.21% 2.21% 0.56% 0.13% 0.05% 10.6% 0.59% 0.06% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 45 7 0.06% 0.38% 0.04% 0.02% 0.03% 0.00% Average 0.292170 0.682837 0.459423 0.234429 0.512004 0.126577 5.3.7 Summary mobility simulations The protocols that have link layer support for creative programs link breakage detection will be much more stable. The fraction of packets received for these protocols is essay almost constant at 95 % even when mobility increases. This result indicates that these kinds of protocols will get the creative, job done even when mobility increases. These protocols include both DSR versions and the two AODV versions that have this link layer support. Protocols that are highly dependent on periodic broadcast show a rather poor result, only little more than 50 % of the packet are received when mobility is increased. Because DSR is a source routing protocol it is always interesting to see how much overhead this kind of protocol will have. The byte overhead is larger than for instance the AODV version that uses both hello messages and armenian genocide link layer support for link breakage detection. The interesting thing with this is geography that the number of control messages is much smaller for essay questions DSR than any other protocol. Formal Writing? This is interesting because this means that an approach that uses a source routing based approach to find routes combined with a destination vector approach for sending data packets could be desirable. 5.4 Offered load simulations We have used these protocols for these simulations: N N N AODV with both hello messages and armenian MAC link layer support. DSR without eavesdropping DSDV We only essay, used the more realistic version of both AODV and essay questions genocide DSR, for the same reason as mentioned in the previous section.

5.4.1 Setup The offered load simulations where done by varying the load that we offer the em resume in usa, network. We had mainly three parameters to questions armenian genocide, adjust the offered load: N N N Packet size Number of geography CBR flows Rate at essay questions genocide, which the writing tense, flows are sending The mobility simulations that we have done used a packet size of 64 bytes, a rate of essay questions genocide 5 packets/s and 15 CBR flows. Han And Roman Empire? This is questions a fairly moderate offered load, so for the offered load simulations, we wanted to investigate how the protocols behave when the load was increased. We could increase the packet size or the number of CBR flows, but the parameter that best describes the as level, load is the rate at which we are sending. By only essay questions armenian genocide, increasing the rate for the CBR flows, the load for each flow will increase. This also gives some hints of how large the throughput can be. Em Resume? We have used four different offered load cases: N N N N 5 packets / second (same as the mobility simulations) 10 packets / second 15 packets / second 20 packets / second The packet size was held constant at 64 bytes and essay questions the number of flows at empire comparative essay, 15.

We used the same randomized scenario files as in the mobility simulations. The same communication file was also used, with the exception that we changed the essay armenian, rate for the CBR sources. The parameters that we used during the offered load simulation are shown in Table 9. 46 Table 9: Parameters used during offered load simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of on international human nodes Pause time Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Number of flows Value 250 m 2 Mbit 250 s 50 1s 1000x1000 m Constant Bit Rate 5 packets/s 64 byte 15 5.4.2 Fraction of received packets 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.8 Fraction received packets 1 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 3.5 1 Fraction received packets 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 0 0 0.5 Figure 18: Offered load simulations - fraction of questions armenian received packets. Creative Programs? At only 5 packets/s both AODV and DSR are rather constant, the questions armenian genocide, fraction of received packets is only decreasing slightly when mobility increases (Figure 18). At 10 packet/s we can see that the fraction received packets is writing decreasing much faster when the mobility factor is greater than 2. At 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s both AODV and essay questions genocide DSR are dropping a large fraction of the creative writing programs, packets. At the highest mobility and a rate of 20 packets/s, only 50-60 % of the sent packets are received. Questions Armenian Genocide? The reason is em resume in usa more collisions in the air and congestion in buffers.

The results for questions genocide AODV and writing programs DSR are fairly similar at questions genocide, a packet rate of 5 packets/s and 10 packets/s. At data rates of formal writing 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s, AODV shows a better result than DSR. At these rates the protocols are however dropping a large fraction of the packets, even at a mobility factor of genocide 0. Geography? DSR will have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at higher data rates (Figure 21). The reason for this is the source route in each data packet. Questions Genocide? This also increases the load on the network and causes more packets to be dropped; thus AODV will get more packets through the network.

47 DSDV is geography coursework as level dropping a large fraction of the questions genocide, packets already at the lowest data rate 5 packets/s. In Usa? It must however be noted that the increase in dropped packets is not as large for essay DSDV as for AODV and DSR. At the highest data rate, DSDV is almost as good as DSR. 5.4.3 End-to-end delay 0.7 0.7 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 0.6 0.5 Avg packet delay (seconds) Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Mobility (m/s) 0.7 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Avg packet delay (seconds) 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 19: Offered load simulations - average delay. The delay is also affected by high rate of CBR packets (Figure 19). The buffers becomes full much quicker, so the packets have to stay in the buffers a much longer period of time before they are sent. This can clearly be seen at the highest rate 20 packets/s. The high degree of packet drops, even at mobility 0 makes the delay high already from the start.

DSR has a much lower delay compared to AODV. The difference between AODV and DSR is most apparent at rate 10 packets/s. DSDV has the deterrence capital essay, lowest delay of them all. This is however an effect from the questions genocide, large fraction of packet drops that DSDV has, compared to DSR and AODV. The increase in em resume in usa, delay for DSDV also comes from the essay genocide, increased time that the packets must stay in the buffers. Management? The high delay at a mobility factor of 0-1 and a data rate of 20 packets/s that can be seen for all protocols is a result of the extremely high data rate and essay questions armenian the low mobility. The high data rate will fill up the buffers very quickly. The low mobility will mean that already found routes are valid for a much longer time period. This means that found routes can be used for more packets.

Even the han and essay, packets that have stayed in the buffer for a long time have a chance to get through. When mobility increases, more routes will become invalid and new requests are necessary. Essay Genocide? While the requests are propagating the network in search for a new route, buffers will get full and packets are dropped. These packets are the packets that have stayed in the buffers for on international human resource the longest time and therefore the delay will decrease. The increase in mobility actually results in a load balancing of the essay questions armenian, traffic between the em resume in usa, nodes; hot spots are “removed” due to mobility. For DSDV, the average delay at highest data rate will actually be lower than at the rate of 15 packets/s. This is a little strange but has probably something to do with the fact that DSDV only essay questions armenian, uses a buffer that only has room for 5 packets per formal, flow.

At the rate of essay questions armenian genocide 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s, when mobility starts to get so high that the topology changes frequently, only 40-60 % of the packets gets through the network. These 48 topology changes means that the em resume in usa, protocol needs more time to converge before the packets can be sent. The buffers will therefore be congested almost all the time so the packets that actually get through have approximately the same the delay. Essay Genocide? 5.4.4 End-to-end throughput 8 8 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 6 Throughput (Kbit/s) 7 5 4 3 5 4 3 2 2 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0 0.5 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 1 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 1.5 2.5 3 3.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 8 7 Throughput (Kbit/s) 6 5 4 3 2 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 1 0 0 0.5 1 2 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Figure 20: Offered load simulations - average throughput. At low CBR rates the throughput of DSR and AODV is unaffected of the essays resource management, mobility (Figure 20), it stays constant at essay questions genocide, 2,5 Kbit/s. Roman Empire? At higher CBR rates, the questions armenian, throughput will decrease when the mobility increases. This can already be seen at CBR rate 10 packet/s.

The decrease at CBR rate 10 packets/s is however very small. At rate 15 packets/s and 20 packets/s the throughput decreases very much for all protocols. This is however an coursework, effect from the large fraction of dropped packets. The result for essay armenian AODV is capital punishment essay slightly better than for DSR. It must however be noted that the questions armenian genocide, offered load definition that we use only includes the rate at han and comparative essay, which we are sending packets with; no control packets are included in this definition. The same applies for the throughput, only the data packets are included in the calculations of throughput. DSR have a much larger byte overhead than AODV at higher data rates (Figure 21). Essay Genocide? This also increases the load on the network and causes more packets to be dropped; thus AODV will have a better throughput at higher data rate.

DSDV drops a large fraction of the packets already at a rate of in usa 5 packets/s. This can be seen in essay armenian genocide, the small decrease in the throughput at rate 5 packets/s. The throughput decreases more and more as the rate increases. 5.4.5 Overhead In Figure 21, the difference between distance vector and source routing can clearly be seen. The byte overhead for DSR is much larger than AODV even at low data rates and the difference becomes larger when the CBR rate increases. At CBR rate 20 packets/s, the formal writing, byte overhead for DSR is more than the armenian, double than for AODV. The reason for the larger byte overhead for DSR is of course the source route in each packet. On International Human Resource Management? The 49 number of essay control messages is though smaller for DSR. This is the other characteristic for em resume source routing, it learns all routes in the source route and therefore does not need to send as many route requests. Questions Genocide? The reason for the increase in coursework, number of control packets is the MAC-layer support. The increase in rate means that the questions armenian genocide, MAC-layer will detects link failures much faster.

This means that the triggered RREPs are sent much earlier also causing the source node to send out a new request much earlier. All link failures are detected earlier with increased rate; thus there will be time for more RREQs, RREPs and triggered RREPs. 4e+06 35000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 30000 AODV 5 pkt/s AODV 10 pkt/s AODV 15 pkt/s AODV 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 35000 DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 30000 4e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) 25000 Control overhead (packets) DSR 5 pkt/s DSR 10 pkt/s DSR 15 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s 3.5e+06 20000 15000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 10000 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 3.5 0 0.5 1 Mobility (m/s) 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) 4e+06 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 35000 DSDV 5 pkt/s DSDV 10 pkt/s DSDV 15 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s 30000 3.5e+06 3e+06 Control overhead (bytes) Control overhead (packets) 25000 20000 15000 10000 2.5e+06 2e+06 1.5e+06 1e+06 5000 500000 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Mobility (m/s) 2.5 Figure 21: 3 0 3.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Mobility (m/s) Offered load simulations - overhead. The amount of control information in DSDV is punishment essay not affected to any great extent by armenian, the data rate for the CBR packets. By looking at management, Figure 21 it looks like the number of control packets is exactly the same for all data rates, but there is actually a small difference. The number of control packets is questions armenian actually a little smaller when the rate is 20 packets/s. This difference is about 80 packets.

The reason for this difference is that the capital punishment, high data rate causes more collisions, which means that some of the update messages are dropped. These lost update messages will not be received by any node, and cannot therefore trigger new update messages. This means that when the next update message actually is received a much larger update message has to be sent, thus we can see a slight increase of essay questions byte overhead when the rate increases. In Usa? But when the mobility increases more and more packets will be dropped. At the highest data rate, many of the update messages are dropped, 50 even the essay questions armenian, packets with a little more information. This causes the byte overhead for DSDV at higher data rates not to increase to the same extent as for DSDV with lower data rates. 5.4.6 Optimal path Figure 22 illustrates the difference in hopcount from the optimal hopcount at han and roman empire essay, a CBR rate of 20 packets/s. It is the result for all simulations done at this rate. If we compare this figure with Figure 17, which illustrates the hopcount difference for questions the CBR rate 5 packets/s, we can clearly see that they are almost identical.

The rate does not affect the number of hops that the packets actually need to travel from han and roman comparative, source to destination. 1 AODV 20 pkt/s DSR 20 pkt/s DSDV 20 pkt/s Packets (%) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 2 Figure 22: 4 6 Nr of hops from armenian genocide, optimal 8 10 Offered load simulations – optimal path. 5.4.7 Summary offered load simulations The performance of the protocols differs slightly during different network loads. The most apparent difference is the as level, byte overhead. While DSDV has a rather unaffected overhead, it increases both for AODV and DSR during higher loads.

A higher sending rate causes the protocol to detect broken links faster, thus reacting faster. This leads to armenian genocide, a slight increase in control packets, which also affects the byte overhead. The most apparent is the increase in DSRs overhead as we increase the geography coursework, send rate. Since each data packet contains a source route, the byte overhead increases dramatically. The increased send rate also set demands on the send buffer of the routing protocol.

Congestion occurs and packets are dropped. Questions Armenian? The faster a routing protocol can find a route, the less time the packets have to spend in buffers, meaning a smaller probability of packet drops. 51 5.5 Network size simulations We did simulations on some of the protocols and varied the creative programs, number of questions genocide nodes that participated in the network. Em Resume In Usa? We decreased the questions armenian genocide, number of nodes to 35 and 25 nodes. The decrease in number of nodes basically meant that the connectivity also decreased; each node had fewer neighbors.

The results from han and roman comparative essay, these simulations did not give any new information regarding the performance of the protocols. The relative difference between the protocols was the same. Decreased connectivity meant of course that we did not get as many packets through the network as in the mobility simulations, but it must however be noted that the dependency between the scenarios and results are much larger in the network size simulations. Essay? The worst results for each protocol happened when the mobility was 0. This may sound strange, but the reason for creative writing the bad result when the nodes is standing still is the randomized scenarios. If a randomized scenario has poor connectivity, this connectivity will be same during the whole simulation if the nodes are standing still. Essay Genocide? The nodes are not moving and cannot therefore affect the as level, connectivity. In a scenario with moving nodes however, the connectivity will vary during the whole simulation. So even if a node is unreachable from the beginning, there is essay armenian genocide still a chance that it will be reachable some time later. 5.6 Realistic scenarios 5.6.1 Setup The randomized simulations we have done, gives a very good general picture of writing programs how the protocols behaves in essay genocide, respect to certain parameters, such as mobility, size and network load. This kind of simulations also has some problems: N N N It is hard to roman, identify situations in which the protocols fail or have problems It has no connection to questions armenian, a real life situation. Creative? It may favor complex protocols, while in genocide, real life scenarios simpler protocols can find the routes almost as effectively.

It is therefore also very interesting to see how the protocols behave in a more realistic scenario. We have therefore done simulations on some scenarios believed to be realistic. Creative Programs? The realistic scenarios do not give a full picture of how the protocols behave generally. Instead they give some sense of questions armenian weak points in the protocols. The three basic types of scenarios that we have done simulations on are: N N N Conference type, with low movement factor.

Event coverage type, with fairly large movement factor. Could for instance be reporters trying to interview politicians. Disaster area, with some relatively slow nodes and creative writing programs some very fast nodes (mounted on a car or a helicopter). The environment size is questions 1500 x 900 meters for all realistic scenarios. This size is scaled according to the range of the transmitters. In a real life conference scenario, the environment size would be significantly smaller and so would also the as level, transmitter range.

The same thing would apply for the speed of the people moving around. The speed is also scaled to 10 m/s. All parameters used during the realistic simulations are shown in Table 10. 52 Table 10: Parameters used during realistic simulations. Parameter Transmitter range Bandwidth Simulation time Number of nodes Environment size Traffic type Packet rate Packet size Speed of a human Speed of questions genocide a mobile node mounted on a vehicle Value 250 m 2 Mbit 900 s 50 1500x900 m Constant Bit Rate 4 packets/s 512 byte 1 m/s 20 m/s 5.6.2 Conference This scenario simulates 50 people that are attending a conference, seminar session or some similar activity. It involves communication between some of the people. Parameters specific for the conference scenario are shown in Table 11 Table 11: Parameters used during conference scenario.

Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows Value 2 6 6 The scenario is geography coursework characterized by: N N N N N Low mobility factor, 10 % of the essay armenian genocide, nodes are moving during any period of time. Links are long lasting and creative programs involves many hops. The traffic is concentrated to a few nodes, typically only the speaker. Few obstacles which are far apart. Typically only essay, one large obstacle, a wall with doors and windows that can be used for capital communication. Relatively large interference from questions genocide, other nodes, due to programs, the concentration of essay armenian transmitting nodes. This can in some cases lead to local congestion. Capital? The scenario basically tests the protocols: N N N Ability to respond to local changes for questions armenian long links. Roman Empire Comparative Essay? Ability to cope with large concentration of traffic.

Message overhead with low mobility factor. Figure 23 shows how the scenario was designed and created with ad-hockey. The scenario is armenian divided into capital punishment three zones that have their certain characteristics. N N N Zone 1 - Speaker zone: The speaker moves back and forth. This changes the closest neighbor in the audience.

Zone 2 - Audience zone: Static audience that is sitting still most of the time. Very seldom does a node go outside to return a certain amount of time later. This will probably result in a link breakage of a longlasting link. Zone 3 - Outsider zone: Outsiders behind a wall that are trying to essay questions, establish a connection between the speaker and each other. 53 Transmitter range Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 = Node = Obstacle = Movement Figure 23: Conference scenario. The results for this scenario are shown in Table 12 and Table 13.

It must however be noted that we do not distinguish the results for nodes that are in zone 2 or zone 3. Han And Essay? The calculated mobility factor for this scenario is very low. All protocols except DSDV and the AODV version that only uses hello messages show quite good performance, delivering between 92-99% of the essay armenian genocide, packets with an average throughput between 14.8 – 15.7 Kbit/s. DSDV delivers only 75.6% of the formal tense, packets with an average throughput of 12.1 Kbit/s and the AODV version with only hello messages delivers 89.3 % of the questions armenian genocide, packets, with a throughput of roman empire 14.3 Kbit/s. This shows that an ad-hoc routing protocol must quickly adapt to link changes even for long lasting routes as in this case where mobility is very low. Table 12: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.0439350 75.6% 12.1 Kbit/s 21510 0.052 s 5250 16260 44054 6406036 5.32 Conference simulation results. DSR - 1 0.0439350 97.1% 15.55 Kbit/s 21510 0.210 s 614 20896 3129 3689865 5.73 DSR - 2 0.0439350 98.0% 15.7 Kbit/s 21510 0.23 s 422 21088 4109 4093220 5.79 54 AODV - 1 0.0439350 89.3% 14.30 Kbit/s 21510 0.26 s 2298 19212 43881 1660020 6.62 AODV - 2 0.0439350 92.3% 14.79 Kbit/s 21510 0.29 s 1644 19866 14537 610884 6.53 AODV - 3 0.0439350 94.0% 15.00 Kbit/s 21510 0.39 s 1376 20134 54677 2112716 6.45 Both versions of DSR have the essay armenian, lowest packet overhead in this scenario, while all versions of AODV show the lowest byte overhead. The large byte overhead for DSR has to deterrence, do with the essay questions genocide, fairly large amount of traffic and that the routes have an writing programs, average hopcount that is as large as 5-6 hops.

As can be seen in Table 13. DSDV fails to deliver 3599 packets because of essay questions armenian route failures. This is due to creative, the slow response time when links go down and the time it takes to find new routes. Armenian? A lot of packets will be sent using a route that the protocol thinks is valid, while in fact the route is broken and the packets are dropped. Comparative? Also a lot of packets are dropped in the interface queue. AODV using only hello messages show the same tendency, dropping 1364 packets because of the same reasons. It is however fewer packets than for DSDV. Essay Genocide? This has to do with the writing, time between the HELLO messages. The less time between the messages, the faster can the essay questions armenian, protocol react to broken links and avoid dropping the packets. In general, most of the packets are dropped in the sendbuffer. Retransmission of these dropped packets could of course be handled by upper layer protocols, such as TCP.

Table 13: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV 3599 74 1567 10 Packet drops in conference scenario. DSR – 1 519 30 34 18 13 DSR – 2 303 98 4 0 17 AODV –1 894 1348 22 4 30 AODV – 2 1364 201 21 10 48 AODV -3 1096 202 14 0 64 5.6.3 Event coverage This scenario simulates a group of 50 highly mobile people that are changing position quite frequently. Creative Writing Programs? It could for instance represent a group of reporters that are covering a political event, music concert or a sport contest. In real life it would be nearly impossible to establish a wired network between the reporters, but they must be in armenian, constant communication with each other, enabling a fast reaction. Roman Empire Comparative Essay? Parameters that are specific for the event coverage scenario are shown in essay armenian genocide, Table 14. Essay? Table 14: Parameters used during event coverage scenario. Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows Value 9 45 45 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N Rather high mobility factor. Typically 50 % of the genocide, nodes are constantly changing their position during any time of roman empire comparative essay period.

Every now and then the nodes tend to cluster. Links involve a few hops and relatively short-lasting. Traffic is spread all over the place. Many obstacles. Armenian? Nodes can usually only communicate with a few nodes. This will lead to a low interference from the other nodes, except for empire essay the moments of clustering. 55 The scenario tests the protocols: N N Ability to respond to fast link changes and armenian fluctuating traffic. Message overhead with constant topology updates. Figure 24 shows how the scenario was designed. Coursework As Level? 50 % of the nodes are moving randomly with a constant speed of questions armenian genocide 1 m/s. Every now and then a temporary cluster contain approximately 10 nodes will form.

These clusters remain static for a certain amount of time. Temporary clusters = Node = Obstacle Figure 24: = Movement Event coverage scenario. The results for the event coverage scenario are shown in Table 15 and Table 16. As Table 15 shows, the two protocols that has the lowest fraction of formal writing tense packets received are DSDV and questions armenian genocide the AODV version that entirely relies on feedback from geography, link-layer. These protocols only have a fraction of packets received that lies around 91-92 %. For all other protocols/versions this value is at least 94 %. The mobility factor for the scenario is 0.72, which is questions quite low even though considering we have about 50 % of the nodes in movement. The nodes are however only moving with a speed of 1 m/s. DSDV has the geography coursework, highest overhead of all the protocols, counted in both number of control packets and bytes. DSR both with and without eavesdropping have a very low overhead. It must however be noted that the traffic load in this scenario is very low and most of the essay armenian, communication is taking place in a very small area, thus leading to on international resource, a very low average hopcount of approximately 1.5 for essay genocide all protocols. Em Resume In Usa? In this scenario, AODV with only hello message shows better results than AODV with only link-layer support and the reason is that the hello messages makes it possible to keep track of neighbors. Most of the communication is taking place within clusters, so to know the neighbors will probably mean that we will not have to essay armenian genocide, make as many requests.

The topology of the network is changing quite frequently. This causes a protocol like DSDV to have a very large overhead. The communication however, take mostly place within the creative, clusters. Essay Armenian Genocide? This makes the job for the on-demand-based protocols much easier. The hopcount from source to destination is essays very small so the protocols will find a route very quickly. The protocols which are entirely on-demand will have a slightly 56 higher delay and the protocols that uses some sort of periodic messages (DSDV and the ADOV version that use hello messages) will have lower delay.

Table 15: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 0.721611 91.4% 14.75 Kbit/s 4500 0.075 s 385 4115 42415 10578764 1.46 hops Event coverage simulation results. DSR – 1 0.721611 97.5% 15.68 Kbit/s 4500 0.138 s 111 4389 1056 141196 1.53 hops DSR – 2 0.721611 97.7% 15.71 Kbit/s 4500 0.140 s 102 4398 1354 158420 1.57 hops AODV – 1 0.721611 94.5% 15.33 Kbit/s 4500 0.024 s 245 4255 31342 1137752 1.55 hops AODV – 2 0.721611 92.2% 14.89 Kbit/s 4500 0.214 s 352 4148 2722 117904 1.75 hops AODV – 3 0.721611 95.1% 15.36 Kbit/s 4500 0.015 s 219 4281 31443 1142180 1,55 hops Table 16 shows that most of the packets are dropped due to route failures and in those cases where there exists a sendbuffer, congestion/time-out in the sendbuffer. AODV that only uses link-layer support (AODV 2) has most of the dropped packets due to failed ARP requests and DSDV drops most of essay questions armenian genocide its packets at the interface queue. Table 16: Cause for essays resource management drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV Packet drops in armenian, event coverage scenario. DSR - 2 81 19 1 AODV - 1 100 83 61 1 102 48 235 DSR – 1 81 21 9 9 AODV - 2 131 32 178 10 1 AODV - 3 100 15 104 5.6.4 Disaster area This scenario represents some sort of disaster area in a region that lacks any sort of telecommunication infrastructure. Formal Essay Writing? It could for questions armenian genocide instance represent a natural disaster or a large rescue operation. Every rescue team member could have a personal communicator with ad-hoc network capability. Deterrence Capital Essay? These personal communicators are capable of communicating with each other and with relay nodes that are mounted on a vehicle, like a helicopter, car or boat.

The parameters that are specific for questions armenian the disaster area scenario are shown in Table 17. Table 17: Parameters used during disaster area scenario. Parameter Number of CBR sources Number of receivers Number of flows 57 Value 38 87 87 The scenario is characterized by: N N N N N N A node movement, where approximately 95 % of the nodes are moving slightly, while the remaining 5 % are changing their position very often. Network partitioning now and then. Em Resume? Long and essay short lasting links that only are a few hops.

Traffic that is spread all over the nodes. Writing Programs? Many obstacles. Low interference from the essay questions, other nodes. The scenario tests the protocol: N N Ability to work with both slow and fast changing network topologies. Roman Essay? Ability to cope with network partitioning. Figure 25 shows how the scenario was designed. There are two highly mobile nodes moving at essay questions genocide, the speed 20 m/s back and forth. There are also three separate subnetworks that can connect to empire, each other through the relays mounted on questions genocide the highly mobile nodes. Within each subnetwork, the movement is randomized at speed 1 m/s.

Subnetwork 2 Subnetwork 1 Vehicle 1 = Node Subnetwork 3 = Obstacle Figure 25: Vehicle 2 = Movement Disaster area scenario. The results for the disaster area scenario are shown in creative writing programs, Table 18 and Table 19. The calculated mobility factor for this scenario is quite high. Essay Armenian Genocide? Many of the punishment, nodes are moving slightly (people), and some nodes are moving very fast (vehicles). The protocols that show the best results in this scenario are the essay questions, purely reactive approaches, that is AODV using both hello messages and MAC support and capital punishment essay DSR with eavesdropping. They have a delivery ratio between 54–58 % of the packets with an average throughput of 14.1 – 14.8 Kbit/s. DSDV has the worst performance, delivering only 29,5% of the packets with an average throughput of 12.42 Kbit/s. Essay Questions Genocide? A delivery ratio of only 58 % for the best protocol may sound like a terrible ratio, but because of network partitioning, it is hard for any protocol to roman empire, successfully deliver more packets than that. 58 DSDV show the lowest delay, but this is due to the low delivery ratio. All versions of AODV keep an average delay between 0.89 – 1.05 seconds, while the DSR versions lie between 1.19 – 1.25 seconds. Both DSR versions keep a low packet overhead compared to armenian genocide, the other protocols.

The byte overhead is however twice as large for DSR compared to AODV. As expected, DSDV uses the shortest paths with an average of 3.42 hops. Deterrence? The other protocols has an average hopcount of 5.0-5.2 hops. Essay Armenian? Table 18: Mobility factor Received Throughput Sent Average delay Dropped Received packets Packet overhead Byte overhead Average hopcount DSDV 1.154619 29.5% 12.42 Kbit/s 29616 0.196 s 20867 8749 41402 6497476 3.42 hops Disaster area simulation results. DSR – 1 1.154619 58.0% 14.79 Kbit/s 29616 1.252 s 12440 17176 27048 4880992 5.01 hops DSR – 2 1.154619 54.50% 14.43 Kbit/s 29616 1.187s 13464 16152 30692 5137148 5.16 hops AODV – 1 1.154619 48.0% 13.07 Kbit/s 29616 0.888 s 15382 14234 61557 2426164 5.23 hops AODV – 2 1.154619 52.2% 13.49 Kbit/s 29616 1.052 s 14161 15455 50686 2426164 5.24 hops AODV – 3 1.154619 54.0% 14.09 Kbit/s 29616 0.988 s 13635 15981 77311 3096228 5.26 hops DSDV drops a lot of packets because of route failures. In this scenario, DSDV also drops a large amount of formal essay writing tense packets in the interface queue.

One large cause for drops in the other protocols, lies in the sendbuffer. If routes are not found within time, packets in essay armenian genocide, the buffer are dropped because of timeouts or congestion. On International Resource Management? Another large cause for packet drops is route failures. This scenario is questions armenian genocide very interesting and should be investigated further, especially for the AODV protocol. We discovered when running the simulations that AODV tend to form short lived routing loops. Since the author claim that this protocol should be loop free at all times, one possible cause for this might be invalid use of the sequence numbers or the writing programs, fact that sequence numbers are unsynchronized during network partitioning. Very few packets were dropped because of this (less than 5). Another interesting thing with this scenario is that all main nodes send traffic both ways to each other.

This causes AODV to respond to armenian genocide, requests with temporary routes set up by other requests. Since it is empire comparative unclear from the draft whether the temporary routes should be regarded as a normal route in the routing table or not, we decided to try both in essay questions genocide, this scenario. By only allowing RREPs to use the temporary routes, and by not allowing a node to respond to a RREQ with a temporary route, the routing loops could be avoided. As Level? However, the performance of the protocol decreased. We therefore used simulations where we considered the temporary routes as a normal route.

Table 19: Cause for drop Sendbuffer Route failures ARP Interface queue End of simulation DSDV 15853 479 4528 7 DSR – 1 10033 1990 35 3 1 Packet drops in disaster area. DSR - 2 10277 2960 64 159 9 59 AODV – 1 9836 5047 292 34 2 AODV - 2 10693 3046 241 20 1 AODV - 3 10941 2470 64 44 116 5.6.5 Summary realistic scenarios The realistic scenarios show how the essay questions armenian, protocols behave in certain situations. For this purpose, three scenarios were designed and simulated with different versions of the protocols DSDV, DSR and AODV. DSR show the best performance results overall. If source routing is undesirable, another good candidate is geography as level AODV with only MAC layer support.

It has a slightly higher packet overhead, but an overall good delivery ratio. Genocide? 5.7 Observations The protocols that we have worked with most are AODV and deterrence capital punishment DSR, thus we have observed some important differences for essay questions these protocols, that in on international human resource, some way affect the performance of the protocols. 5.7.1 Ability to find routes AODV To illustrate AODVs ability to find routes, we use a simple scenario (see Figure 26). The scenario consists of essay questions four nodes A, B, C and D connected to each other. A C D B Figure 26: Simple example scenario. Node A needs a route to node D. No data has been sent earlier, thus the only routes known to the AODV protocol are the essays on international human, different neighbors in questions, the scenario. This is because AODV uses hello messages to programs, keep track of the armenian genocide, neighbors of a node. A RREQ is capital essay generated by node A and broadcasted to its neighbors. The RREQ propagates through the questions, network until it reaches node C. Since node C has a route to node D it can comply with the RREQ and generate a RREP.

During the writing programs, propagation of the RREQ, a reverse path is set up to node A. The RREP is unicasted back to A. It uses the temporarily backward route set up by armenian, the RREQ. During the propagation of the reply, a forward route is set up to node D by all intermediate nodes, resulting in the routing table shown in Table 20, thus all temporary routes are updated to active routes. Creative Programs? Table 20: Node A Destination Nexthop B B D B Routing tables for AODV after a route discovery process. Node B Destination A C D Nexthop A C C Node C Destination B D A Nexthop B D B Node D Destination C Nexthop C After the route discovery process, only B and C have routes to all other nodes in the scenario. Node A does not know that there is a route to node C, nor does node D know of the route to A and essay armenian genocide B. Thus AODV has to go through the route discovery process several times to deterrence capital punishment essay, discover all the routes. This leads to more control traffic and higher delays.

On the other hand, it saves memory by not having to keep information about routes that might not be used. 60 DSR The ability to find routes differs slightly between the DSR and AODV protocol. DSR can make use of the source route carried in each packet header to armenian, discover routes to nodes by which the packet has traveled through. If new routes are found, DSR can take advantage of this without having to go through a new route discovery phase, thus reducing the essay tense, number of questions control packets and essay writing tense decreasing the delay. The memory usage of a node is instead increased by essay questions armenian genocide, having to store more routes.

We consider the em resume, same scenario as for the AODV protocol (Figure 26). Node A needs a route to node D. No data has been sent earlier, thus DSR has no knowledge of any routes. Since no routes are known, the RREQ propagates until it reaches node D. During the propagation of the RREQ, every node in its path learn a route back to all the nodes by which the RREQ has passed through. Questions Armenian? The RREP is unicasted back to em resume, A, using the routes learned during the propagation of the RREQ. As the RREP propagates, each node also learns the routes to all nodes for which the RREP has passed through, resulting in questions genocide, the routing tables shown in Table 21. After the route discovery phase, each node has a route to every other node in this example. Essay? Table 21: Node A Destinatio n B C D Path B B-C B-C-D Routing caches for DSR, after a route discovery process. Node B Destinatio n A C D Path A C C-D Node C Destinatio n A B D Path B-A B D Node D Destinatio n A B C Path C-B-A C-B C 5.7.2 Temporary backward routes When a RREQ propagates in search for a route in AODV, a temporary backward route is set up towards the essay questions armenian, requesting node.

A RREP might use this backward route. This route is normally set to expire after 3 seconds if it is not used. Writing? It is armenian genocide not clear from the draft if this route may be used by application data as well. Using this route for data affects the behavior of the protocol in some way and it is not described how the protocol should handle this. One of the problems with this temporary route is with the way it is set up. Capital Essay? When the RREQ propagates, we do not know who will be using the backward route, so no active neighbors can be put into the active neighbor list. If during this time, a link failure or an expired route entry somewhere breaks the questions armenian, route, the rest of the nodes in the route are not informed of this and therefore have redundant routes in geography coursework as level, their tables.

When the route is genocide used again, the coursework, application data will come to a node in the route that does not have a valid entry for the destination and essay questions armenian will therefore be dropped while a triggered RREP tries to han and roman empire, inform the nodes in the route that it is broken. This problem will become more apparent in a network with a higher load. Another problem is the short lifetime if temporary routes are installed into the routing table. Lets say node A sets up a temporary route to D. Node A can then respond with the temporary route to another request searching for a route to armenian genocide, D. Since the writing, temporary route has a short lifetime, it might expire before the actual data has a chance to essay armenian genocide, use it. Essays Management? This results in unnecessary control overhead and packet drops. To deal with this, the routing agent could chose to only allow RREP to use the essay questions armenian genocide, temporary route. Also a check of the em resume, expire time before responding with a RREP could be used to assure that the armenian genocide, route wont timeout shortly after the node has responded with the information.

A question about this was directed to the author of the protocol with the response that this check should not be done, instead the protocol should rely on the sequence numbers to provide the freshness of a route. Deterrence Punishment Essay? We implemented a version of the AODV protocol that used the temporary route for all packets since it showed a slightly better performance result then if not allowing data packets to use the temporary route. Essay? The implementation done in em resume, Gothenburg used the temporary route only for route replies. So we have a small difference in our implementations. 61 5.7.3 Buffers The use of send buffers in the routing protocol also affects the performance of the routing protocol; especially the size of the buffers and genocide the time a packet is allowed to stay there before it is dropped. The send buffer buffers data packets while the routing protocol requests a route to the destination. In our simulations, AODV used a buffer capable of holding 64 packets and allowing them to stay in the buffer for deterrence capital punishment maximum 8 seconds. Essay Armenian? Allowing the packets to writing, stay in the buffer for longer period of times will of armenian genocide course increase the amount of successfully routed packets, but also increase the geography coursework, average delay. Also the questions armenian genocide, choice of queuing discipline will affect the measured performance.

If the buffer is geography as level full, there must be some smart algorithm to decide which packets should be dropped. Armenian Genocide? The routing protocol could decide not to buffer any packets at all and depend on higher layer protocols such as TCP to retransmit lost packets. This would however affect the measured performance in the simulations and give unfair results for the protocol. 5.8 Discussion If we compare the work that we have done against the work that was done by writing, the CMU Monarch project [3], many similarities can be seen. Essay Questions Armenian? Their conclusion was that both DSR and AODV performs well at all mobility rates and movement speeds.

We have come to the same conclusion, but we feel however that their definition of mobility (pause time) does not represent the dynamic topology to the same extent as our mobility factor that is deterrence based on the actual relative movement pattern. The only node speeds that they have tested are 1 m/s and 20 m/s, which are not showing the complete range. Our mobility factor has a speed range from 0 m/s up to 20 m/s and shows how the protocols behave in the complete range. They have also only essay, shown the result for one DSR version and one AODV version. Programs? The DSR version that they show the results for is using eavesdropping, which we regard as being unrealistic, because of the security issuses discussed earlier. Essay Questions Genocide? The AODV version that they have used is not using hello messages, which changes the behavior of on international resource management AODV. We have tested different versions and shown that DSR with eavesdropping has a slightly better performance than DSR without eavesdropping. We have also shown that AODV with MAC-layer support and hello messages has better performance than AODV with only MAC-layer support. Our results also show that it is necessary to use some support from the MAC-layer to armenian genocide, achieve a performance that is good even at high mobility factors. The CMU Monarch project, have used the capital, number of sources as a definition of the essay questions, load that is offered the punishment, network. Their simulations with the essay armenian genocide, different number of human sources are almost identical to each other.

The only protocols that showed a significantly difference was TORA, that only delivered 40 % of the packets with the lowest pause time and highest number of sources. Our definition of essay armenian genocide load was based on the rate that the sources are sending packets with. Even DSR that had the best results in essays resource, the CMU paper fails to genocide, deliver a large fraction of the packets when the rate is increased. The increase of the rate also very clearly shows how much the overhead for DSR increases compared to for instance AODV. Human Resource? 5.9 Classification Why is there any need for classification of routing protocols? If one routing protocol is superior than the other routing protocols for instance in very high mobile environments, why not always use that routing protocol? If it handles high mobile environments, it should also be good at low mobile environments. In real life, many parameters affect the behavior of the routing protocol.

It is also important to questions, recognize the need that is required in a particular scenario. In one scenario, there is maybe more need for high throughput than there is for deterrence low delay. In another scenario there is maybe more need for low delay etc. This is becoming more and essay questions armenian genocide more important now, in em resume, particular when active networks [29] is becoming an interesting issue in networking. Active networking means that you add user controllable capabilities to the network. Essay Questions Genocide? The network is on international human resource management no longer viewed a passive mover of bits, but rather as a more general computation engine. Armenian Genocide? This makes it possible for instance to adjust the routing protocol depending on the scenario. In Usa? You could basically send the questions armenian genocide, routing protocol and let it install itself into the nodes. 62 5.9.1 Mobile networks As the essays on international resource management, simulation results show, the essay questions armenian genocide, mobility of the network greatly affects the performance of the protocols. Formal Writing? It is crucial that the genocide, protocol ability to detect broken routes is fast enough and that they also react to em resume, these changes.

DSDV Since DSDV is dependent of its periodic updates, its ability to deal with a dynamic topology is very poor. It has a poor ability to fast detect broken links and takes time to converge. This protocol should really be avoided for use in ad-hoc networks where it is crucial to deal with frequent changing topology. This protocol could however be an option for networks that are static during long periods of times. AODV The original AODV protocol using only essay questions genocide, HELLO messages as link breakage detection shows poor results as mobility increases. This protocol needs better link breakage detection. Using lower layers such as MAC to detect transmission errors can achieve this. If this is used, the protocol actually shows a very good performance. This protocol is a definite choice for highly mobile networks. DSR This protocol is highly optimized and also shows good results in the simulations.

The protocol could definitely be used in highly mobile networks as well as static networks. 5.9.2 Size of networks When talking about the geography coursework as level, size of a network, it is not only the number of nodes in the network that is of interest. The area that the essay questions, nodes are spread out over is also interesting. Geography? This basically decides the connectivity of the network. A large area with many nodes may mean longer routes then for a smaller area with the same number of nodes.

At the armenian genocide, same time, many nodes close to each other means a higher collision probability. DSDV This protocol does not scale well. Its use of essay periodic broadcasts limits the protocol to small networks. If the genocide, protocol would be used in large networks, the converge time to a steady state would increase when routes go up and down. Writing? The reason is that updates must propagate from essay questions genocide, one end of the network to the other. AODV This protocol scales well, and could be used in both small and coursework as level medium sized networks. The combination of on-demand and distance vector makes this protocol suitable for large networks as well. The information that each node must store for each wanted destination is rather small compared to for instance DSR that has to store whole source routes. In large networks however, the propagation of requests to all nodes is a waste of resources. A better solution is probably to divide the network into genocide clusters or zones, like for instance ZRP and CBRP have done. DSR This protocol has some limitations when it comes to the size of the network.

A larger network often means longer routes and longer routes means that the source overhead in each packet grows. The current implementation limits each packet to carry a source route of maximal 16 hops. This can of coursework as level course be adjusted, but one should keep in mind the questions genocide, large overhead this causes. One could imagine a network with 20 nodes connected in creative programs, a straight line. Then this implementation would not manage to route to all nodes. We therefore recommend this protocol for small and medium sized networks.

63 5.9.3 Network scenarios Conference For low mobility scenarios, like the essay questions genocide, conference scenario that we did simulations on, DSR is the best protocol to use if the hopcount is small (fewer than 5 hops). The reasons are high delivery rate, low delay and low message overhead in terms of punishment essay packets and byte overhead. If the number of hops increases and get as many as 10 hops, each packet must carry a very large byte overhead, which can be very costly, when the load increases. Another good candidate for this scenario when the number of hopcount increases is one of the questions, AODV versions that use MAC-layer support. AODV has also a very high delivery ratio, but the number of control packets is somewhat larger.

Event coverage In average mobile scenarios, like the event coverage scenario, where nodes tends to cluster and on international almost all communication is within the clusters, DSR is by all means the best protocol. It has a very large delivery ratio and the overhead is genocide very small, even counted in on international human management, bytes, because of the few hops required to reach the destination. The AODV versions show a very good result also, but the overhead is larger. So for these type sort of networks DSR it the questions armenian, best protocol. Disaster In networks that become partitioned, DSR with eavesdropping show the best results in this scenario. It has a high delivery ratio, high throughput, a delay around 1.2 seconds and writing tense low packet overhead.

It also uses only 5 hops in average to reach a destination. This protocol is therefore recommended in this type of scenario. Essay Questions? Eavesdropping might however be undesirable because of geography coursework as level security issues. One other candidate for this scenario is AODV with MAC support. It has almost as high delivery ratio as DSR and also a lower delay. The packet overhead is twice as high but the byte overhead is smaller. 5.10 Improvements The simulations have shown that DSR with and without eavesdropping and essay armenian the AODV versions that use linklayer support has the overall best result in almost all simulations. DSR has as mentioned earlier the advantage that it learns more information for each request it sends out. If a request goes from S to D and the reply from D to S, S will learn the route to all intermediate routes between S and D. This means that it is not necessary to send out em resume, as many requests as for example AODV.

The source routing approach is therefore very good in the route discovery and route maintenance cases. However, source routing is not desirable to use for data packets. First of essay armenian genocide all, it adds a lot of overhead. Secondly it is not as traditional as for instance distance vector or link-state that are widely used in wired networks. Our proposal is therefore to implement a protocol that is a combination of source routing and writing distance vector. Source routing should be used in armenian genocide, route discovery and route maintenance phases. These phases would also include that the em resume in usa, routing tables where set up accordingly during the propagation of the questions armenian genocide, requests and replies. When the data packets are forwarded a distance vector algorithm should be used. The packets are simply forwarded to han and empire, the nexthop according to essay, the routing table. This in comparative essay, combination with that the protocol stores several routes for each destination would probably mean a protocol with a performance that is questions genocide even better than the capital essay, protocols that have been simulated in this master thesis.

64 6 Implementation study The implementation study that was conducted at Ericsson Mobile Data Design in Gothenburg [28] has implemented the questions genocide, AODV protocol. The goal was to deliver a working routing protocol as specified in the original AODV draft [19]. 6.1 Design Main Event Queue Route Table Send Hello Send Request Check Neighb Check sender Remove route Neighbors / Senders Lookup Add Delete Update Need route? Add Delete Update time Is member? Host unreachable Lookup failed Message Request buffer Send request Send reply Send hello Receive msg Add Delete Is member? Rreq Rrep Hello Route add Route del User space /dev/route Iotcl() Icmp.c UDP FIB Kernel Table Kernel route.c Other daemons Figure 27: Overview of AODV daemon. The implementation that has been done should only be considered as a prototype to confirm the usefulness of AODV. It is implemented as a daemon in user space. The advantage with this is that debugging and testing is much easier to do.

A final implementation should be made in kernel space with more optimized design. Thus abandon the modular design and capital punishment optimize the code to go really fast. Figure 27 shows the design of the user space daemon and how it interacts with the kernel code. The different modules will be explained in the following chapters. Questions? 6.1.1 Main Main ties together all other modules of the user space daemon. It is also in main that the AODV specific code lies. 65 6.1.2 Event queue Queue for empire comparative essay events that are supposed to be performed at certain times. These events include: N N N N Periodic hello messages Send / retransmit route requests Timeouts of route entries Hello timeout 6.1.3 Route table This module is an interface against the submodules Daemon Table and Kernel Table. It takes care of these two, so when you want to lookup or change a route from Main, you only have to do one call to this module instead of two to the both submodules.

The entries in questions, Daemon Table module have all the fields that is required for AODV, sequence number, list of active neighbors and han and roman empire comparative so on. The operations supported are Lookup, Add and Delete. The Kernel Table is not a table in armenian genocide, the sense Daemon Table is, instead this submodule just communicates with the kernel, sending messages about adding and deleting entries and receives netlink need-route messages. 6.1.4 Neighbors / senders Keeps track of the em resume in usa, neighbors of a node. A neighbor is a host that sends/receives hello messages that is directly received/sent by another node. This demands that the links are bi-directional. At first it was thought that the WaveLAN cards would take care of essay armenian genocide this, but it was not the in usa, case. Genocide? The signal strength and the range was different between the hosts. To be able to guarantee bi-directional link, the concept Sender was added. A host is classified as a sender if it can be heard by at least one other node. Formal Writing? When sending hello messages a node sends the list of current Senders and if the questions, receiver of the Hello messages is in this list, it is a Neighbor and can start act as one 6.1.5 Request buffer This buffer prevents the network of being flooded by multiple request for comparative essay the same address.

This buffer stores already processed requests. 6.1.6 Message Handles the different types of messages that the daemon can send and receive. These messages are: N N N Hello Route Request Route Reply. Essay Genocide? 6.2 Setup The computers used for this implementation study was: N N 2 stationary computers with Lucent WaveLAN ISA cards. 3 laptops with Lucent WaveLAN PCMCIA cards.

The implementation started first with the 2 stationary computers running FreeBSD7. The choice of FreeBSD was primarily made because FreeBSD offers the best documentation of its kernel source. It was later discovered when the laptops arrived that FreeBSD was incompatible with the Lucent WaveLAN PCMIA cards in formal writing, the laptops. Questions? Linux8 however has support for both variants of the LucentWaveLAN cards and Linux was therefore chosen as development operating system. It is not very hard to port the code to FreeBSD in the future if so desired. Geography As Level? 7 8 FreeBSD 2.2.6 Linux Red Hat 5.1 66 6.3 Testing The purpose of essay questions testing the implementation is to verify that the programs, implementation works correctly and to see if the performance is suitable for real life applications. 6.3.1 Correctness To verify that the implementation of AODV behaved correctly, computers were placed in different scenarios to test the essay questions genocide, different parts of the protocol. Formal Essay? The following tests where made: N N N N N N N Bi-directional links and neighbors: Tests that two nodes can send hello messages to each other and registry the genocide, counterpart as a neighbor. Roman? Unidirectional links and neighbors: It tests the same as above, but with the difference that we only have an uni-directional link, so only one of the nodes can hear the other and registry him as a neighbor. Neighbor link down: Tests that neighbors moving away from each other causes the link between them to go down. Zero hop route requests: Tests that a request to armenian, a neighbor that also is the requested destination generates a reply that is correctly received.

This is not the normal operation of the protocol, but could happen if two nodes are in range but have not accepted each other as neighbors. Single hop route request: Tests the han and roman empire essay, situation where node S searches the route to genocide, D and we have one node B in between. S broadcasts a request that is caught by geography coursework as level, B, which knows the route to D and sends a reply back to S. Multihop route request: Almost the same situation as the essay armenian genocide, single hop route request. The difference is that we have two nodes between the requesting source and the destination. The route request must therefore be forwarded one hop before a reply can be generated.

Triggered route reply: Tests that the triggered route reply is generated whenever a route goes down. Tense? 6.3.2 Performance No actual performance tests were done. The results for so few nodes would be misleading. Essay Armenian Genocide? Instead tests with real applications like Netscape and Telnet were done. The problems that occurred with these tests were related to the on-demand nature of AODV. Telnet for instance returns host-unreachable when trying to telnet to a computer on the first attempt. The second attempt however is successful. The reason is that when Telnet makes its first attempt, no route to the destination exists.

This will result in tense, an error message from the kernel to Telnet, at the same time as a new request is sent to essay genocide, the neighbors. This request will eventually find a route to the destination and it is creative installed in the routing table. When Telnet makes a second attempt connect to the same host, a route will already exist in essay questions armenian genocide, the routing table and telnet will successfully reach the destination host. The solution to this problem is simply to take care of the error messages that the coursework, kernel sends to questions armenian genocide, the application. The error message should be buffered and if a route is not found in tense, a certain amount of time, the error message should be sent to the application, but if a route is actually found the error message can be discarded. 6.4 Problems / Limitations Problems that occurred during the implementation include: N N N FreeBSD incompatibilities: As mentioned before, lack of functional drivers to FreeBSD forced the questions armenian, implementation study to be done under Linux. Address: The current prototype requires that each node participating in the network have a predefined unique IP-address. There is a great need for empire comparative a dynamic assigned IP-address architecture, which assigns nodes IP-addresses as they enter the network. IPv6 holds such functionality. This prototype is however done for IPv4 so no consideration has been done to implement such functionality. Three-way handshake: To guarantee bi-directional links, a three way handshake was necessary for essay questions armenian the hello messages before two nodes can be certain of the other nodes existence.

The handshake uses piggybacking. It concatenates a list of all nodes it receives hello messages from to the hello messages it sends. When a node receives a hello message and finds its own address in the concatenated list it will add the sending node to in usa, its own list of neighbors which it has bi-directional links to. Three hello 67 N messages instead of one wastes bandwidth, but could also in questions, a worst case scenario mean that it could take as long as two full hello intervals before two nodes in range of each other accepts the bi-directional links. Temporary routes: When a request is in usa broadcasted from questions armenian, a node, it will propagate through the network and at the same time install a temporary route back to the source.

The problem with this temporary route is first of all that the request is formal essay writing unaware of if the route ever will be used and secondly who will use it. Essay? This means that it does not know the active neighbors that are using this entry and can therefore not inform these neighbors if a link should go down on this route. The solution that was implemented differs somewhat of what was done in the simulation study. The solution is to store the temporary routes separately and only install them in the routing table when the route reply is propagating back through the network. Deterrence Punishment? 6.5 Improvements Possible features that could be added to this prototype: N N N N Link layer hellos: The addition of questions genocide link layer feedback from 802.11 would significantly increase the performance as the simulation study has shown. Redundant routes: Store all routes to a destination, not only the on international human, one we are currently using. If a route goes down due to armenian, a link failure, the em resume, next stored route would be tried before a new request is to essay armenian, be sent. This saves a lot of creative writing programs overhead a and makes the delay somewhat smaller. Dynamic IP-addresses: As mention under limitations, dynamic address assignment is a requirement for these kind of networks.

Multicast: Multicast groups within a ad-hoc network could be added. The latest AODV draft has support for this. 6.6 Implementation conclusions The implementation of the AODV protocol has shown that it is possible to essay questions genocide, get these protocols to work in real-life. Geography Coursework? It must however be noted that real-life in this case only consisted of five computers. Questions Armenian? The AODV prototype has also given some insight into the problems that arise when trying to run real applications on an ad-hoc network. Applications like Netscape and Telnet get host unreachable in the first attempt. The second attempt finds the route successfully. This has to human management, do with the on-demand feature of the AODV protocol.

68 7 Conclusions 7.1 Results The simulations have shown that there certainly is a need for a special ad-hoc routing protocol when the mobility increases. Questions Genocide? It is however necessary to have some sort of feedback from the link-layer protocol like IEEE MAC 802.11 when links go up and in usa down or for questions armenian neighbor discovery. To only coursework as level, be dependent on periodic messages at the IP-level will result in a very high degree of packet losses even when mobility increases a little. The simulations have also shown that more conventional types of protocols like DSDV have a drastic decrease in performance when mobility increases and questions genocide are therefore not suitable for mobile ad-hoc networks. AODV and DSR have overall exhibited a good performance also when mobility is high.

DSR is however based on source routing, which means that the byte overhead in each packet can affect the total byte overhead in the network quite drastically when the offered load to the network and the size of the essays on international, network increases. Essay Questions? In these situations, a hop-by-hop based routing protocol like AODV is more desirable. One advantage with the source routing approach is however that in deterrence punishment essay, its route discovery operation it learns more routes. Source routing is however not desirable in ordinary forwarding of essay data packets because of the coursework as level, large byte overhead. A combination of AODV and DSR could therefore be a solution with even better performance than AODV and DSR. Another key aspect when evaluating these protocols is to test them in realistic scenarios. Essay Armenian? We have tested them in three types of scenarios. DSR had the best performance, but the large byte overhead caused by the source route in each packet makes AODV a good alternate candidate.

It has almost as good performance. The implementation study conducted at ERV in Gothenburg has shown that it is possible to get a real ad-hoc network up and running. The main problems that did occur were related to the testing of the protocol with real applications. When a route was needed by the application and han and roman empire the route did not exist in the routing table, the kernel informed the applications of a connection error before giving the routing protocol enough time to find a route. 7.2 Further studies Ad-hoc networking is a rather hot concept in computer communications.

This means that there is much research going on and many issues that remains to essay armenian, be solved. Capital? Due to questions, limited time, we have only focused on the routing protocols. Formal Essay? However there are many issues that could be subject to further studies. First of all, the essay questions armenian genocide, simulator environment could be improved. These are just some of the improvements that could be made: N N More routing protocols, for instance TORA, ZRP and CBRP. Measurement of essays human resource management computing complexity.

Secondly, there are many issues related to ad-hoc networks that could be subject to further studies: N N N Simulations which take unidirectional links into essay armenian consideration. Some sort of analysis of capital punishment whether many small control messages are more costly to send in terms of resources than fewer large control messages. Security: A very important issue that has to be considered is the security in essay armenian, an ad-hoc network. Routing protocols are prime targets for impersonation attacks. Because ad-hoc networks are formed without centralized control, security must be handled in a distributed fashion.

This will probably mean that IP- 69 N N N N N N Sec [14] authentication headers will be deployed, as well as the roman empire comparative, necessary key management to genocide, distribute keys to the members of the ad-hoc network. Quality of Service (QoS): What needs are there for Quality of Service in an ad-hoc network? This is geography coursework related to what the networks actually will be used for. Hand-over of real-time traffic between nodes. How should real-time traffic smoothly be handed over to essay genocide, another node when a route goes down? Should flooding be used before a route is found? Multicast: We have only looked at unicast routing. Multicast routing is also an interesting issue that has to be considered.

Connecting ad-hoc networks to the Internet through access points: How do you connect an ad-hoc network to the Internet? It is not possible to just add the access point as default in the routing tables. This would mean that nodes without a route to a certain destination would be routed to the Internet. Mobile IP: Integration of mobile IP into ad-hoc networks. Addressing of hosts: How should the hosts in an ad-hoc network be addressed? What happens if one adhoc network is on international partitioned in to questions, two separate networks or two ad-hoc networks are merged into essays one new larger ad-hoc network? IP Index Router IP Router (IP) Index Index Figure 28: Router (RID) IP IP Different router identification approaches. From left to right: 3a, 3b, 3c. There are basically three types of identifiers to essay questions genocide, consider (Figure 28): 1) Interface identifiers: Interfaces are present on creative writing both routers and hosts.

In the Internet addressing architecture, interfaces are identified by IP addresses. 2) Host identifiers: Can either be a permanent identifier or a temporary identifier. 3) Router identifiers: Is unspecified and generally depends on the routing policy. There are three approaches to MANET router identification and addressing currently being considered: a) Single IP address (AODV): Identifies a MANET node (both the router and the host) with a single IP address. This approach leaves several issues open: N How to support sets or subnets of hosts attached to a MANET router?

N How to essay questions armenian, support the han and roman empire comparative, use of multiple wireless interfaces? b) Single IP address with interface indexes (DSR): Identifies a MANET router with a single IP address and each interface with a single-byte interface index. This makes it possible to questions, enable simultaneous support for multiple wireless technologies, with the IP address acting as router identifier. The problem with this scheme is that it is not IP in creative programs, the classical sense where interfaces are identified by IP addresses. The use of a non-standard addressing architecture will likely complicate interoperability. Questions Genocide? c) Router identifier and IP interface addresses (IMEP): Identifies a MANET router with a router Identifier (RID) and identifies each interface with an essay writing, IP address. Questions Armenian Genocide? This approach can support sets or subsets of attached hosts and simultaneous use of multiple wireless technologies.

Approach a) and b) seem tailored to han and roman comparative essay, support a mobile host that acts like a router. Questions? Approach c) is intended to support a mobile router platform to which one or more host-like devices may be permanently or temporally affiliated. These approaches say nothing about how IP addresses are assigned to em resume, interfaces (on hosts or routers), or what the RID is and essay questions genocide how it is assigned. Punishment Essay? This is a separate problem, although one which is related to routing. 70 8 References [1] Dimitri Bertsekas and armenian genocide Robert Gallager, “Data Networks - 2nd ed”. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, ISBN 013-200916-1. [2] Bommaiah, McAuley and Talpade. AMRoute, “Adhoc Multicast Routing Protocol”, Internet draft, drafttalpade-manet-amroute-00.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. Creative Writing? [3] Josh Broch, David A. Maltz, David B. Johnson, Yih-Chun Hu and Jorjeta Jetcheva, “A performance Comparison of Multi-hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols”. Mobicom'98, Dallas Texas, 25–30 October, 1998. [4] Josh Broch, David B. Armenian? Johnsson, David A. Maltz, “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for creative Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”. Essay Armenian? Internet Draft, draft-ietf-manet-dsr-00.txt, March 1998. Essay Tense? Work in progress. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? [5] Scott Corson and Joseph Macker, “ Mobile Ad Hoc Networking (MANET): Routing Protocol Performance Issues and Evaluation Considerations”.

Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-manet-issues-01.txt, March 1998. Work in progress. [6] M.Scott Corson, S. Papademetriou, Philip Papadopolous, Vincent D. Park and deterrence punishment essay Amir Qayyum, “An Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP) Specification”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-imepspec01.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. Essay Armenian Genocide? [7] Kevin Fall and Kannan Varadhan, “ns notes and documentation”. The VINT project, UC Berkeley, LBL, USC/ISI, and Xerox PARC, May 1998. Work in progress. Formal? [8] Zygmunt J. Haas and Marc R. Pearlman, “The Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) for Ad Hoc Networks”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-zone-zrp-01.txt, August 1998.

Work in progress. [9] IEEE Computer Society LAN MAN Standards Committee, “Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications”, IEEE Std 802.11-1997. The Institute of Electrical and questions armenian genocide Electronics Engineers, New York. [10] Philippe Jacquet, Paul Muhlethaler and Amir Qayyum, “Optimized Link State Routing Protocol”. Essay Tense? Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-olsr-00.txt, November 1998. Work in progress. [11] Mingliang Jiang, Jinyang Li and Yong Chiang Tay, “Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) Functional specification”. Questions? Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cbrp-spec-00.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. Deterrence Punishment? [12] David B. Essay Questions? Johnson and David A.Maltz, “Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks”. In Mobile Computing, edited by Tomasz Imielinski and Hank Korth, chapter 5, pages 153-181. Kluwer Academic Publishers. [13] David B. Johnson and David A. Maltz, “Protocols for adaptive wireless and mobile computing”. Em Resume? In IEEE Personal Communications, 3(1), February 1996. [14] Stephen Kent and Randall Atkinson, “Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-ipsec-arch-sec-07.txt, July 1998.

Work in progress. [15] Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET). URL: http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/manet-charter.html. (1998-11-29). Work in progress. 71 [16] Vincent D. Questions? Park and M. Scott Corson, “Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) Version 1: Functional specification”. Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-tora-spec-01.txt, August 1998. Work in progress. Creative Writing? [17] Vincent D. Park and M. Scott Corson, “A performance comparison of the Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm and Ideal Link-state routing”. In Proceedings of questions IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication ’98, June 1998. [18] Charles E. Perkins, “Mobility support, Mobile IP and Wireless Channel Support for ns-2”, presentation slides. URL: http://www.svrloc.org/ charliep/mobins2/, (1998-11-29). In Usa? Work in progress. [19] Charles E. Perkins, “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. Essay Questions Armenian? Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-01.txt, August 1998.

Work in progress. [20] Charles E. Perkins, “Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing”. Internet draft, draft-ietfmanet-aodv-02.txt, November 1998. Work in creative writing programs, progress. [21] Charles E. Perkins, “Mobile Ad Hoc Networking Terminology”. Questions Armenian Genocide? Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-term00.txt, October 1997. Work in progress. [22] Charles E. Perkins and programs Pravin Bhagwat, “Highly dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector routing (DSDV) for mobile computers”. In Proceedings of the SIGCOM '94 Conference on Communications Architecture, protocols and Applications, pages234-244, August 1994. A revised version of the paper is available from http://www.cs.umd.edu/projects/mcml/papers/Sigcomm94.ps. (1998-11-29) [23] Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Questions Genocide? Davie, “Computer Networks - A Systems Approach”. San Francisco, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. ISBN 1-55860-368-9. [24] Plummer, D., An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol - or - Converting Network Protocol Addresses to 48.bit Ethernet Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware, RFC-826, MIT, November 1982. [25] Theodore S. Empire Comparative Essay? Rappaport, “Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice”. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. Questions? ISBN 0-13-375536-3. [26] Raghupathy Sivakumar, Prasun Sinha and Vaduvur Bharghavan, “Core Extraction Distributed Ad hoc Routing (CEDAR) Specification”, Internet draft, draft-ietf-manet-cedar-spec-00.txt, October 1998.

Work in progress. [27] Martha Steenstrup, “Routing in communication networks”. New Jersey, Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13010752-2. [28] Jerry Svedlund and formal essay Johan Kopman, “Routing protocols in wireless ad-hoc networks - An implementation study”. Uppsala: Uppsala University. Questions? Master thesis. In Usa? [29] D. L. Tennenhouse and D. Wetherall, “Towards an active network architecture”. In Multimedia Computing and Networking 96, San Jose, CA, Jan 1996. [30] The CMU Monarch Project. “The CMU Monarch Projects Wireless and Mobility Extensions to ns”. URL: http://www.monarch.cs.cmu.edu/. (1998-11-29).

Work in progress. 72 Appendix A -Terminology This appendix contains some terminology [21] that is related to ad-hoc networks. A.1 General terms Bandwidth: Total link capacity of a link to carry information (typically bits). Channel: The physical medium is divided into logical channel, allowing possibly shared uses of the medium. Channels may be made available by armenian genocide, subdividing the medium into distinct time slots, distinct spectral bands, or decorrelated coding sequences. Convergence: The process of approaching a state of equilibrium in which all nodes in the network agree on a consistent state about the topology of the network.

Flooding: The process of delivering data or control messages to every node within the any data network. Host: Any node that is not a router. Interface: A nodes attachment to a link. Link: A communication facility or medium over which nodes can communicate at the link layer. In Usa? Loop free: A path taken by a packet never transits the same intermediate node twice before arrival at the destination. MAC-layer address: An address (sometimes called the link address) associated with the link interface of a node on a physical link. Next hop: A neighbor, which has been designated to forward packets along the way to a particular destination. Neighbor: A node that is within transmitter range from another node on the same channel. Node: A device that implements IP.

Node ID: Unique identifier that identifies a particular node. Router: A node that forwards IP packets not explicitly addressed to itself. In case of ad-hoc networks, all nodes are at least unicast routers. Routing table: The table where the routing protocols keep routing information for various destinations. This information can include nexthop and the number of essay questions hops to the destination. Scalability: A protocol is scalable if it is applicable to large as well as small populations. Essay Tense? Source route: A route from the source to the destination made available by the source. Throughput: The amount of data from a source to a destination processed by the protocol for which throughput is to be measured for armenian genocide instance, IP, TCP, or the MAC protocol. 73 A.2 Ad-hoc related terms Ad-hoc: For this special or temporary purpose or a special case without generic support. AODV: Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector.

Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks. Asymmetric: A link with transmission characteristics that are different of the capital, transmitter and receiver. For instance, the range of one transmitter may be much higher than the range of essay questions armenian genocide another transmitter on essays on international human management the same medium. Armenian Genocide? The transmission between the two hosts will therefore not work equally well in both directions. See also symmetric. Beacon: Control message issued by a node informing other nodes in its neighborhood of its continuing presence. Bi-directional: see symmetric. CBRP: Cluster Based Routing Protocol. Routing protocol for wireless ad-hoc networks.

Cluster: A group of nodes typically in range of each other, where one of the in usa, nodes is elected as the cluster head. The cluster head ID identifies the cluster. Each node in essay questions, the network knows its corresponding cluster head(s) and therefore knows which cluster(s) it belongs to. DSDV: Dynamic Sequenced Distance Vector. Routing protocol for wireless Ad Hoc networks. DSR: Dynamic Source Routing. Routing protocol for wireless Ad Hoc networks. Proactive: Tries to maintain the routing map for the whole network all the time.

See also reactive. Reactive: Calculates route only upon in usa receiving a specific request. Essay Questions Genocide? See also proactive RREQ: Routing Request. A message used by AODV for em resume the purpose of discovering new routes to a destination node. Questions Genocide? RREP: Route Reply. A message used by AODV to reply to route requests. Symmetric: Transmission between two hosts works equally well in essay writing, both directions.

See also asymmetric. TORA: Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm. Routing protocol for armenian wireless ad-hoc networks. Unidirectional: see asymmetric. ZRP: Zone Routing Protocol. Routing protocol for creative programs wireless ad-hoc networks. 74 Appendix B - AODV implementation for ns This appendix contains a little more details about the implementation of AODV that we did for essay questions armenian genocide ns. The implementation of AODV is done according to writing programs, the draft [19] released in August 1998. B.1 Message formats AODV have four different messages that it uses for route discovery and route maintenance.

All messages are sent using UDP. B.1.1 Route Request – RREQ The format of the route request message is shown in Figure 29. Essay Questions Armenian? 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type[8] Reserved[16] Hop count[8] Broadcast ID[32] Destination IP address[32] Destination Sequence Number[32] Source IP address[32] Source Sequence Number[32] Figure 29: N N N N N N N N Route request format. Type: Type of message. Reserved: Reserved for future use. Currently sent as 0 and ignored on reception. Hop count: Number of hops from the source IP address to the node handling the request. Broadcast ID: A sequence number identifying the particular request uniquely when taken in conjunction with the capital punishment essay, source nodes IP address.

Destination IP address: IP address of the essay questions, destination for which a route is required. Destination sequence number: The last sequence number received in the past by the source for any route towards the geography coursework as level, destination. Source IP address: IP address of the node that originated the request. Source sequence number: Current sequence number for route information generated by the source of the essay questions armenian genocide, route request. 75 B.1.2 Route Reply - RREP The format of the route reply message is shown in Figure 30. 0 1 2 31 01234567890123456789012345678901 Type[8] L Reserved[16] Hop count[8] Destination IP address[32] Destination Sequence Number[32] Lifetime[32] Figure 30: N N N N N N N Route reply format. Creative Writing Programs? Type: Type of message. L: If the L-bit is set the message is a hello message and contains a list of the nodes neighbors. Essay? Reserved: Reserved for future use. As Level? Currently sent as 0 and ignored on reception. Hop count: Number of hops from the essay questions, source IP address to the destination IP address.

Destination IP address: IP address of the destination for which a route is supplied. Destination sequence number: The destination sequence number associated to the route. Lifetime: Time for which nodes receiving the Reply consider the route to be valid. B.1.3 Hello Hello messages are a special case of Route reply messages. The difference is that a hello message always supplies the route to itself. This means that the hop count field is set to 0, the destination address set to the nodes IP address and the destination sequence number set to the nodes latest sequence number.

B.1.4 Link failure Link failure messages are also special Route reply messages, but in this case the destination reflects the route that has broken. The broken route is assigned an infinite hop count and a sequence number that is increased with one. 76 B.2 Design Figure 31 shows how AODV was designed when implemented for ns. AODV OTcl C++ AODV_Agent Hdr_AODV Request Buffer Figure 31: AODV_RTable AODVConstants AODV design of implementation for simulator. AODV The tcl script that starts the AODV routing agent and creates all mobile nodes that are using AODV as routing protocol. AODV_Agent Implements all AODV specific parts.

Handles RREQ, RREP, Hello and Triggered RREP. It also has a send buffer that buffers packets while a route is as level searched for. The timers that handles timeouts on route entries and the send buffer are also implemented here. Hdr_AODV Defines the message format for all messages that AODV uses. Request Buffer Implements the armenian genocide, request buffer that prevents a node to process the same RREQ multiple times. AODV_RTable The routing table that AODV uses. The routing table also implements the active neighbor list for each route entry. In Usa? AODVConstants All AODV constants are defined here, which makes it easy to modify for instance the hello interval. 77 B.3 Important routines B.3.1 Sending RREQ RREQ will only be sent by the source nodes (no intermediate nodes sends RREQs), if there does not exist any route for the destination. Armenian? 1. 2. Capital Punishment Essay? 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Essay? 8. Writing Programs? 9. 10. 11.

12. B.3.2 if ( no route exists ) else Receiving RREQ When a node receives a RREQ, it must first of all decide if it already has processed the RREQ. The RREQ is discarded if it has been processed. Otherwise the source address and the broadcast ID from RREQ will be buffered to prevent it from armenian, being processed again. Geography Coursework? 1. 2. Questions? 3. Creative Writing Programs? 4. 5. if ( (source addr, broadcast ID) in essay questions genocide, request buffer ) else The next step is to create or update the route entry in as level, the routing table. This route can be used by the RREP when a route is found.

1. Essay? 2. 3. 4. Creative Programs? 5. 6. Essay Questions Genocide? 7. 8. if ( no route to source addr ) elseif ( source seqno in RREQ source seqno in han and roman essay, route entry ) elseif ((source seqno in RREQ = source seqno in route entry) AND ( hop count in RREQ hop count in route entry )) Then, the questions armenian, node must check if it knows the route to writing, the wanted destination. Armenian? If the node knows the geography as level, route it will unicast a RREP to essay questions armenian, the source. Essays On International Management? Otherwise it will forward the RREQ. 1. Essay Questions Armenian? 2. 3. 4. 5. Creative? 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. if ( you are destination of RREQ ) elseif (( have route to destination ) AND (destination seqno in armenian genocide, route entry = destination seqno in RREQ)) else 78 B.3.3 Forwarding RREQ When a node receiving a RREQ that it has not processed yet does not have a route, it will forward the RREQ. Creative Writing? 1. 2. 3. 4. Essay Armenian Genocide? 5. create a RREQ packet: copy all fields from received RREQ into new packet increment hop count field locally broadcast new RREQ packet discard received RREQ B.3.4 Forwarding RREP When a node receives a RREP that is not addressed for em resume the node, it will set up the forward route by updating the routing table and forward the RREP back to the requesting source. This part is essay questions however not explicit specified in the AODV draft. 1. 2. 3. 4. Essays On International Human? 5. Essay? 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

13. if ( route to requested destination does not exist ) elseif(destination seqno in RREP destination seqno in route entry) elseif ((destination seqno in RREP = destination seqno in deterrence capital, route entry ) AND ( hop count in questions genocide, RREP hop count in writing programs, entry )) if (route to requesting source exists) B.3.5 Receiving RREP When the originating source receives the RREP it will update the routing table. 1. 2. 3. Essay Questions? 4. 5. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. if (route to destination does not exist) elseif (destination seqno in RREP destination seqno in route entry) elseif (( destination seqno in RREP = destination seqno in route entry ) AND (hop count in RREP hop count in in usa, entry )) else 79 B.3.6 Hello handling Each node periodically broadcasts a hello message to all neighbors. Questions Armenian? When a node receives a hello message it knows that the sending node is on international human a neighbor and will update the routing table. 1. 2. Essay Questions Armenian? 3. Han And Roman? 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Armenian Genocide? B.3.7 if (route entry for on international resource HELLO source exists) else Forwarding packets AODV uses a active neighbor list to keep track of which neighbors that are using a particular route. These lists are used when sending triggered route replies. The neighbor lists are updated every time a packet is essay genocide forwarded. 1. 2. 3. 4. Coursework As Level? 5. 6. Questions Armenian Genocide? B.3.8 if (route entry to destination exists) Sending Triggered RREP Link breakages are detected by either the link layer which notifies the routing agent or by using hello messages. If a node has not received hello messages from a node for a certain amount of time it will assume that the link is down. Every time a link is detected as down, AODV will send a Triggered RREP to inform the affected sources. 1. 2. 3. 4. B.3.9 for han and empire (each address in questions, the active neighbor list for a route entry) Receiving Triggered RREP Every time a Triggered RREP is received informing about tense, a broken link, the affected route entry must be deleted and neighbors using this entry must be informed.

1. Questions Armenian Genocide? 2. Formal? 3. 4. if (have active neighbors for broken route) delete route entry for broken route 80 Appendix C -Simulator screenshots This appendix shows some screenshots of Network animator and Ad-hockey. Network animator is the visualization tool for armenian genocide ns and han and empire essay Ad-hockey is the questions genocide, visualization for the mobility extension developed by essay, the CMU Monarch project. C.1 Network animator Figure 32 shows a screenshot of Network animator. The scenario contains 19 nodes in a wired network. Some of the nodes are sending packets, which also can be seen in the figure. Armenian Genocide? With this tool it is very easy to trace packets as they propagate through the network. The circles represent the nodes and han and comparative the lines between the circles are the physical wired links that connect the nodes with each other. Figure 32: Screenshot – Network animator. 81 C.2 Ad-hockey The screenshots of essay questions armenian Ad-hockey that can be seen in Figure 33, Figure 34 and Figure 35 shows the coursework as level, playback trace of the realistic scenarios that with did simulations on.

The big white rectangle in the middle is the movement area. The different colored circles are the nodes. The colors of the nodes represent what action the nodes are performing at the moment. Questions Armenian? It could for geography coursework instance be that the node is genocide sending, forwarding or receiving a packet. The lines between the nodes do not represent wired links. Coursework? The lines are actually packets that propagate from node to node. The detached rectangles and lines that also can be seen within the movement area are obstacles. Figure 33: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Conference scenario. Essay Questions? 82 Figure 34: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Event coverage scenario. Coursework As Level? Figure 35: Screenshot – Ad-hockey – Disaster area. Questions? 83 . TERM Spring #039;00 PROFESSOR Hesham TAGS Computer network, . routing protocol, ad-hoc network.

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07 Adhoc Networks. Nodes J and K both broadcast RREQ to node D Since nodes J and K are hidden from essay armenian genocide, Vietnamese-German University, Binh Duong Province EEIT 28 - Winter 2016 Lecture (11-14) -On-Demand-Driven Reactive Routing protocols Chandra Prakash Assistan. Copyright © 2017. Course Hero, Inc. Privacy Terms.

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The Armenian Genocide Essay

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Armenian genocide essay | It

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It was also nominated for essay questions, three Golden Globe Awards which. Academy Award , Academy Award for Best Director , Academy Award for Best Picture 702 Words | 5 Pages. hero of great stature 6. Supernatural strength of body, character or mind 7. Supernatural forces entering the essay writing tense, action BIAG NI LAM ANG . Armenian. (Epic of Ilocos Region) The story dates its origin during the Pre-Hispanic period of the Philippines. It is one of the essay tense, greatest epic of the essay questions genocide, pre-colonial literature of the country. Like other epics, Biag Ni Lam- Ang was also passed on writing programs, from generation to generation through Oral Tradition until a man, named Pedro Bukaneg finally transcribed it in 1640 for. Biag ni Lam-ang , Don Juan , Epic poetry 994 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Life of Lam- ang Introduction: (a) Hook Have you ever heard a baby that can talk and walk after birth ? This is an epic story . about the questions, life of lam-ang.Lam- ang was an creative writing programs extraordinary being, manifesting in his early years when he started to essay questions genocide speak, thus enabling him to choose his own name. His adventure began when his father, Don Juan, set out for a battle but never returned.

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Biag ni Lam-ang , Don Juan , Epic poetry 547 Words | 12 Pages. Writing Programs. Brokeback Mountain compare and contrast. between Jack Twist and Ennis Del Mar, two cowboys who develop a forbidden love for each other and have to live separate lives. Essay Armenian. They first meet when they both . get hired to herd sheep on essay writing, Brokeback Mountain in Wyoming. The movie adaptations by the director Ang Lee, came out essay questions armenian, 2005. And it received Oscar Awards for Best Director, Best Original Score and human resource management Best Adapted Screenplay. The characters Jack Twist and Ennis Del Mar are played by Jake Gyllenhaal and Heath Ledger.

The purpose of this essay is to show the. Ang Lee , Brokeback Mountain , Heath Ledger 866 Words | 3 Pages. Education/Success Is Their Any Corelation. The Taiwan-born Ang Lee rapidly established himself in the 1990s as one of the world's most versatile film-makers, moving on essay armenian, from the trilogy . of movies about Chinese families that made his name to Jane Austen's England (Sense and Sensibility) and formal essay tense Richard Nixon's America (The Ice Storm). If he revisits a place or genre it's to tell a very different story – a martial arts movie in medieval China (Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon) is followed by a spy thriller in wartime Shanghai (Lust, Caution), and.

Ang Lee , Canada Reads , Canongate Books 990 Words | 3 Pages. protagonists Bob and Charlotte navigate through the unknown jungle of Tokyo they find each other hauntingly similar and form a bond, which exposes many . truths. Furthermore these notions of navigation through knowledge, values and culture are expressed in essay genocide Ang Lee’s 2012 theatrical motion picture ‘Life of Pi,’ Derek Walcott’s poem ‘A Cry From Africa,’ Kanye West’s popular culture commentary ‘Who Will Survive in America?’ and Jan Nederveen Pieterse’s complex essay ‘Globalisation as Hybridisation.’ Clearly. Ang Lee , Audience , Culture 1445 Words | 4 Pages. Essay. ?FILM 3759G Dr. Christopher J Mitchell Chengdong Hu Analysis of Cultural Denotation and questions armenian Humanity in Ang Lee’s Films . Ang Lee’s film works, not only in the business, but in artistic level won the world audience recognition. He grew up in a traditional Chinese family and study in the United States. The differences between eastern and western culture took a sharp collision in creative programs his heart, and it revealed without hiding in his movie and finally become his own unique. Ang Lee , China , Chinese calendar 2708 Words | 10 Pages. Compare The Ways The Distinctively Visual Is Created In Crouching Tiger. distinctively visual images allows an audience to perceive and distinguish the essay armenian, composer’s specific representation. From these distinctive visuals, the . audience’s perceptions force them to coursework as level respond in a particular way. In ‘Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon’, Ang Lee utilises a range of film techniques to position his audience through a combination of quiet, dramatic scenes and choreographed action sequences.

In his painting, ‘Third of May, 1808’ Fransisco Goya conveys meaning exclusively with distinctively. Ang Lee , Audience , Audience theory 923 Words | 2 Pages. In Proulx’s supplementary essay “Getting Movied”, she describes herself to questions be “something of a geographic determinist, believing that regional landscapes, . climate and essay topography dictate local cultural traditions and kinds of essay genocide, work” (129). Director Ang Lee must use numerous visual elements that enhance Proulx’s belief and portray it to the audience. Producer and screenwriter Larry McMurtry had a vision in mind based off of Ansel Adams’ Moonrise, Hernandez, New Meixco. This became the foundation for. Ang Lee , Annie Proulx , Brokeback Mountain 1014 Words | 3 Pages.

Masculinity in essays on international management Brokeback Mountain by essay questions genocide, Annie Proulx. Writing. The classic stereotype of the essay, Western cowboy impacts the way Ennis and punishment Jack view their relationship throughout the screenplay based on the short story, . Brokeback Mountain by genocide, Annie Proulx and the film Brokeback Mountain directed by deterrence essay, Ang Lee. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide. The stereotypical Western cowboy is depicted throughout as quite masculine and are expected to behave and live a certain way, this is not directed said, but the film and novel suggests so. This typical stereotype leads Ennis and Jack to respond indifferently. Empire. They’re. Ang Lee , Annie Proulx , Brokeback Mountain 1240 Words | 3 Pages. immoral and ungodly life lived by heroes ? Kapitana Tuna ? Toning ? Short Stories › Each of these stories has a moral lesson ? Ang Mainot ? . Questions. Ang Naga Simba ? Matinumanon nga Bata ? Ang Gunga sa Kalisud ? Bunga Kalipay ? Pedro Bukaneg As we all know, he is a man of essays on international resource management, letters and is reputed to have written for Augustinians. His famous translated work was Biag ni Lam- ang . With his extensive knowledge of the Spanish and Ilocano language, he co-authored the IlocanoSpanish grammar book and essay dictionary. 19th century , Biag ni Lam-ang , Christianity 969 Words | 4 Pages. NAME:BAGALANON RUTH LABOR RELATION AND NEGOTIATION THIRD DIVISION . Punishment Essay. AMA COMPUTER COLLEGE,PARANAQUE, and/orAMABLE C. AGUILUZ IX,President, MRS. Questions. CELESTE BANSALE, School Director, MS.

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Algorithm , AMA Computer University , Computer 881 Words | 4 Pages. AMA Computer University -HISTORY Historical Highlights With 13 computers and 13 students in a rented tenement in Mandaluyong in 1980, the armenian genocide, . AMA Education System has now grown into the biggest network of campuses in Asia. At present, it has more than 100 branches in formal tense the Philippines and abroad. It has an annual student population of 150,000. And it has produced almost 200,000 highly competent computer professionals employed by essay questions armenian, various companies worldwide. The AMAES started as an Institute of.

AMA Computer University , Computer , Makati City 419 Words | 2 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Chapter I Problems and Its Background (Enrollment System) I. Introduction In this chapter, the . researchers would like to propose an automated billing system in essays on international human AMA Computer Learning Center (ACLC) College of Gapan City, Nueva Ecija. In our generation so many things are different. The advent of technology has changed the way we live, work and spends leisure time. Computer was considered the lifeblood of society; they are everywhere. And. AMA Computer University , Computer , Makati City 1572 Words | 5 Pages. lessen the essay, workload and provides accurate information needed of the school.

As the result this will not only benefit the students but also the employees of a . Coursework. certain establishment. Essay Questions Armenian. The Enrollment System is very essential for a school. In the case of formal essay writing, AMA COMPUTER COLLEGE FAIRVIEW CAMPUS, they are using a manual system composed of a pen and an application form. The student or an applicant definitely having some erasures, and an illegibly hand writing that makes the information inaccurate. Verifying of. AMA Computer University , Computer program , Education 783 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Genocide. Project Title “Computerized Grading System in AMA ” Introduction The computerized grading system of em resume, AMA is under . AMA ORACLE PEOPLESOFT CAMPUS SOLUTIONS ( AMA ORACLE-PSCS) an online-based database used by essay armenian genocide, the AMA Group of Companies to further employ and roman empire advance the technological savvy amongst all employers, employees, teachers and students alike. Background of the Study Russell de Villa works as an Assistant Instructor I at AMA Computer College, Batangas, Employed since July 2012. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide. AMA Computer University , Database , Employment 489 Words | 3 Pages.

AMA Computer College Pampanga Campus Name of Proponents: Mark Raymond A. Diwa Mark D. Valencia Marivin Lloyd E. Han And Roman Empire Comparative. Copino Title of . Proposal: A Proposed Loan Monitoring System Composite Wing Saving Loan Association Inc. with Web based Customer account and essay armenian Ledger Area of Investigation Brief History of Composite Wing Saving Loan Association Inc The Manila Teachers’ Savings and Loan Association, Inc. (MTSLAI or Manila Teachers) is proud to be the first pioneer of the deterrence punishment essay, savings and loan system. AMA Computer University , High school , Hospital 1737 Words | 7 Pages. “To the mind of this court, if indeed private respondent was not driving fast, it would have been easy for armenian genocide, him to stop his car and thwart any untoward . On International Human. incident.”[2] [edit] Filmography [edit] Television Year Title Role Network 2001 Ikaw Lang Ang Mamahalin Inigo Zenorosa GMA Network Click Enzo Beh Bote Nga Peter 2002 Habang Kapiling Ka Basilio Malvarosa 2003 Love to essay armenian Love:Maid for Each Other Ralph Nuts Entertainment Co-Host Love to Love: My 1, 2 Love JM Rodriguez / Tomas 2004. Angel Locsin , GMA Films , GMA Network 1005 Words | 5 Pages. be more healthy. Han And Roman. Objective #3 - To teach mothers in Barangay Ganda how to evaluate changes in the health of armenian, their young children. Example: HMHK aims: . Objective #1 - To recruit a group of in usa, undergraduate students (15-20 students each semester) at AMA Computer University to become volunteers in the Healthy Moms for Healthy Kids(HMHK) Project . Objective #2 - To provide a 4 week training program for the volunteers that covers a) basic nutritional information for mothers and b) information on essay genocide, adult. AMA Computer University , Mother , Nutrition 1588 Words | 7 Pages. ?Presented To: Faculty of Computer Studies AMA Computer College Las Pinas Campus Almanza 2, Las Pinas City For the partial fulfillment of the . Creative Programs. course requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology And Bachelor of Science in Computer Science Proposed by: Ninomiya, Kenichi Eusebio, Mark Anthony Gallardo, Kalidasa Elona, John Mark Tenerife, Johari Ramirez, Marlo Acknowledgement This Feasibility Study has been made possible by the guidance, supervision, cooperation. AMA Computer University , Computer science , Customer 793 Words | 9 Pages. ? AMA UNIVERSITY Project 8, Quezon City COLLEGE OF COMPUTER STUDIES TITLE PROPOSAL SCHOOL YEAR : 2014 - 2015 SUBJECT CODE : CS372 . (INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE ENGINEERING­­) SCHEDULE : Tuesday 9:30-11am / IT402 INSTRUCTOR : Ms. Mary A. Soriano PROPONENTS : Soriano, Chastity Mae M. Bonifacio, Jazmeen Mudge D.L.

1.0 PROPOSED TITLE: “Picture Identification Game” Description: This is a simple game in visual basic and essay questions armenian MS access database in empire essay which you will. AMA Computer University , Database management system , Microsoft Access 658 Words | 6 Pages. Electronic Message Board Using Led Monitor Display. Display aims to questions find solutions for the problems being encountered by writing, the school in terms of posting announcements manually. Specifically, the questions genocide, study aims to . achieve the capital punishment essay, following: 1. To Design an Electronic Message Board System Using LED Monitor for questions, AMA Computer College. And either the system is on indoor or outdoor. 2. Empire. To identify the various problems faced by the existing manual system posting announcements, schedules, and essay etc. 3. To investigate and proposed solutions that will allow the. AMA Computer University , Communication , Computer 822 Words | 3 Pages.

Management Information System Thesis. exception. • Controlling costs at all times, in essays management all areas. • Hiring the genocide, best people available, training, motivating and encouraging them, and . thereby retaining the friendliest, most efficient staff possible. ----------------------- AMA Computer College College of Business Administration. AMA Computer University , Customer , Customer service 650 Words | 3 Pages. In Usa. ?Chapter I Introduction 1.1 Background of the questions armenian, Study ABE International Business and Accountancy College is essay, a branch of essay questions armenian genocide, AMA Computer . University that is located at The Big Orange Bldg. 328 EDSA Grace Park Caloocan City. ABE was founded in 1999 to han and roman empire essay meet the growing demands of world-class, but affordable business education in essay armenian the Philippines. As with other global institutions attempting to succeed in today’s digital age ABE is continuously working and han and empire investing in state of the art facilities in developing. AMA Computer University , Education , Quezon City 1104 Words | 7 Pages. differences to essay questions the proposed software. Essay. Local Studies This contained local studies related to the proposed project to essay questions armenian determine its relevance. In the . study entitled “Occupational Employees Records Management System” (2012) by John Romeo V. Etis of AMA Computer College Binan Campus stated that, the geography coursework, system is created to design a database records management system to provide an effective and essay questions genocide reliable solution to the management of the occupational employee’s records and to reduce or eliminate some manual. Coursework As Level. AMA Computer University , Application for essay armenian genocide, employment , Difference 2075 Words | 7 Pages.

BIAG NI LAM- ANG Nine months before Lam- ang was born to a noble family, his father Don Juan left for in usa, the mountains to defeat an armenian . evil tribe of Igorots. Unfortunately, he was beheaded, and roman essay his head was displayed at the center of the essay questions genocide, village as a prize. When Lam-ang's mother Ina Namongan gave birth to him, she was surprised that he could talk immediately after birth. He selected his own name, chose his own sponsor, and formal essay tense asked for armenian genocide, his father’s presence.Lam- ang promised to deterrence find out what happened to his. Armenian Genocide. Biag ni Lam-ang , Epic poetry , Ethnic groups in the Philippines 667 Words | 2 Pages. Life of Lam- ang (Biag ni Lam- Ang )- Anatomy of an writing tense Ilocano Epic Life of Lam- ang (Biag ni Lam- Ang )- . Anatomy of an Ilocano Epic Dr Abe V. Essay Questions. Rotor Living with Nature School on Blog Paaralang Bayan sa Himpapawid with Ms Melly C TenorioDZRB 738 AM, 8 to 9 Evening Class, Monday to em resume Friday Lesson: Epic. What epic is essay questions, popular in your place, country? How do you compare it with Lam- ang , or say, the Iliad or the Odessey?

The theme of the em resume, epic revolves around the bravery and courage of the main character. Biag ni Lam-ang , Epic poetry , Homer 2222 Words | 9 Pages. Essay. AMA COMPUTER COLLEGE 123 Gen. Resource Management. Malvar St., Davao City COMPUTER/ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEM PROJECT PROPOSAL . Name of questions genocide, Proponents Balindong, Abdul Nafi S. Sarmiento, Arzelmay R. Proposed Title Design Davao City Route Inquiry and Direction Generator Statement of the Problem 1. Non-residents of Davao City often get confused with the PUJ routes. 2. GPS does not provide information of the available means of transportation and essays human routes of going to essay questions armenian genocide a particular. AMA Computer University , City , Davao City 643 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Writing. journey and he must survive in a congested life boat with four animals from his family’s zoo, a hyena, an orangutan, a zebra, and questions genocide worst of all, an adult . Bengal tiger named Richard Parker. In breathtaking 3D and containing spectacular visuals, director Ang Lee brings the writing programs, story to life on the big screen. Although Lee does his best to stay true to the story, there are clear differences between the questions genocide, film and the novel. These differences consists of character development, and condensation/ elimination of essays, key. Ang Lee , Canada Reads , KILL 769 Words | 3 Pages.

Reflection Paper - Pasan Ko Ang Daigdig. ? Pasan Ko Ang Daigdig depicts the life of a poor girl who undergoes several hardships throughout her life and suddenly receives an questions opportunity . to become a professional singer and improve her family’s life. Viewers may come up with one of two insights from watching the movie. First, one may be led to thinking that despite severe suffering and despair, there will always be a happy ending. For this person, the formal essay writing tense, movie seems to reinforce the rags-to-riches archetype. Forget all problems at essay questions, present;. Pasan Ko Ang Daigdig , Personal life 763 Words | 2 Pages. Movie Review: Sense and Sensibility. Movie Review: Sense and Sensibility Ang Lee, who directed, and Emma Thompson, who adapted the screenplay, have done an excellent job of . bringing Jane Austen's Victorian novel, Sense and Sensibility, to the movie screen. The movie's collection of actors are a joy to watch as they bring out the emotions of an otherwise polite and reserved era in time. The production work is deterrence, top notch with bright, cascading photography that sets a romantic I wish I was there setting.

The purpose of the Sense. Academy Award for Best Actress , Ang Lee , Emma Thompson 694 Words | 2 Pages. Genocide. ? To collect more research about Earthly beings I decided to human management watch the essay questions, film Brokeback Mountain, directed by em resume, Ang Lee. Ang Lee is . from Taiwan but directs and produces many American films. Although this film was made in essay 2005 it takes place in 1963 Wyoming when two sheepherders first meet. They begin their journey as strangers doing a job on deterrence capital essay, the mountain and become romantically involved with one another. At first this seems to be a one-time deal, for the one character, Ennis, is to be married to. Ang Lee , Bisexuality , Brokeback Mountain 663 Words | 3 Pages. Qudanxin Liu Ang Lee’s film The Wedding Banquet is a tale of conflicts between sexes, cultures and generations.

Among various implicit . meanings of this film, construction and challenge of patriarchic ideology stands out through out the film. Questions Armenian. The figure of father is first constructed as powerful, predominant and essay writing wise via different types of elements, but finally he has to compromise in this film. Armenian Genocide. The narrative structure enhances the han and roman empire, dramatic change of the father. At the same time, techniques like. Ang Lee , Conflict , Family 561 Words | 2 Pages. Questions Genocide. Pero sa'yong-sa'yo ang oras ko. Chorus: Gagawin ko ang lahat para makapiling ka Kapag kasama kita 'di mapigilan . ang saya You know it feels so good Kapag nagmamahal sa'yo Pag-ibig ko ang diskarte sa puso mo Verse 2: Ang daming nagpapapansin sa Facebook mo Hahayaan na sila basta ako laging katabi mo Hindi sapat ang roses at chocolates sa 'tulad mo Ilabas ang gitara eto na ang harana para sa'yo Awiting sinulat ng puso ko. Chorus: Gagawin ko ang lahat para makapiling. 2005 albums , A Little Bit , A Little Bit Longer 951 Words | 5 Pages.

41-50 Katiwala ako't ang iyong kariktan, kapilas ng langit — anaki'y matibay; tapat ang puso mo[1]'t 'di nagunam-gunam na . ang paglililo'y nasa kagandahan. Hindi ko akalaing iyong sasayangin maraming luha mong ginugol sa akin; taguring madalas na ako ang giliw, mukha ko ang lunas sa madlang hilahil. 'di kung ako Poo'y utusang manggubat ng hari[2] mong ama sa alinmang s'yudad[3], kung ginagawa mo ang aking sagisag, dalawa mong mata'y nanalong perlas[4]? Ang aking plumahe kung itinatahi . 16th century , Dizi , Folk dance 628 Words | 3 Pages. Roman Comparative Essay. themes:One is the truelove between these two cowboys; the other is essay armenian genocide, their struggle between conformity and freedom due to the rejections of society about em resume, . homosexual. Firstly, I would like to essay armenian genocide talk about how the management, theme ‘truelove’ is evidenced in the film. Ang lee used the conversation between these two cowboys to show the deep love in essay their heart towards each other, such as Jack's plaintive cry to Ennis I wish I knew how to quit you! and Jack’s words ‘sometimes I miss you so much that I can hardly stand. Ang Lee , Anne Hathaway , Bisexuality 669 Words | 2 Pages. Morale: Ending: Ang Paboritong Libro ni Hudas From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search | Author | Bob . Ong | Country | Philippines | Language | Tagalog | Genre(s) | humor, Authobiography | Publisher | Visual Print Enterprises | Publication date | 2003 | Media type | Print paperback | ISBN | 9719234210 | OCLC Number | 57417594 | Preceded by | Bakit Baligtad Magbasa ng Libro ang mga Pilipino? | Followed by deterrence capital essay, | Alamat ng Gubat | Ang Paboritong Libro. Essay Questions. Ang Paboritong Libro ni Hudas , Divine Comedy , Envy 1973 Words | 7 Pages. evaluation of creative, various aspects of Chinese classical culture.

In the same way that J.R.R. Armenian. Tolkien in The Lord of the Rings drew the classical heroic worldview . while at the same time critiquing that tradition from the formal, perspective of his Catholic faith, Ang Lee has crafted a masterful piece of various forms of Chinese mythology and Taoist philosophy that brings a broader perspective to its subject matter than many Asian films. The movie was slow, but interesting. The pace of the movie sets a tone of peace. Ang Lee , Chinese mythology , Combat 614 Words | 2 Pages. BIAG NI LAM ANG Sina Don Juan at Namongan ay taga-Nalbuan, ngayon ay sakop ng La Union. Questions Genocide. May isa silang anak na lalaki.

Ito'y si . Creative Writing Programs. Lam- ang . Bago pa isilang si Lam- ang , ang ama nito ay pumunta na sa bundok upang parusahan ang isang pangkat ng mga Igorota na kalaban nila. Essay Questions. Nang isilang si Lam- ang , apat na hilot ang nagtulong-tulong. Ugali na nga mga Ilokano noong una na tumulong sa mga hilot kung manganganak ang maybahay nila ngunit dahil nga wala si Don Juan, mga kasambahay nila ang tumulong sa pagsilang. Biag ni Lam-ang , Pedro Bucaneg 14551 Words | 40 Pages. AMA taps Net for enrollment Updated March 22, 2002 - 12:00am 0 9 googleplus0 0 Everything in formal tense life has virtually gone electronic, . Essay Genocide. including enrollment for a college education in geography coursework as level today#146;s cyber age. Check out My AMA online. The Web-based enrollment at questions genocide, AMA Computer University (AMACU) introduces a fast-paced, mobile and highly interactive method of enlisting oneself for writing, a college education.

My AMA features a pioneering Online Enrollment System, which includes basic information. AMA Computer University , Education , Nokia 389 Words | 2 Pages. Questions. CELTIC VERSE FOR PENTECOST Come Holy Spirit Fill the on international human management, hearts of your faithful And enlighten them with the questions armenian, fire of your love. ABA, GINOONG MARIA Aba . Ginoong Maria, napupuno ka ng grasya. Essay. Ang Panginoon ay sumasaiyo, bukod kang pinagpala sa babaeng lahat, At pinagpala naman ang ‘yong anak na si Hesus. Santa Maria, Ina ka ng Diyos, Ipanalangin mo kaming makasalanan ngayon at essay questions armenian, kung kami mamamatay. Essays On International Human Management. Amen.

SERVICE (Ceasar) 1. Essay. We are made for creative writing, service to care for armenian, each other; we are made. German language , God , God in Christianity 1645 Words | 6 Pages. AMA Computer University , Computer , Computer science 7692 Words | 37 Pages. Information Technology Name of Proponents: Domalanta, Lovely Jane S. Capital Essay. Pacete, Josephia S. Ricaplaza, Kathyrine L. Essay Questions. 1.0 Proposed Thesis Title . “Android Tracking Device Application for essays human, AMA Computer College Fairview Campus Students.” 2.0 Areas of Investigation The proposed title will be conducted at the AMA Computer College Fairview Campus. It is for armenian, the students to help them to track your lost or stolen phone. 3.0 Reasons for creative programs, Choosing the Topic The Tracking Device Application. AMA Computer University , Mobile phone , Proposal 287 Words | 2 Pages. Questions Genocide. 250SX made him rethink his future in formal writing tense racing and he decided to retire on the eve of the 2003 Supercross season. He did a farewell tour with KTM to show his . Questions Genocide. appreciation and sign autographs for fans. He holds the second best record for most combined AMA Supercross and em resume in usa motocross victories with 89 career wins; only questions armenian genocide, Ricky Carmichael has won more.[1] In 2005, McGrath came out of retirement to race a limited schedule on roman empire comparative essay, the Supercross circuit. He rejoined forces with his former Team Honda squad and has.

2009 AMA Supercross season , KTM , Monster Energy 567 Words | 2 Pages. Essay Armenian Genocide. ? AMA COMPUTER COLLEGE – CALOOCAN CAMPUS UE TECH ROAD COR. SAMSON ROAD CALOOCAN CAMPUS TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. . Planning Activities – timeline 2.1 Gantt Chat 3. Deterrence Punishment Essay. Composition of team 4. Responsibility Areas of armenian, each member 5. Coursework. Background of the study 5.1 History 5.2 Contact Person Job Description 6. Detailed Description of the genocide, Existing System 6.1 Program Flow Chart 6.2 Data Flow Diagram 7. Statement of the Problem 7.1 ISHIKAWA. AMA Computer University , Comparison of time tracking software , Data flow diagram 1880 Words | 12 Pages. Computerized Order Processing with Inventory System for Word of Life Consumer Cooperative. Online Ordering System (Mary Joyce A. Mandado and April Joy F. Tena) AMA Computer University, College of Computer Studies (Aug. 2005) . -3K IT Online Ordering System is all about creative writing, ordering books online. The system is running on the internet and has the ability to questions armenian order books through wholesale basis only.

2.) Online Purchasing System for CCI Paint (Jonathan R. Aguinias and Pol Anthony V. Dela Cruz) AMA Computer University, College of Computer Studies (April 2009) -A website. AMA Computer University , Computer , Customer service 6881 Words | 34 Pages. AMA COMPUTER UNIVERSITY Project 8, Quezon City College of deterrence essay, Computer Studies THESIS PROJECT PROPOSAL School Year : 1st Trimester 2012 – . 2013 Subject Code : CSCI80IT – ZD Schedule : Wednesday (10:00 – 1:00 pm) BA402 Thesis A Professor : Prof. Liane Janele G. Sibal Name of questions armenian genocide, Proponents : Lumido, Catherine A. Geography As Level. Student No.: QC09500272 : Valera, Jaymee Pie E. : QC09500318 1.0 PROPOSED THESIS TITLE: Inventory System 2.0 AREA OF INVESTIGATION . AMA Computer University , Computation , Computer 289 Words | 2 Pages. Essay Questions. Nagiging bitter din ang isang tao dahil sa hindi niya matanggap ang ginawa sa kanya, yung tipong sa lahat ng ginawa mo . ayun pa . ang naiganti sayo. Tapos parang wala lang nangyari, ikaw sobrang nasasaktan, siya makikita mo nang nakatawa at han and empire, may kasama nang iba. -Love needs no proof, no day to essay armenian genocide celebrate, no cards to essays on international show your love, all it needs a hand to hold in difficult times and an ability to armenian make your loved one smile. Geography. :) -DESTINY IS FOR LOSERS..--It's just an excuse to questions wait for creative writing, things to happen. Questions Armenian. 2006 singles , 2007 singles , Debut albums 6066 Words | 21 Pages. Foreign and em resume Local Literature About Sales and Inventory System AMA EDUCATION SYSTEM LUCENA CAMPUS LC Pc Net Sales and Inventory . Armenian Genocide. System A Case Study Presented To The Dean and Faculty Of Department of em resume in usa, Computer Studies AMA COMPUTER COLLEGE LUCENA CAMPUS In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirement in essay armenian genocide the Subject System Analysis Design Premium 5082 Words 21 Pages Sales and Inventory System (Revised) Colegio De San Juan De Letran College of Liberal Arts and Sciences.

AMA Computer University , Business , Colegio de San Juan de Letran 377 Words | 2 Pages. ? AMA Institute[edit] AMA Computer University, formerly known as AMA Computer College (AMACC) and AMA . Technological School (AMATS), was founded by han and roman essay, Dr. Amable R. Armenian. Aguiluz V, who named it after the initials of han and roman empire comparative essay, his father's name, Amable Mendoza Aguiluz, Sr. Dr. Aguiluz saw the demand for fully trained computer professionals in the country. However, no institution in the country offered computer education to questions genocide professionals. Punishment. Aguiluz founded the AMA Institute of Computer Studies with the first computer. AMA Computer University , Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo , Joseph Estrada 2454 Words | 6 Pages.

The Biometric Attendance Recording and Payroll System. [pic] AMA Computer College Binan Campus IT Project Proposal Name: Cadaon. Ferdinand Paulo,Maricar F. Essay Genocide. Proposed Title: Records . Management and Information System for comparative essay, Stream Global Services Area of Investigation: Stream Global Services was originally formed more than 15 years ago as an outgrowth service for a large software reseller, Stream is now a global provider of sales, customer service and technical support for the Fortune 1000. Since its inception, Stream's global footprint. AMA Computer University , Christopher Nolan , Computer 415 Words | 2 Pages. Foreign and Local Literature About Sales and essay Inventory System.

AMA EDUCATION SYSTEM LUCENA CAMPUS LC Pc Net Sales and in usa Inventory System A Case Study Presented To The Dean and Faculty Of . Department of Computer Studies AMA COMPUTER COLLEGE LUCENA CAMPUS In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirement in questions armenian genocide the Subject System Analysis Design Irish R. Banayat Ana Luna Loberio Jasper Amiel R. Magnaye Mhelieza R. Magnaye October 2010 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Technology has taken a big leap forward. AMA Computer University , Computer , Inventory 5082 Words | 18 Pages. system in their generation for speed and tense efficiency in questions the quality of work. Previous system computerization project has proven its advantage over its manual . counterpart. 2.2.1 Local Augencio Tanjuankio, a BS Computer Engineering student of AMA computer College, created a system that controls several electrical devices such as light. He just proved that a computer-based control system is flexible and han and empire essay capable of controlling difference devices.[4] But how do computers “communicate” with other.

AMA Computer University , Computer , Electricity generation 2888 Words | 9 Pages. Ang Pagpapatawad sa Konseptong Filipino Kapag ang “Pagpatawad” ang narinig ng isang tao o maging itoy isang . Essay Questions. punto ng pag aaral para sa nakakarami, ang karaniwang naiisip ay isang konsepto ng Relihiyon. Sapagkat dito madalas na talakayin ang Pagpatawad ayon sa turo ng Bibliya at em resume, ano ang nais iparating na Diyos sa atin ukol dito. Ano nga ba ang sinasabi ng Bibliya ukol sa Pagpatawad? Ngunit kung hindi ninyo pinatatawad ang mga nagkakasala sa inyo, hindi rin kayo patatawarin ng inyong. 1513 Words | 5 Pages. it should be done on questions, a daily basis. But even if the schools do their job in monitoring and maintaining the students’ attendance, another task which is . informing the writing tense, parents or guardians of the student if the student missed or skipped a class.

AMA Computer College Cabanatuan branch was established on June 14, 1999. The campus is a private computer school which offers undergraduate degree. The instructors in the said school manually maintain and monitor the students’ attendance and the record. Academic term , AMA Computer University , Class 2562 Words | 10 Pages.

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essayist forum Archiv verlassen und diese Seite im Standarddesign anzeigen : Essayist Schenk. (nur verbal). Questions? Er schreibt auf seiner Internet-Seite: dann ist der nicht mehr auf die Regattasegler gemnzt, denn die haben lngst. abgehoben aus der Schar der Fahrtensegler um die Welt, haben nichts mehr. Uneingeschrnkte Zustimmung, wenn er mit uns die Genieer meint.

Masse der Blauwassersegler wie Wanderer eben zu Formel-1-Piloten. Han And Empire Essay? Man ver- gleiche nur die Etmale: Die Achthundert Meilen sind im Angriff der unbewohn- baren Rennmaschinen, whrend ich schon mit jedem Wert ber hundert See- meilen pro questions armenian genocide 24 Stunden zufrieden bin. Man ist geneigt, dem Fachmann alles passieren zu lassen, auch sei- ne Gedankenfehler. Essays On International? Aber: In diesem Punkt wird umgekehrt ein Schuh. Sie verhalten sich wie Formel-1-Piloten zur wandern- den Masse der Blau-Wasser-Segler. ter mein Respekt und meine Bewunderung. Hier mal einer, der seglerisch einiges geleistet hat und Schenk nicht fr voll nimmt. Essay Genocide? http://www.seefieber.de/Streiflichter/streiflichter.html. Diese Streiflichter sind auch lesenswert, wenn es nicht um Schenk geht, auf den er es aber zugegebenerweise etwas abgesehen hat.

Und wenn man einen sucht, der seglerisch so richtig was geleistet hat und damit alle Schenks der Welt, uns alle hier im Forum und bis auf ganz wenige Ausnahmen die Segelwelt berhaupt berflgelt hat, dann wird man wohl bei Erdmann fndig. Deterrence? Und da wir gerade bei Prominenten sind: seemnnische Kompetent bis zum Gehtnichtmehr verbunden mit hohen literarischen Qualitten ist bei Moitessier zu finden. Essay Genocide? Habe gerade Kap Hoorn der logische Weg gnstig bei Ebay geschossen: ein Wahnsinnsbuch! Da kann sich Schenk nicht nur eine Scheibe von abschneiden. Aber zurck zum Thema. Geography As Level? Wenn es darum geht, Verffentlichungen zu finden, bei denen sich Schenk im Ton vergriffen hat, dann bin ich dabei.

Da findet man einiges. . Armenian Genocide? steht senkrecht oben links auf seinem Internet-Auftritt (das Impres- sum habe ich nicht gefunden). Em Resume In Usa? Ich habe mir ein paar Seiten seiner Schrei- be reingezogen - dann wusste ich wohher der Wind weht. Questions? Ich habe ein Ge- spr fr Schreiber mit gekrnktem Ego. Formal Writing Tense? Sie sind unfrei bis verstiegen. Armenian? Eine.

geistige Auseinandersetzung mit diesem Typus habe ich bereits in creative writing, der Pu- bertt abgelegt. Questions Armenian? Mir wre es ein Leichtes, so einen Schreiber auseinander. zu nehmen - es wre verlorene Zeit. noch kein Buch von ihm gelesen - aber seine Essays, und die gern. Essays On International Resource Management? Wenn. ich ihn kritsiere, so dann nur deshalb, weil ich ihm gern das Wasser reichen. drfen mchte, haha. ein fantastisches, faszinierendes Buch, was Besseres hab ich im Bereich Segeln noch nicht gelesen.

. Essay Questions Armenian? welche knnten das sein. Resource? Und wieso kommen die beim Mehrfach-Lesen ? be reingezogen - dann wusste ich wohher der Wind weht. Questions? Ich habe ein Ge- spr fr Schreiber mit gekrnktem Ego. Essays On International Resource Management? Sie sind unfrei bis verstiegen. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Eine. geistige Auseinandersetzung mit diesem Typus habe ich bereits in writing programs, der Pu- bertt abgelegt. Armenian Genocide? Mir wre es ein Leichtes, so einen Schreiber auseinander.

zu nehmen - es wre verlorene Zeit. Was das gekrnkte Ego angeht, so hre ich das zum ersten mal von einem, der Rttgering gelesen hat. Creative? Hatte das Vergngen, ihn persnlich kennenzulernen und konnte mit Erstaunen feststellen, da die selbstkritische, spontane Art nicht nur in essay questions, seinem Schreibstil zu finden ist. Han And Roman Empire? Der Mann schreibt nicht nur gut, der ist auch noch supernett. Essay? Dagegen ist bei persnlichen Gesprchen Erdmann eher verschlossen und Schenk arrogant, um mal den Vergleich zur Prominenz beizubehalten. Writing Programs? Was das Auseinandernehmen von Rttgering angeht, so wre das in questions, den Streiflichtern mglicherweise drin, aber probier es mal mit seinem Buch, oder den Berichten auf der Homepage! Das knnte schwieriger werden. Aber um den Essayisten Schenk mal wieder in em resume, den Vordergrund zu rcken drngt sich mir die Frage auf, woher er denn wei, da Nigel Tetley wegen seines knappen Ausscheidens aus der Golden Globe Selbstmord begangen hat und woher er wei, da er dabei Frauenkleider getragen hat. Armenian? Uwe Rttgering scheint dem ja recht weit nachgegangen zu sein, ohne Hinweise darauf zu finden.

Das ist doch mal eine Herausforderung fr die Pro-Schenk-Fraktion. . Creative Writing? ist nicht mein Ding, deshalb der Verweis nach. Zu dem verbliebenen Rest nehme ich spter Stellung (freu mich drauf:--) Das tut er nicht. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Er kanns nicht… Streiflichtern mglicherweise drin, aber probier es mal mit seinem Buch, oder den. Berichten auf der Homepage! Das knnte schwieriger werden.

Ihrer Verlockung komme ich nur gegen Honorar nach (knnte ja. jeder Film-Fuzzi kommen und mit mir ein Casting veranstalten :--) Ihrer Verlockung komme ich nur gegen Honorar entgegen . Roman Empire Comparative Essay? [/QUOTE] Du musst Frank noch bezahlen ? . Armenian? muss nicht Geld oder Geldwertes sein. Em Resume? Allein dass man mir. Vertrauen entgegen bringt, bedeutet mir viel.

Sagen wir es mal. so: der Frank hat mich erkannt (fast im biblischen Sinn); und. wenn wir uns treffen, gebe ich ne Runde aus. so: der Frank hat mich erkannt (fast im biblischen Sinn) Habe mein geistiges Auge auf unendlich akkomodiert und da gaaaanz unten trotzdem keinen Witz erkennen knnen. zitat Django:der Frank hat mich erkannt (fast im biblischen Sinn) sum habe ich nicht gefunden). Essay Questions? Ich habe mir ein paar Seiten seiner Schrei- be reingezogen - dann wusste ich wohher der Wind weht. Han And Comparative? Ich habe ein Ge- spr fr Schreiber mit gekrnktem Ego. Questions Armenian Genocide? Sie sind unfrei bis verstiegen. Essays? Eine.

geistige Auseinandersetzung mit diesem Typus habe ich bereits in essay questions, der Pu- bertt abgelegt. Em Resume In Usa? Mir wre es ein Leichtes, so einen Schreiber auseinander. zu nehmen - es wre verlorene Zeit. noch kein Buch von ihm gelesen - aber seine Essays, und die gern. Essay Questions Armenian? Wenn. ich ihn kritsiere, so dann nur deshalb, weil ich ihm gern das Wasser reichen.

drfen mchte, haha. Ich habe ein Gespr fr Schreiber mit gekrnktem Ego. Essays On International Human? Sie sind unfrei bis verstiegen. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Eine geistige Auseinandersetzung mit diesem Typus habe ich bereits in roman essay, der Pubertt abgelegt. Essay Questions? Mir wre es ein Leichtes, so einen Schreiber auseinander zu nehmen - es wre verlorene Zeit. noch kein Buch von ihm gelesen. die kommen gleich umme Ecke. Han And Essay? Ich hab'se schon wiehern hren. be reingezogen - dann wusste ich wohher der Wind weht. Essay Questions Armenian? Ich habe ein Ge- spr fr Schreiber mit gekrnktem Ego. Em Resume In Usa? Sie sind unfrei bis verstiegen.

Eine. geistige Auseinandersetzung mit diesem Typus habe ich bereits in essay, der Pu- bertt abgelegt. Writing? Mir wre es ein Leichtes, so einen Schreiber auseinander. zu nehmen - es wre verlorene Zeit. Seltsam, Herr Backhausen scheint anderes von Uwe Rttgering gelesen zu haben als ich. Essay Questions Genocide? Ich konnte bei Lektre seines Buches und beim Stbern auf seiner Seite jedenfalls kein gekrnktes Ego feststellen. Coursework As Level? Sondern das gesunde Selbstbewutsein eines Menschen, der erfreulicherweise Ahnung von der Sache hat, ber die er schreibt. Questions Armenian Genocide? Uwe Rttgerings Artikel in punishment essay, der Yacht ber seinen Familientrn lesen min Fru und ich immer mal wieder gern. Armenian Genocide? Herrn Schenks uerungen ber Yachtetikette in em resume, der gleichen Zeitschrift war eher langweilig zu lesen, mir schien er auch nicht sehr durchdacht. Ich mag den Uwe. Questions? Einziges wo ich jedes mal drber stolpere, ist seine Stimme, passt irgendwie nicht ins Bild, bringt zum nachdenken.

Wenn Django nur ein Teil der Selbstironie besitze wie der Uwe, wrde er hier nicht mehr schreiben. Was die Stimme angeht, so ging es mir auch so. Han And Roman Essay? nicht nur bei Uwe, auch bei Erdmann. Questions Genocide? Kaum aber die Leute persnlich getroffen, schon passen auch die Stimmen. . Geography Coursework? reicht mir das Wasser ! das nennt man Neudeutsch Ranking. Essay Questions Genocide? Wer allerdings Deinen Beitrag liest (und viele vorangegangene) muss zu der Fragestellung kommen, wem eigentlich die Ehre des ersten Platzes wirklich gehrt. Writing? Solltest noch mal 3 (Tri) Jahre in essay, eine Kindertagessttte gehen (Kita).

Einen guten Jahreswechsel, aber stolper nicht. langsam musste Dich mal entscheiden! Gestern haste mir noch den ersten Platz zugestanden - oder? gazin um seine Meinung gebeten wird, wenn die Redakteure sich. nicht kompetent genug fhlen, zu dem Thema selbst zu schreiben. Mit dem Essayist Schenk kann sich ein Magazin schmcken und die. Auflage erhhen, weil Schenks Meinung ZHLT und sich zum Miver- gngen seiner Kritiker (und Neider) auch in geography, barer Mnze ausZAHLT, auf beiden Seiten ! gazin um seine Meinung gebeten wird, wenn die Redakteure sich. nicht kompetent genug fhlen, zu dem Thema selbst zu schreiben.

Mit dem Essayist Schenk kann sich ein Magazin schmcken und die. Auflage erhhen, weil Schenks Meinung ZHLT und sich zum Miver- gngen seiner Kritiker (und Neider) auch in essay questions, barer Mnze ausZAHLT, auf beiden Seiten ! Und wer sein Leben - wie er - auf den Meeren verbracht hat, kann einfach viel aus seinem Erfahrungsschatz erzhlen. Bobby Schenk strt sich nicht an creative Besserwissern, Besserwisser stren sich an essay Schenk. Programs? :D. nur mit nicks so um sich werfen, warum dann noch in armenian, den tasten klimpern, nur frs eigne ego doch, so lasst uns frhlich rutschen, schneller als der schrei und. Ich beziehe mich vor allem auf den Artikel Die kranke Welt der Weltumsegler mit meiner jetzigen Kritik ber die Verbreitung von Halbwahrheiten. Ich mu mich korrigieren: Ich bin mir mehr als sicher, da er Peter Kittel meint. Schn fr Dich. Geography? Carlo bleibt fr mich ein selbstgeflliger Mensch, der sich selbst gerne reden hrt und seine Phrasen werden immer unausstehlicher.

Ja genau, der beste im copy and essay questions armenian, paste-challenge und der beste Wikipedia Zitierer. Das ist doch nicht Dein Ernst? Lies mal nach, was der Carlo hier verffentlicht. Geography Coursework As Level? Technische Tips? Nur Berichte anderer, die er dann auch noch in essay armenian, der Sprache des ursprnglichen Verfassers hier reinkopiert.

Zum bersetzen meistens zu faul. Creative Programs? Dann eigene Erlebnisse: Irgendwann mal ein paar selbstdarstellerische Texte, aus denen man wenig lernen konnte, auer was fr ein Schlauer unser Kater Carlo-di-Mare ist. Essay Armenian Genocide? Seine selbstdiktierte mediterrane Lebens- und Esskultur kann einem auch auf die Nerven gehen. Tense? Er kann das fr sich behalten. Essay Questions? Es ist schlichtweg snobistisch.

Er versucht dauernd, klarzustellen, wie bewandert er ist, wirft mit italienischen Begriffen um sich und nennt italienische Weine, die Du hier bestenfalls im Weinfachhandel bekommst. Human Management? Er ist ein echter Selbstdarsteller, eine Sorte von Forumsmitglieder, die hier rumkaspern, weil sie sich die Mitgliedschaft im Yachtclub von Antibes, Monaco oder saint Tropez nie leisten knnen werden. Armenian? Aber hier den dicken, weltgewandten Maxe machen. Geography As Level? Widerlich. Und wer sein Leben - wie er - auf den Meeren verbracht hat kann einfach viel aus seinem Erfahrungsschatz erzhlen. Sagen wir mal: Er hat nicht sein Leben, sondern 20 Jahre an essay genocide Bord seiner Yacht(-en) in essays on international human management, Ankerbuchten und Hfen verbracht und ist jedes Jahr mindestens einmal Richtung Heimat gejettet. Bobby Schenk strt sich nicht an armenian Besserwissern, Besserwisser stren sich an creative writing programs Schenk. Essay Armenian? :D. Ich habe mir ein paar Seiten seiner Schrei- be reingezogen - dann wusste ich wohher der Wind weht. Writing? Ich habe ein Ge- spr fr Schreiber mit gekrnktem Ego. Questions Armenian? Sie sind unfrei bis verstiegen.

Eine. geistige Auseinandersetzung mit diesem Typus habe ich bereits in formal essay tense, der Pu- bertt abgelegt. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Mir wre es ein Leichtes, so einen Schreiber auseinander. zu nehmen - es wre verlorene Zeit. Hast den Inhalt der Schlagptz bezglich Rttgering doch entgegengenommen. Die Dusche machte den Wolf zum begossenem Pudel. Die Dusche machte den Wolf zum begossenem Pudel.

*ich fhl mich SOo guuut. Creative Writing Programs? * Gerade in genocide, den Anfangsjahren ist Schenk mitnichten dauernd zurckgeflogen, er hat die Welt umrundet und auf seinem Schiff gelebt. Formal? Vielleicht doch noch mal in essay questions genocide, die Reiseberichte reinschmkern? ;) Und gutes Neues Jahr. Bisher hatte ich es noch nicht ntig, mich bei Bobby Schenk sachkundig zu machen, haha. Bisher hatte ich es noch nicht ntig, mich bei Bobby Schenk sachkundig zu machen, haha.

Zu dem verbliebenen Rest nehme ich spter Stellung (freu mich drauf:--) . Geography Coursework As Level? des Links (=95477) geschah am 2. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Januar 2008 durch den Adminis- trator. Geography Coursework? Ich wei nicht mehr genau, was dort stand und werde mir in. Zukunft ein Archiv wichtiger Beitrge anlegen, damit ich notfalls zitie- ren kann, wenn ich danach gefragt werde. Zukunft ein Archiv wichtiger Beitrge anlegen, damit ich notfalls zitieren kann, wenn ich danach gefragt werde. Archivierung und Beweisfhrung is essay questions armenian ne ganz wichtige Sache! Das is formal essay writing tense ne echte Aufgabe fr Ruhestndler, die sich so selbst verwalten knnen. Archivierung und Beweisfhrung is essay genocide ne ganz wichtige Sache! Das is in usa ne echte Aufgabe fr Ruhestndler, die sich so selbst verwalten knnen. Genau. Essay Questions Genocide? Stell' Dir mal vor, Du hast so einen als Nachbarn. Geography? :eek: der Horror. Armenian? :D. Mir ist wieder eingefallen, was in on international management, meinem gelschten Beitrag.

95477 stand, sinngem wiederhole ich es: der Mehrrumpf-Fraktion - ich bin stolz auf ihn. ren, ja, aber ich kann nichts Ehrenrhriges da dran finden. Da sitzt jemand, mit ein bis zwei Glas Rotwein zu viel und seine Frau ist schon ins Bett gegangen, weil sie den alten Griesgram nicht mehr ertragen will. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Keiner da zum spielen! Schenk scheint sich immer gegen irgendwen verteidigen zu wollen. On International Management? Gegen die Mono-Segler (wer, bitte greift den armen Mann denn an, wenn er mit nem Kat segeln mchte. Essay? ). Geography As Level? Gegen die Regatta-Segler. Essay Armenian Genocide? Gegen die, die die geschriebenen Regeln des Ecker-Cup2007 so ausgelegt haben, wie es eben aufgeschrieben war. Deterrence Capital Essay? Gegen schnelle Kurzkieler. Essay Questions Genocide? Gegen klassische Langkieler mit langen berhngen, die schrg schnell segeln.

Gegen den bsen Wind, der im Mittelmeer von vorne kam. Creative Programs? Und Wind von vorn ist ja schon bei 4 bft was ganz furchtbares, wie Schenk schreibt. Essay Armenian? Er schttelt sein weises Haupt ber Low-Budget-Segelei und verweist doch auf Segler, die mit 5000 Euro jhrlicher Lebenhaltungskosten (zu zweit!) um die Welt segeln. Rttgering scheint freundlicher: er bewundert die Leute, die sich die Mini-Transat antun. On International Human Resource Management? Er hebt keine warnenden Zeigefinger. Essay Genocide? Er erkennt die Leistung an, die es ist, den Hintern hochzubekommen aus dem bequemen Sessel.

Insbesondere haben es ihm die Aufbrche mit bescheidenen Mitteln angetan. Auf Schenks Weltumsegler-Galerie kommen Wilts, Erdmann, Rttgering nicht vor. Essays Management? Das kann verschiedene Ursachen haben, z.B. Essay Questions Genocide? da Schenk auf die Leute verweisen mchte, die eher dem Fahrten-Mainstream folgen und daher fr eine grere Anzahl Nachahmer interessant sind. Han And Comparative? Oder er blendet schlicht die aus, die beim Weltumseglerbcherschreiben nicht so ganz schlecht Geld verdienen. Questions Genocide? Beides verstndlich, aber man kann´s auch dazuschreiben. Sollte ich jemals in em resume, die Lage kommen, um die Welt zu segeln (oder segeln zu mssen), wrde ich wahrscheinlich Schenks Navi-Buch einpacken, was mir verstndlich geschrieben vorkommt. Schenk scheint sich immer gegen irgendwen . . Essay Genocide? liee sich erhrten, wenn er sich mal zum Zitieren bequemen. knnte - vielleicht macht er's mal.

der eine (Schenk) souvern vor allem von sich und seinen Er- fahrungen schreibt, whrend der andere (Rttgering) das, ab- gesehen von Schnodderigkeit (H?), auch tut, aber mit Sei- tenhieben auf den Yacht-Essayisten. Han And Empire Comparative? Die hinterlassen bei mir. ein Gschmckle und die Frage: Hat er das ntig? Ein Gentle- man geht mit seinen Kollegen eher so nicht um. Ich erstand dieses Machwerk, weil ich glaubte, Astronavigation knne daraus anschaulich nachvollzogen werden. War ein Trugschlu und auerdem grottenlangweilig.

der andere (Rttgering) : Hat er das ntig? Bobby Schenk ist einer von uns, der Avantgarde der Segler, der Mehrrumpf-Fraktion. Aha, ihr seid also die Avantgarde der Segler. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Au Backe. Schenk scheint sich immer gegen irgendwen verteidigen zu wollen. Roman Empire Comparative? Gegen die Mono-Segler (wer, bitte greift den armen Mann denn an, wenn er mit nem Kat segeln mchte. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? ). Formal Writing Tense? Gegen die Regatta-Segler. Genocide? Gegen die, die die geschriebenen Regeln des Ecker-Cup2007 so ausgelegt haben, wie es eben aufgeschrieben war. Deterrence Capital Punishment Essay? Gegen schnelle Kurzkieler. Questions Genocide? Gegen klassische Langkieler mit langen berhngen, die schrg schnell segeln.

Gegen den bsen Wind, der im Mittelmeer von vorne kam. Formal Essay Writing? Und Wind von vorn ist ja schon bei 4 bft was ganz furchtbares, wie Schenk schreibt. Essay Armenian? Er schttelt sein weises Haupt ber Low-Budget-Segelei und verweist doch auf Segler, die mit 5000 Euro jhrlicher Lebenhaltungskosten (zu zweit!) um die Welt segeln. Rttgering scheint freundlicher: er bewundert die Leute, die sich die Mini-Transat antun. Punishment Essay? Er hebt keine warnenden Zeigefinger. Essay? Er erkennt die Leistung an, die es ist, den Hintern hochzubekommen aus dem bequemen Sessel. Geography Coursework? Insbesondere haben es ihm die Aufbrche mit bescheidenen Mitteln angetan.

Auf Schenks Weltumsegler-Galerie kommen Wilts, Erdmann, Rttgering nicht vor. Questions Genocide? Das kann verschiedene Ursachen haben, z.B. Writing Programs? da Schenk auf die Leute verweisen mchte, die eher dem Fahrten-Mainstream folgen und daher fr eine grere Anzahl Nachahmer interessant sind. Questions Armenian? Oder er blendet schlicht die aus, die beim Weltumseglerbcherschreiben nicht so ganz schlecht Geld verdienen. Creative? Beides verstndlich, aber man kann´s auch dazuschreiben. Sollte ich jemals in questions genocide, die Lage kommen, um die Welt zu segeln (oder segeln zu mssen), wrde ich wahrscheinlich Schenks Navi-Buch einpacken, was mir verstndlich geschrieben vorkommt. Jetzt wirds interessant.

Nun, ich lese jetzt auch mehr und mehr den Rttgering und Schenk hab ich eh im Kopf. Dabei fllt MIR auf, dass es sich a) um komplett unterschiedliche Menschen handelt, die auch anderen Generationen angehren. Creative Programs? b) beide verstehen ihr Geschft glnzend. Essay Questions Armenian? Beide verstehen es, sich zum Meister zu erklren. Rttgering bedient vordergrndig mehr den Underdog und den Menschen mit schmalen Geldbeutel. Em Resume In Usa? Schenk ist geradezu der Gottvater der Alten, die sich endlich, mit fetter Pension im Kreuz, auf eine Fahrt wagen (selbstverstndlich mit jedem technischen Schnickschnack, den die Industrie zu verkaufen bereit ist.) Rttgerings Stil ist klar der modernere. Questions Genocide? Schnoddrig, selbstbezogen, alles in formal essay, Frage stellend, dennoch groes Dafrsein.

Schenk ist geradeaus und sehr ehrlich. Im brigen ist Schenk katholischer Bayer. Essay Genocide? Das drfen wir nicht vergessen. Essays On International Resource? Deswegen ist er anfllig fr eine der Todsnden: die Vllerei. Essay Armenian? Fr mich ist das symphatisch. Fr den verkniffenen Protestanten aus dem Norden ist er , schon deswegen, ein rotes Tuch. Bis auf ein paar 'Erfindungen', die man einem alten Seebren aber gerne als Seemannsgarn verzeiht, schreibt er ehrlich und wahrheitsgemss (seine Wahrheit). Das kann der Rttgering nicht ab. Creative Writing Programs? Versteht er unter Berichten, die absolut ehrliche 1:1 Berichterstattung. Essay Armenian? Er bemerkt nicht, dass seine Berichte ebeso unwahr sind, wie wahr.

Denn er KANN nicht jedes Detail schreiben, WEIL er immer auch subjektiv ist. Schenk weiss das sowieso. Han And Roman Comparative? Deswegen berichtet er einseitig und ist fr mich dewegen authentischer. Der Kern der 'Auseinandersetzung' der beiden, ist ein Ringen um Definitionsoberhoheit, was Blauwassersegeln ist. Gewinnt Schenk, ist es denen vorbehalten, die Geld haben und sich durch genug Verdienst IN unserer Gesellschaft 'es' verdient haben (so wie er). Ich verweise hier auf seinen Artikel ber die 'verarmten' Segler und eine BILDartige Hetze gegen solche 'Individuen'. Nicht so Rttgering.

Er definiert den Blauwassersegler als umweltfreundlichen Halbasketen. Essay Questions Genocide? Je mehr Eigeninitiative der Segler zeigt umsomehr hat er R. Geography Coursework As Level? auf seiner Seite, schliesslich war (ist?) er Brsenfuzzi. Da sie selber eigtl. Questions Genocide? nichts leisten, sondern eher Schmarotzer an han and roman empire comparative wirklicher Arbeit sind, mssen sie umso mehr davon reden. Wer wird welchen Werbeauftrag ergattern ? Wir drfen gespannt sein. Ein Kampf zwischen CSU und FDP. Einer wie ich steht ghnend danneben und denkt sich seinen Teil. Gefhlsmssig bin ich dann eher auf Seiten Bobbies, weil die CSUler schon immer die Ehrlichsten waren.

Sie machen keinen Hehl aus ihrem rechtskonservativen Weltbild. Armenian Genocide? Bei allen anderen wird geheuchelt bis zum Kotzen. Em Resume? Es ist schwieriger sie zu durchschauen. Einer wie ich steht ghnend danneben und denkt sich seinen Teil . Genocide? Gio. . Essays Human Management? neidvoll blicke ich auf den Dunst, den der Itacker bereits beim. Der Kern der 'Auseinandersetzung' der beiden, ist ein Ringen um Definitionsoberhoheit, was Blauwassersegeln ist. Wer wird welchen Werbeauftrag ergattern ? Wir drfen gespannt sein. Ein Kampf zwischen xxxxxxxxx.

Einer wie ich steht ghnend danneben und denkt sich seinen Teil.Gefhlsmssig bin ich dann eher auf Seiten Bobbies, weil die xxxxschon immer die Ehrlichsten waren. Questions? Sie machen keinen Hehl aus ihrem rechtskonservativen Weltbild. Creative? Bei allen anderen wird geheuchelt bis zum Kotzen. Essay Questions Genocide? Es ist schwieriger sie zu durchschauen. Bitte versuche einen 'sinnvollen' Beitrag zu erstellen.

Ansonsten laufen wir. Gefahr, dass unser Admin wieder lscht. Ich wrde vorschlagen ganze Stze zu schreiben, gemss der SPO-Regel. Dann sollten einige Wrter des Themenstarters wiederholt werden. . Formal Essay Writing Tense? weil die CSUler schon immer die Ehrlichsten waren. Gru aus dem protestantischen Norden. Gru aus dem protestantischen Norden. Whrend ich von SPD-oder GRnen-Lehrern hinterfotzigst bestraft und stillgestellt wurde. Questions? Bei denen hatte meine politische Meinung Einfluss auf die Note. Coursework As Level? Bei den CSulern war dem nicht so.

Woher das kommt ? Vielleicht ist es die Nonchalance des ewigen Siegers. Questions Armenian? Ich weiss es nicht. Streiten unter Gleichgesinnten luft besser, da fundierter. Whrend ich von SPD-oder GRnen-Lehrern hinterfotzigst bestraft und stillgestellt wurde. Creative Writing? Bei denen hatte meine politische Meinung Einfluss auf die Note. Essay Genocide? Bei den CSulern war dem nicht so. Capital Punishment Essay? Woher das kommt ? Vielleicht ist es die Nonchalance des ewigen Siegers. Armenian? Ich weiss es nicht. . Essays Human? oder ein Ausflug in armenian, die Welt der Umgangssprache, die sortiert wer- den will, damit man sie versteht. auf Wirtshaus-Niveau und gequlter Sprache ein Thema aus dem Auf- schwung in coursework, Niederung gezogen wird (ohne dass das der Autor eigent- lich will, knnte man hinzufgen) und vom Ursprungsthema abdriftet. zunchst dem Satz . Questions Armenian Genocide? von einer sicheren Mehrheit . Roman Empire Essay? das Wort AUS.

anhngen, dann kme Schwung in essay questions armenian genocide, die Richtung. Deterrence Capital Punishment? Danach knnten Sie. przisieren, was Sie mit Umkehrung meinen, weil die CSU bei Ihnen im. Land nicht vorkommt. Essay Questions Armenian? Oder meinten Sie von einer SICHEREN MINDER- muss immer eine Bullentalje (=Bullenstander) gefahren werden. Formal Essay? Und zwar nicht auf Vorwindkursen, sondern auch auf Halbwindkursen und am allerbesten auch auf Am-Wind-Kursen. Essay Questions Genocide? Also immer! Im gegenteil, ich wrde mich unsicher fhlen, wenn auf einer vielbefahrenen Wasserstrae mich ein Bulle am manvrieren und ggf erforderlichen Blitzausweichen hindert. den will, damit man sie versteht. auf Wirtshaus-Niveau und gequlter Sprache ein Thema aus dem Auf- schwung in programs, Niederung gezogen wird (ohne dass das der Autor eigent- lich will, knnte man hinzufgen) und vom Ursprungsthema abdriftet.

zunchst dem Satz . Essay Armenian? von einer sicheren Mehrheit . Em Resume In Usa? das Wort AUS. anhngen, dann kme Schwung in questions genocide, die Richtung. Creative Programs? Danach knnten Sie. przisieren, was Sie mit Umkehrung meinen, weil die CSU bei Ihnen im. Land nicht vorkommt. Questions Genocide? Oder meinten Sie von einer SICHEREN MINDER- (siehe die Posts von Jollenkreuzer)?

lsbarem Bullenstander? . Formal Essay Tense? und gekentert (fast) bei 15 m Wellenhhe (vielleicht nur gefhlt). Essay Armenian? Ich brigens noch nicht. Mit zunehmendem Alter schtzt er Komfort und Sicherheit. In Usa? Da sollen es zwei Rmpfe sein, und ein Sturmsegel braucht es nicht. Essay Armenian Genocide? lieber dann unter Maschine fahren. Human Management? Und wenn er sieht wie elend manche ihr Dasein fristen warnt er vor bertriebenen Abenteuern.

P.S.: Ich habe Briefe von Klee, in essay armenian genocide, denen er seine Freunde darber unterrichtet, dass er den damals bekanntestes Weltumsegler Rolo Gebhard mit Damen in deterrence capital, der Sdsee spazieren segelnd fotografiert hat, als dieser angeblich einhand unterwegs war. Questions? Klee hat dies in essay writing, seinen Bchern an questions genocide keiner Stelle erwhnt. In Usa? (Gebhard brigens auch nicht!) Und er stellt sich eben nicht Meinungen und Fragen. Essay Questions? Das macht ihn fr mich so unsympathisch. On International Resource Management? Auf seiner Website sind fast ausschlielich die Lobeshymnen verffentlicht.

Klaus Hympendahl hat er behandelt wie einen Sechstklssler. Essay Armenian Genocide? Wie unschn fr ihn, da der Sechstklssler ziemlich scharf zurckgeschossen hat und den Oberlehrer an on international human resource die Wand argumentiert hat. Armenian Genocide? Das aber htte er gern auch verffentlichen drfen, hat er aber nicht. Han And? Gemeint ist das Thema Polynesische Navigation, mit der sich Klaus Hympendahl vergleichsweise intensiv auseinandergesetzt hat und die Schenk mal eben als unmglich abtun wollte. Essay Questions? Als Hympendahl dann mit ein paar handfesten Beweisen rberkam schien ihm der Verffentlichung wohl nicht mehr wert.

Was strt es auch den Mond, wenn ihn der Hund anbellt? Irgendwo auf seiner Seite kursiert auch noch die Frage, warum er sich immer als kleiner Arbeitnehmer bezeichnet, obwohl er doch immerhin Richter war. Coursework? Das beantwortet er mit der ironischen Entschuldigung, da er auch einen Beruf ausben mute. Armenian? und da hrt fr mich der Spa auf. Comparative Essay? Was soll der Mist? Herr Oberlehrer Schenk, dem ich dankbar bin, da er mir mit seinen Bchern so viel navigatorischen input gegeben hat, erzhlt in questions armenian genocide, seinem Buch Segeln im Reich der Strme einfach wissentlich einen vom Pferd.

Da zieht er hhnisch ber den deutschen Angestellten mit regelmigen Arbeitszeiten her, der im Urlaub Pauschalreisen bucht und will selbst Ansto geben, mal was anderes zu machen, indem er seine Urlaubsreise mit dem eigenen Flugzeug beschreibt. Creative Programs? Er hat dann auch eine wirklich bemerkenswerte Reise gemacht, die den einen oder anderen Rekord beinhaltet, aber das kann ja wohl nicht der Tip fr den Durchschnittsbrger sein. Essay Questions Armenian? Trotzdem schreibt er ohne mit der Wimper zu zucken, er sei ein Arbeitnehmer mit mittlerem Einkommen und htte sich mit dem Verkauf seiner Bcher einen bescheidenen Nebenverdienst geschaffen, von dem er eine kleine Sportmaschine zum Preis eines gebrauchten Sportwagens kaufen konnte. Essays Human Management? Na klar: ein Richter ist ein Arbeitnehmer mit mittlerem Einkommen (oder war er damals noch Staatsanwalt, dann wre es ja noch weniger) und eine nagelneue Mooney mit Blindflugausrstung kostet so viel, wie ein gebrauchter Sportwagen. Essay Questions Armenian? Huihui, da mu ja ein interessanter Sportwagen sein, der gebraucht im soliden sechsstelliegen Bereich zu Buche schlgt. Deterrence Capital? Wenn ich so was lese, kommt mir die Galle hoch. Da lob ich mir doch Erdmann, der nach der Grenzffnung mit einer Jolle in essay, den Osten aufbricht, um nicht als reicher Wessi angehimmelt zu werden, sondern den Kontakt zu Land und Leuten mglichst direkt knpfen zu knnen. Geography Coursework As Level? Dabei merkt er nebenbei auch noch, da Jollensegeln ganz was anderes ist, als Ozeanreisen mit der Yacht, und das er das Segeln neu lernen mu.

Von dieser Bescheidenheit und von Rttgerings Selbstironie sollte Schenk sich einpaar Scheiben abschneiden, und er wre nach Moitessier mein liebster Segelbuchautor. . Armenian Genocide? Schenk / Hympendahl geschah per creative writing, E-Mail, wenn ich mich richtig entsinne. Ich las das vor ein paar Jahren auf der Seite Hympendahls, der den Schrift- lichen Beweis schuldig. und zitieren die hier oder setzen Sie einen Link auf die Stelle, wo man das. Und er stellt sich eben nicht Meinungen und Fragen. Essay Questions Armenian? Das macht ihn fr mich so unsympathisch.

Auf seiner Website sind fast ausschlielich die Lobeshymnen verffentlicht. Klaus Hympendahl hat er behandelt wie einen Sechstklssler. In Usa? Wie unschn fr ihn, da der Sechstklssler ziemlich scharf zurckgeschossen hat und den Oberlehrer an questions genocide die Wand argumentiert hat. Em Resume? Das aber htte er gern auch verffentlichen drfen, hat er aber nicht. Questions Armenian Genocide? Gemeint ist das Thema Polynesische Navigation, mit der sich Klaus Hympendahl vergleichsweise intensiv auseinandergesetzt hat und die Schenk mal eben als unmglich abtun wollte.

Als Hympendahl dann mit ein paar handfesten Beweisen rberkam schien ihm der Verffentlichung wohl nicht mehr wert. Geography As Level? Was strt es auch den Mond, wenn ihn der Hund anbellt? Irgendwo auf seiner Seite kursiert auch noch die Frage, warum er sich immer als kleiner Arbeitnehmer bezeichnet, obwohl er doch immerhin Richter war. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Das beantwortet er mit der ironischen Entschuldigung, da er auch einen Beruf ausben mute. Writing Programs? und da hrt fr mich der Spa auf. Essay Questions Armenian? Was soll der Mist?

Herr Oberlehrer Schenk, dem ich dankbar bin, da er mir mit seinen Bchern so viel navigatorischen input gegeben hat, erzhlt in capital essay, seinem Buch Segeln im Reich der Strme einfach wissentlich einen vom Pferd. Essay Armenian Genocide? Da zieht er hhnisch ber den deutschen Angestellten mit regelmigen Arbeitszeiten her, der im Urlaub Pauschalreisen bucht und will selbst Ansto geben, mal was anderes zu machen, indem er seine Urlaubsreise mit dem eigenen Flugzeug beschreibt. Em Resume In Usa? Er hat dann auch eine wirklich bemerkenswerte Reise gemacht, die den einen oder anderen Rekord beinhaltet, aber das kann ja wohl nicht der Tip fr den Durchschnittsbrger sein. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Trotzdem schreibt er ohne mit der Wimper zu zucken, er sei ein Arbeitnehmer mit mittlerem Einkommen und htte sich mit dem Verkauf seiner Bcher einen bescheidenen Nebenverdienst geschaffen, von dem er eine kleine Sportmaschine zum Preis eines gebrauchten Sportwagens kaufen konnte. In Usa? Na klar: ein Richter ist ein Arbeitnehmer mit mittlerem Einkommen (oder war er damals noch Staatsanwalt, dann wre es ja noch weniger) und eine nagelneue Mooney mit Blindflugausrstung kostet so viel, wie ein gebrauchter Sportwagen. Essay Armenian Genocide? Huihui, da mu ja ein interessanter Sportwagen sein, der gebraucht im soliden sechsstelliegen Bereich zu Buche schlgt. Writing Tense? Wenn ich so was lese, kommt mir die Galle hoch. Da lob ich mir doch Erdmann, der nach der Grenzffnung mit einer Jolle in essay armenian, den Osten aufbricht, um nicht als reicher Wessi angehimmelt zu werden, sondern den Kontakt zu Land und Leuten mglichst direkt knpfen zu knnen. Han And Roman Empire Comparative? Dabei merkt er nebenbei auch noch, da Jollensegeln ganz was anderes ist, als Ozeanreisen mit der Yacht, und das er das Segeln neu lernen mu. Questions Armenian? Von dieser Bescheidenheit und von Rttgerings Selbstironie sollte Schenk sich einpaar Scheiben abschneiden, und er wre nach Moitessier mein liebster Segelbuchautor.

Wenn Sie im Besitz anderer Informationen sind, seien Sie bitte so freundlich. und zitieren die hier oder setzen Sie einen Link auf die Stelle, wo man das. Du bleiben. Punishment Essay? Statt ermunterndem Zuspruch von einem erfahrenen Weltumsegler bekommen wir die Nachteile unserer Ausrstung zu hren: Ach, einen YANMAR haben Sie? Der wird nicht lange halten.

LEE Sails? Da gehen bald die Nhe auf. Questions Armenian Genocide? Was haben die beiden blo? Hatten wir zu viel von ihnen erwartet? Wir finden nur eine Erklrung fr ihr Verhalten: Offenbar haben sie Schwierigkeiten damit, dass wir, stellvertretend fr die durch ihre Bcher angelockte Nachfolgegeneration, nun alles so viel leichter haben. . Creative Programs? Spisegler, dass Sie den Mut haben zuzugeben, uns den Beweis. schuldig zu bleiben. Essay Armenian Genocide? Es gibt hier eine Reihe von Schreibern, die nach. einem Beleg dafr gefragt, was sie verffentlichen, stumpf und kom- mentarlos ins Schweigen verfallen (Jollensegler nennt sich einer. nis fr die Verffentlichung anzufordern.

es geht, wenn schon nicht um die von Bobby Schenk allein, um ih- re Essays. Formal Writing? Sollte es nur die von Schenk (von mir zum Segel-Guru. ernannt - damit andere nicht behaupten knnen, er htte sich. selbst dazu ernannt) geben, dann hat auch das seinen Grund: Kein Segel-Journal hielt einen anderen fr wrdig, ihm Platz. oder wei es jemand besser ? einem Beleg dafr gefragt, was sie verffentlichen, stumpf und kom- mentarlos ins Schweigen verfallen (Jollensegler nennt sich einer. . Essay Genocide? gerissene Zitate sind mit Vorsicht zu genieen. Han And Roman Comparative? Ich nehme an, das. Zitat stammt aus der Zeit, als Schenk noch Einrumpf-Segler war.

Da- zu kann ich nichts sagen, weil mir solche Situationen unbekannt sind. wenn er sie beim Segeln mit einem CAT bespricht. Essay Genocide? Dann allerdings wr- de auch ich mit ihm etwas hadern. Deterrence? Bei den Regatta-Seglern, von denen. ich komme, ist der Hoch-am-Wind-Kurs bei 4 Beaufort eine Herausfor- derung, bei der das Segler-Herz jubelt (denn dabei trennt sich die. Spreu vom Weizen in armenian genocide, gleichzeitig rauschend schner - aber noch. stress-freier - Segel-Faszination. In Usa? Ob es noch jubelt, wenn wir Tag.

und Nacht so segeln mssten, sei dahin gestellt). krngter Lage auf so einem Kurs vor sich hat, darf ruhig ber diese. Situation so schreiben, wie er es tat, ohne dabei von mir so ange- gangen zu werden, wie Sie es tun, JOLLENKREUZER. vielleicht bin ich zu bld, aber ich halte es fr an genocide den haaren herbeigezogenen schwachsinn. schuldig zu bleiben. Comparative Essay? Es gibt hier eine Reihe von Schreibern, die nach. einem Beleg dafr gefragt, was sie verffentlichen, stumpf und kom- mentarlos ins Schweigen verfallen (Jollensegler nennt sich einer.

nis fr die Verffentlichung anzufordern. es geht, wenn schon nicht um die von Bobby Schenk allein, um ih- re Essays. Questions Armenian Genocide? Sollte es nur die von Schenk (von mir zum Segel-Guru. ernannt - damit andere nicht behaupten knnen, er htte sich. selbst dazu ernannt) geben, dann hat auch das seinen Grund: Kein Segel-Journal hielt einen anderen fr wrdig, ihm Platz. oder wei es jemand besser ? Dann mu ich Ihnen energisch widersprechen. Han And Roman Empire Comparative Essay? Herr Schenk schreibt keine Literatur.

Er schreibt Sachbcher. Armenian Genocide? Und Sachbcher sind schlecht wenn sie sachliche Fehler aufweisen. Ich las das vor ein paar Jahren auf der Seite Hympendahls, der den Schrift- lichen Beweis schuldig. und zitieren die hier oder setzen Sie einen Link auf die Stelle, wo man das. ich habe, vielleicht nicht grndlich genug, nach einem Beleg fr Ihre Darstellung gesucht, aber nichts gefunden. As Level? Wrden Sie mir mit einem Link aushelfen? Sachbcher. Essay Questions Genocide? Und Sachbcher sind schlecht wenn sie sachliche Fehler aufweisen. Em Resume? Gru.

Ihr Verstndnis dafr, in essay armenian, einer persnlichen Nachricht (PN), sondern ffentlich. gemacht. Em Resume In Usa? Ich ziehe es vor, mich mit Fakten zu befassen, mit Greifbarem, Nachweis- barem, zum Beispiel mit Zitaten, zu denen jedermann Zugang hat. Essay Questions Armenian? Ausflge in writing programs, Bcher. seien gestattet, dann aber bitte mit Zitaten und Zusammenhngen, die nachvollzieh- Gleichzeitig anerkennen Sie die Strategie Schenks, das aus Markt-Strategie „Dies en- zge ihm einen guten Teil seiner wirtschaftlichen Grundlage.“) nicht tut. Essay Questions Genocide? Ja was nun ? Wir leben in as level, einer kapitalistischen Konkurrenz-Gesellschaft. Questions Armenian? Wie knnen Sie von einem. hochrangigen Vertreter dieser Gesellschaftsschicht verlangen, dass er sich in em resume, eine fr. ihn ungnstige Position begibt ? Wenn Ihnen das mal nicht zu delikat ist, sich dazu zu.

uern – ich bin gespannt auf Ihre Entgegnung. Ich schtze Sie als Schiffsarchitekten. Essay Questions Genocide? Ihre geplatzten Wrstchen. halte ich fr einen handwerklichen Fehler (esse die, wenn es mir. mal passieren sollte mit dem gleichen Appetit :--) vielleicht bin ich zu bld, aber ich halte es fr an roman den haaren herbeigezogenen schwachsinn. Ansonsten gebe ich Axel und Trikita recht, typisches sinnentleertes Winterthema. Ihr Verstndnis dafr, in essay questions armenian genocide, einer persnlichen Nachricht (PN), sondern ffentlich.

gemacht. Deterrence Punishment Essay? Ich ziehe es vor, mich mit Fakten zu befassen, mit Greifbarem, Nachweis- barem, zum Beispiel mit Zitaten, zu denen jedermann Zugang hat. Armenian? Ausflge in formal essay writing, Bcher. seien gestattet, dann aber bitte mit Zitaten und Zusammenhngen, die nachvollzieh- Gleichzeitig anerkennen Sie die Strategie Schenks, das aus Markt-Strategie „Dies en- zge ihm einen guten Teil seiner wirtschaftlichen Grundlage.“) nicht tut.

Ja was nun ? Wir leben in essay armenian, einer kapitalistischen Konkurrenz-Gesellschaft. Em Resume? Wie knnen Sie von einem. hochrangigen Vertreter dieser Gesellschaftsschicht verlangen, dass er sich in questions armenian genocide, eine fr. ihn ungnstige Position begibt ? Wenn Ihnen das mal nicht zu delikat ist, sich dazu zu. uern – ich bin gespannt auf Ihre Entgegnung.

Sie werden ja nun ein wenig konkreter, knnten Sie sich denn vielleicht dazu durchringen, einem bestimmten Text zu benennen, mit dem Sie die Verleihung Ihrer Titel begrnden wollen (wenn wir nun jetzt ausschlielich bei Nachweis-, Beleg- und Greifbarem bleiben wollen)? B.S. Deterrence Capital Punishment? als bayrischer Richter (wir wissen aus dem Kgl.bayr.Amtsgericht: Richter sind in essay genocide, Bayern so! Und das ist gut so!), hat der am Ende der Veranstaltung IMMER (naja , fast immer) RECHT. Wie soll also jemand, der sein ganzes Leben erlebt hat, da er nach Kenntnisnahme aller vorgetragenen (und subjektiv doch auch richtigen) Annahmen SEINE Meinung als RICHTIG deklariert und sich da alle dran zu halten haben, dies im Privaten (frher und auch spteren) nicht tun? Sind wir nicht alle (heutzutage) viel zu selbstberzeugt. Creative Writing? aber es dem armen BS vorwerfen. Der hat gelernt: immer dagegentarocken, gesagt ist gesagt und am Ende. Essay Questions? gewinnt BS. Geography? ;-)

Ist doch alles ok, was mu man sich da so zerfleischen? Th.Gottschalk hat Einschaltquoten von 6 Millionen oder 8, ist ja auch egal. Armenian? Da gucken also vielleicht 20 Millionen Leute zu - und soll der sich jetzt aufhngen, weil die anderen 65 Millionen was Besseres zu tun haben, den nicht mgen oder andere Grnde? SOLCHE Leute haben (wirtschaftliches) Potential - die sind willkommen, die geben Geld aus fr neue Schiffe, Ausrstung, Reisen vom und zum Schiff usw. DAS braucht unswere Wirtschaft. Die YACHT lebt nicht von Leuten wie - Namen la ich lieber weg, wei eh jeder, wer gemeint ist, wertfrei! - sondern von den Investoren, die Yachten (zum Charter oder Selbstsegeln) kaufen, von den Trumen, die manche haben, und dafr bereit sind, viel Geld auszugeben. Human Resource? Die wollen - wie alle - auch nur unser Geld! Altruistisch getarnt kommen sie im Forumsgewand daher: Schaut nur, was wir Euch kostenfrei zur Verfgung stellen. Armenian Genocide? In Wirklichkeit (und ich meine das nicht anklagend) wollen die auch nur verkaufen, suchen Themen, versuchen die Zielgruppe zu finden, bei der sich die im Heft beworbenen Produkte am Besten (und mglichst teuer) absetzen lassen.

Wer mag abenteuerliche Trnberichte lesen, von Kiel nach Rgen und zurck - schon ein paar mehr, vielleicht. Den E in formal writing, Ost-Baltikum, DAS ist doch eine (auch fr den Kleinyachtbesitzer sowohl finanziell wie nautisch oder zeitlich erreichbare!) Variante, hat der E aber auch schon beschrieben, wird schwer, Leute! Sogar den Jakobspfad, den vorher keiner kannte, machte ein (anderer) Schreiberling zum Trampelpfad, da gibt´s wohl auch schon mehrere, die Unterschiedliches erlebt haben. Armenian Genocide? und darber schreiben, solange es sich verkauft. Ob BS, WE,UR oder sonstwer die hat - es ist mir wurscht. Tense? Ich freu mich,wenn die Kufer (und vor allem deren Leser, maybe) dieser Bcher ins Trumen geraten, denn die meisten werden nichtmal ansatzweise das erleben, was dort beschrieben wird. Essay Armenian? Niemals. Die Autoren kriegen ihre Tantiemen, der Verlag verdient, die nautische Industrie wird (hoffentlich) belebt, die Dienstleister (also ich, jep!) auch. Euer Open Source Essayist Hans, BuBu, Kstensegler, der auch mal irrt oder was vergisst, aber schn, wenn wir darber geredet haben *smile* insbesondere auf der Flucht vor einer Frau.

Ich ernenne hiermit jedes (jedes) Essay von Bobby Schenk zum. Higlight (Hochlicht :--) und wrdig genug, ihn zum Guru auszu- rufen. Capital? Da er aber schon vor seinem ersten Essay etwas geleis- tet haben muss, drfte (damit ich mich nicht auf Glatteis be- gebe) es sein Gesamtwerk gewesen sein, dass man ihn zum. bezahlten Schreiben aufforderte. kann ich aus dem Gedchtnis nicht beantworten. Essay Questions Armenian? Achtung, wir verlassen damit auch das Eingangsthema. Writing? Ich erinnere. mich aber daran, dass die Diskussion mit dem Hinweis auf ei- nen zu dem Zeitpunkt noch lebenden Nachfahren der Sterne-, Wellenbild- und Hautempfinden-Navigation endete und dem.

Hinweis auf den dicken Schinken von James A. Essay? Michener mit. dem Titel HAWAII, Achtung 1065 Seiten, in writing, dem von dem. Treffen mit einem Navigationsknstler berichtet wird. Essay? Zu ger- ne wrde ich die entscheidende Stelle dieses Berichts, der auf. Schenks Internet-Seite unter. der Weltmeister des CUT-AND-PASTE hlt mich davon zurck. (auch wenn ich drauf und dran bin, den Titel zu verlieren, haha).

potenten Mittelmeer-Erfahrenen an han and roman comparative essay sich, und es gibt wenig zu kriti- sieren. Essay Questions Genocide? Einzig die Opulenz Ihrer Rundumschlge, die Lust an empire comparative der Ab- deckung jeglicher Themen-naher Nuancen, schlgt mich beim Lesen. meist nieder. Genocide? Wenn Sie mchten, dass man Sie gern liest - und Sie. haben gewiss die Potenz zu einem Fachbuch - mssen Sie wissen, dass sich Ihre Aussagen von Qualitt allein durch Quantitt wieder. . Em Resume? eines Forums und eine schne Frau zu sein qualifiziert noch nicht. dazu, sein eigenes Lutschen saftiger als drge zu sehen. Essay Armenian Genocide? Im Ernst: Ein Thema erledigt sich dann von selbst, wenn alles dazu gesagt. wurde. Essays Human Resource Management? Ich prophezeihe Ihnen, dass der Guru bis zu seinem nch- sten Essay in questions armenian, YACHT noch weiter Thema hier sein wird.

Und nicht. nur, weil man es sich beim Reiben von Gedanken etwas wrmer, sondern auch weil es Spa macht. Em Resume In Usa? Sie verstehe doch Spa - sonst wrden Sie ein Einrumpf-Schiff segeln ! geschlagen. Genocide? Jemand, der Vorbilder braucht, wird sich nicht an essay tense die Num- mer 2 oder 3 halten, wenn er das Original haben kann. ich wei nicht so recht, wenn jemand vorblilder braucht, sollte er wohl besser nicht auf die groe reise gehen oder sich dauerhaft im ausland rumtreiben. Questions Armenian? motivation, das eine oder andere zu machen schon eher. Formal Tense? als ideenbringer auch, aber dann hat sichs. ich bin ja nun auch nicht der groe schenk-fan, aber deswegen mu ich ihn nicht schlecht reden. Questions Genocide? DER KMMERT SICH WENIGSTENS . Coursework? ber andere wird nur gequatscht, vom erdmann oder co kann ich nicht eine webseite aufrufen und mglicherweise noch tolle sachen erfahren. Essay Questions Armenian? bei technischen dingen haperts zwar machmal ein klein wenig, aber was solls, im groen ganzen ist er eine bereicherung der sonderklasse.

geschlagen. Programs? Jemand, der Vorbilder braucht, wird sich nicht an essay armenian die Num- mer 2 oder 3 halten, wenn er das Original haben kann. ja, ich glaube dies ist die beste Taktik im Umgang mit diesem Thema und dem Starter dieses Freds. Ich habe eine sehr interessante Reisebeschreibung gerade ausgelesen. Du kennst sie sicherlich bereits: David Mercy Beserk aus dem marebuch Verlag mit dem Untertitel: Eine ungemtliche Reise in deterrence punishment essay, die Antarktis. Seit langem wieder ein sehr fesselndes und mitreissend geschriebenes Abenteuer. Questions Armenian? Ich hoffe von Mercy wird noch mehr verffetlicht. Essay? Der norwegische Skipper ist wieder unterwegs, nun in armenian genocide, der Arktis. ich habe um Angabe e i n e s konkreten Textes gebeten, an essay tense dem Sie die. Qualitten Ihres Vorbildes festmachen um diese Diskussion ein wenig bersichtlicher zu gestalten. Higlight (Hochlicht :--) und wrdig genug, ihn zum Guru auszu- rufen.

Da er aber schon vor seinem ersten Essay etwas geleis- tet haben muss, drfte (damit ich mich nicht auf Glatteis be- gebe) es sein Gesamtwerk gewesen sein, dass man ihn zum. bezahlten Schreiben aufforderte. guten morgen vom elbe-lbeck-kanal. habe eine frage: es gibt in armenian, der sdsee ein schalentier, das in writing programs, der lage. ist, sich auf- und abzulassen. Questions Armenian Genocide? es schwimmt senkrecht und kann oben aus dem gehuse eine art flosse raus. strecken, womit es den wind zur vorwrtsbewegung. wie heit das tier ? Ich schreibe hier unter dem Nick von Frank, der mir vertraut. Hallo wie wre es mit Googel? zB Erdmann:

Wenn Sie mchten, dass man sich m i t Ihnen aber nicht b e r Sie unterhlt (amsiert?), wrde ich auf solche PNs verzichten! Aus PNs (persnlichen Nachrichten) darf nicht ohne Einverstndnis des Absenders zitiert werden. Egal wie man sich fetzt, ein wenig Anstand sollte gewahrt werden. ja, ich glaube dies ist die beste Taktik im Umgang mit diesem Thema und dem Starter dieses Freds. Ich habe eine sehr interessante Reisebeschreibung gerade ausgelesen.

Du kennst sie sicherlich bereits: David Mercy Beserk aus dem marebuch Verlag mit dem Untertitel: Eine ungemtliche Reise in em resume in usa, die Antarktis. Seit langem wieder ein sehr fesselndes und mitreissend geschriebenes Abenteuer. Essay Questions? Ich hoffe von Mercy wird noch mehr verffetlicht. Writing? Der norwegische Skipper ist wieder unterwegs, nun in essay armenian genocide, der Arktis. Aus PNs (persnlichen Nachrichten) darf nicht ohne Einverstndnis des Absenders zitiert werden. Egal wie man sich fetzt, ein wenig Anstand sollte gewahrt werden. Das was du richtig andeutest gilt fr bestimmte Typen schon lange nicht mehr. . On International Human Resource? genannt Mic, unterzeichnet mit GRUSS, mchte, dass ich hier. einen Satz aus einem Essay von Bobby Schenk zitiere.

Da ich das. nicht kann, insistiert er und klammert. . in essay armenian genocide, dem Sie die Qualitten Ihres Vorbildes festmachen. Schenk nicht als mein Vorbild bezeichnete, und auch weil Wolfgang. Hausner mein Chef ist (der hat brigens die Schenks auf den. CAT gesetzt - sonst wrde sich das Paar immer noch mit einem. Kiel durch die Ozeane qulen, haha) unseren Nachbarn geschenkt bekomme, wenn ich bei Freunden. bin und zu Nachtlektre greife (die liegen da stapelweise noch in. Zellophan-Papier original verpackt und ungeffnet rum, oder wenn. ich sie beim Zahnarzt ausliegen sehe - sonst nicht. Geography? Wie kann ich.

also den Schenk zitieren, wenn ich seine Essays lese und dann das. Heft wegwerfe? Bin kein Sammler, von nix - nicht mal von Essays. hat so ein Essay digitalisiert vorliegen und hilft uns aus hier (und. da ich behaupte, dass jedes seiner Essays ein Schmuckstck ist, ist es sogar gleichgltig, was davon eventuell hier ankommt.

Im Gegensatz zu der hier verbreiteten Meinung, dass man persn- liche Nachrichten (PN) nicht ffentlich benutzen sollte, mache ich. mich dafr stark, dass das nicht zur Regel wird. Essay Questions Genocide? Mit meinen PNs. darf man das ausdrcklich. Creative? Es trgt zur Transparenz bei und. kann (kann) eine Waffe fr die ffentlichen Verwender von Ver- traulichkeiten sein (falls die PN Diskriminierendes zum Inhalt hat, sei einschrnkend hinzu gefgt). Essay? Ich jedenfalls mchte mich nicht. ohne Not dieser Waffe begeben. Das was du richtig andeutest gilt fr bestimmte Typen schon lange nicht mehr. Nun, auch die elekrtonische Post, email, PN ect unterliegt der Rechtsprechung:

Im Gegensatz zu der hier verbreiteten Meinung, dass man persn- liche Nachrichten (PN) nicht ffentlich benutzen sollte, mache ich. mich dafr stark, dass das nicht zur Regel wird. Essay Writing Tense? Mit meinen PNs. darf man das ausdrcklich. Armenian? Es trgt zur Transparenz bei und. kann (kann) eine Waffe fr die ffentlichen Verwender von Ver- traulichkeiten sein (falls die PN Diskriminierendes zum Inhalt hat, sei einschrnkend hinzu gefgt).

Ich jedenfalls mchte mich nicht. ohne Not dieser Waffe begeben. Sehen Sie Django, dieser Fred hier hat doch noch sein Positives, wir drfen etwas mehr ber Ihre Gemtslage erfahren! wenn nicht gerade Sie parallel zur laufenden Diskussion PNs nutzten. (Und aus einer PN zitiert haben Sie als erster :)) Es geht mir Austausch, nicht um Lufthoheit. wo man mal so richtig aus sich heraus gehen kann? stimmt, das Ganze wirkt lcherlich, aber vornehm geht die Welt zu Grunde, denn es ist ein Unterschied ob ich sage Du Heimchen oder Sie Heimchen. und mal nich den teufel anne wand, ich bin ja auch froh . Formal Essay Writing Tense? cool: :D . Knnt ihr die letzten Postings bitte vergessen, wir wollen Kino. Ahhhhhhhaaaaaaaaa, jetzt verstehe ich. Questions? ein paar Spezis, bei denen die Sparren locker sind und die sich langweilen. Na dann kann man nur noch wnschen: Viel Spa.

Aber gibt es heute wirklich eine kranke Welt der Weltumsegler? Ist es nicht so, dass jemand beschliet, um die Welt zu segeln und nach dem Zurcklegen der lppischen dreiigtausend Meilen auf einem schwimmenden Untersatz als Weltumsegler gefeiert wird, eine schne Medaille in geography as level, Cuxhaven bekommt, ein Buch schreibt, zu Talkshows eingeladen wird und letztlich was im Leben erreicht hat, was ihm in essay, seinem Beruf oder in creative writing, seinem Job wohl versagt gewesen wre? Gibt es, ist aber nicht normal! Ein andere Normalitt zeigen folgende, nicht sehr seltene und auch nicht auergewhnliche Beispiele aus der wahren Welt der Weltumsegler - und die nenne ich schlagwortartig die kranke Welt: Ein deutscher Blauwassersegler, der in armenian genocide, der Karibik hngen geblieben ist, findet sich eines Morgens in coursework as level, der Saling seiner Yacht - aufgehngt. Essay Questions? Ein nicht ganz unbekannter Blauwassersegler stirbt verhrmt in formal writing tense, Polynesien. Armenian? Seine Yacht ist in geography as level, so schlimmem Zustand, dass sie niemand mehr geschenkt haben mchte. Ganz besonders folgender Vorfall hat mich betroffen gemacht: Ein deutscher Segler wird auf einem Blauwasserankerplatz einer anderen deutschen Yacht ansichtig. Essay Questions? Er klopft vom Beiboot aus am Rumpf: Komm rauf, ich kann nicht rauskommen, ich hab mir vor einer Woche den Fu gebrochen! Und spter: Nein der Fu ist nicht geschient, ich kann eine rztliche Versorgung nicht bezahlen, auch wenn’s hier nur ein paar Ringit kostet.

Ein anderer sehr bekannter Weltumsegler (mit Familie) wird aus einer recht preiswerten Marina hinauskomplimentiert. Creative Programs? Er kann nicht mehr bezahlen. Armenian Genocide? Von den Vorgngen auf deutschen Yachten, die lngst vielfach in essays on international resource management, der Sensationspresse verarbeitet wurden - APOLLONIA (zweifacher Mord), NORDSTERN (Verdacht auf Versicherungsbetrug und vielfachen Mordes) - mcht ich hier mal gar nicht sprechen - schlielich gibt’s solche Verbrechen auch am Bahnhof in genocide, Hamburg oder in formal writing tense, Duisburg. Dieser Umstand ist dagegen schon erwhnenswert: Es findet sich heute praktisch keine europische Versicherung mehr, die eine Langfahrtyacht auf Weltreise neu kaskoversichert. Questions Armenian? Noch vor 30 Jahren war das leicht und preiswert. Geography As Level? Warum?

Ein namhafter Versicherungsagent hat dies vorsichtig so erklrt: Schauen Sie, da sitzt einer irgendwo auf einem fernen Ankerplatz, ist alt geworden, seine Yacht ebenso und die ist einfach nicht mehr zu verkaufen. Armenian Genocide? Auerdem hab ich aus diesen Kreisen schon mehrfach einen Hinweis auf einige Schiffsverluste bekommen, an han and empire comparative essay denen fast immer berlebende Einhandsegler (also keine Zeugen) beteiligt waren. Man sehe mir mal nach, wenn ich von den frheren Zeiten spreche, aber die nderungen sind zu auffllig: Noch vor ein paar Jahrzehnten waren Schilder am Ufer wie Beiboote hier nicht erlaubt oder no yachts permitted auf den Blauwasserreeden undenkbar. Armenian Genocide? Ausdrcke wie sea-gipsy (Seezigeuner, und das ist nicht romantisch gemeint) oder low-budget-sailors waren unbekannt. In Usa? Die local people - wie Yachties die Leute an essay questions genocide Land wertneutral nennen - freuten sich meistens, wenn sie die Bekanntschaft von Yachtleuten machen durften und an in usa Bord eingeladen wurden. Essay Genocide? Sie erwiderten gerne mit einer Einladung zu Landausflgen oder zur Benutzung der Waschmaschine. Formal Essay? Heut warnen sie schon mal: Lass keinen Yachtmann zur Tr rein, denn dann hast Du ihn gleich in essay, der Kche und in geography coursework, der Dusche. Man hat mir vorgeworfen, ich wrde ber die Lebensweise anderer richten, wenn ich auf negative Zustnde unter den Langfahrtseglern hinweise.

Schlielich knne jedermann sein Leben so leben, wie er es fr richtig hielte. Questions Armenian? Ohne zynisch sein zu wollen, muss ich dem zustimmen. Formal Tense? Es ist jedermanns eigene Sache, wie er lebt oder sein Leben beendet. Genocide? Anders sieht es schon aus, wenn der Lebensstil des einen auf Kosten anderer erfolgt. Formal Essay Writing? Das Misstrauen der local people, die Isolierung der Yachties mancher Orten kommt ja nicht von ungefhr, sondern ist das Ergebnis schlechter Erfahrungen mit den Sea-Gypsies. Noch wichtiger aber ist eine Warnung an essay Mchtegern-Weltumsegler, sich nicht blindlings in formal essay writing, ein Abenteuer zu strzen, dessen Ausgang sie nie und nimmer so gewollt haben. Essay Questions Genocide? Nennen wir es beim Namen, was die Ursache fr manche Katastrophen auf den Ankerpltzen der Blauwassersegler ist: Es ist das fehlende Geld. Writing Programs? Es gab mal Zeiten, da war eine „shortage“ in armenian, der Bordkasse kein lebenswichtiges Problem. Coursework As Level? Man konnte, wenn man konnte, sich aus dem Meer ernhren, seine einfache Yacht ohne komplizierten Ausrstung leicht durch Knochenarbeit am Schwimmen erhalten und arbeiten. Armenian? Jedenfalls solang man jung war.

Heute ist das anders. Essays On International Human Management? Weltweit hat man Yachten als Einnahmequelle entdeckt (was ja nicht verkehrt ist) und da will man keine Naturalleistung in armenian, Form von Arbeit oder bloer Freundlichkeit sehen, sondern Cash! Und es wird enger: Paradiese abseits von den Trampelpfaden (wie man sich gerne ausdrckt, um die Fahrten anderer mies zu machen und den eigenen Trn aufzuwerten) werden immer seltener oder schlieen die Tore. Deterrence Punishment? Es gibt bereits Lnder, in essay armenian genocide, denen sich die Behrden bei der Einreise der Yacht ungeniert die Barschaft an geography coursework Bord zeigen oder gar deponieren lassen (Franzsisch Polynesien). Questions Armenian? Und es ist absehbar, dass man in writing tense, einigen Lndern zuknftig eine Krankenversicherung nachweisen muss. Questions Genocide? Man braucht sich da gar keine Illusionen machen, fr manche Lnder sind Yachties ohne Geld nichts anderes als Wirtschaftsflchtlinge und die sieht man auch bei uns nicht gern. Eine Zweiklassengesellschaft unter den Blauwasserseglern ist absehbar. Creative Writing? Whrend die einen das freie Leben auf den Ankerpltzen genieen, ziehen sich die anderen in essay armenian, die schtzenden, oftmals teuren Marinas zurck. Programs? Aber ist das Leben auf den Ankerpltzen so frei? Langsam setzt sich die Erkenntnis der Einheimischen durch, dass man auch auf den anchorages fr den Abfall, fr die Mooring, oder auch so abkassieren kann.

Bei zahlreichen, frher so beliebten Ankerpltzen findet man heute im Hafenhandbuch den durchgestrichenen Anker in essay genocide, der Skizze, weil man die Yachten, auch aus Umweltgrnden, in han and comparative, die Marinas zwingen will. Essay Questions Genocide? Aber auch sonst hat ein Ankerplatz oftmals einschneidende Nachteile: Zum Anlanden frs Beiboot steht hufig keine Pier zur Verfgung, was vor allem in programs, Tidengewssern einer Schikane durch die Natur gleichkommt. Questions Armenian Genocide? Das Eis fr die in geography, den Tropen so notwendigen Getrnke erbettelt man sich an questions der Hotelbar, die Schmutzwsche schleppt man im Bus zur chinesischen Wscherei. Roman Empire Essay? Das liee sich alles sehr leicht ertragen, schlielich wusste man als Weltumsegler in essay genocide, spe durchaus, auf was man sich da einlsst - Stichwort: Hundeleben! Wenn nicht ein paar hundert Meter vom Ankerplatz der totale Komfort in on international, der Marina locken wrde: Landstrom ohne Ende, Internet, Travellift, Swasser aus dem Schlauch, Bustransfer zum Markt und so fort! Und das an genocide Pltzen, die noch vor ein paar Jahren als Geheimtipp unter den Blauwasserseglern gehandelt wurden! Das brauchen wir doch alles nicht!

Das sagt sich so leicht, wenn man jung ist, oder wenn man nur die Palmen an roman empire comparative essay den Sandstrnden im Kopf hat. Questions? Aber, wie gesagt, die Realitten sehen dann doch anders - siehe oben - aus. On International Human? Deshalb mein vorsichtiger Hinweis - ich bin nicht so vermessen, hier einen Ratschlag zu erteilen - dass es sicher zum Lebensglck beitrgt, wenn man sich einen Ausweg aus einem Leben, das einem nicht mehr zusagt, oder das man sich anders vorgestellt hat, offen gelassen hat. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Konkret ausgedrckt heit das, dass man nicht ohne eine gewisse Rckversicherung lossegeln sollte. As Level? Der junge unternehmungslustige Segler braucht sich hierzu wenig Gedanken machen, denn der hat schon auf Grund seines Alters Fluchtmglichkeiten aus der kranken Welt der Weltumsegler.

Anders der, der den Ausstieg versumt hat: Die Arbeitskraft des alten Seglers hat nachgelassen, Ersparnisse sind aufgebraucht, die Gesundheit ist unter den wenig bekmmlichen Klimaeinflssen in questions, den Tropen angeschlagen, Einnahmequellen (Arbeit) gibt’s nicht mehr, das Schiff ist langsam vergammelt unter der Last der Jahre und des fehlenden Geldes. Die Arbeitskraft des alten Seglers hat nachgelassen, Ersparnisse sind aufgebraucht, die Gesundheit ist unter den wenig bekmmlichen Klimaeinflssen in resource management, den Tropen angeschlagen, Einnahmequellen (Arbeit) gibt’s nicht mehr, das Schiff ist langsam vergammelt unter der Last der Jahre. Ich glaube auch, dass ein Link auf diesen Text gereicht htte und frage mich, warum Django diesen Teil des Textes in essay questions armenian, das Forum gestellt und den restlichen Text wegliess, der von der finanziellen Betrachtung des Abenteuers handelt. heraus alles als Waffe nutzen wrde, was man ihm leichtfertig in writing, die Hand gibt. Zum Inhalt: zum Rennen und den Hintergrnden des/der Todesflle habe ich keine Kenntnisse und kann dazu nichts sagen. Essay Armenian Genocide? Der langen Abwesenheit von Herrn Schenk von Deutschland ist vermutlich geschuldet, dass er nicht hnliche Beobachtungen in essay, Bezug auf nderung in essay questions armenian genocide, der Vermgensverteilung und im Mitnahmeverhalten in deterrence punishment, unserer Gesellschaft beobachten durfte. Zwischen den Zeilen lese ich eine tiefe Verbitterung, die sich auf die Verschlechterung der eigenen Verhltnisse grndet.

Dafr, dass nicht mehr alles so ist wie frher, macht er offensichtlich eine Inflation der Weltumsegler verantwortlich. Genocide? Die Angabe, was daran krank sein soll (ach so, Django hat in essay writing tense, seiner Freude, den Text fertig getippt zu haben die berschrift vergessen, sie lautet Die kranke Welt der Weltumsegler) bleibt er schuldig. Was ist da jetzt schlimm dran das zu kopieren ? Soll er sich wirklich den Tort antun und alles abschreiben ? Es wre doch jetzt mal interessant, diesen Text zu diskutieren. Ich bin der Meinung, dass er dazu tendiert, dass nur die auf groe Fahrt gehen sollen, die auch ber die entsprechende Barschaft nebst Rckversicherungen aller Art verfgen. Questions Genocide? Das ist , mit Verlaub, die deutsche ArtWeise an punishment essay sowas ranzugehen. Armenian Genocide? Wrde das Schule machen, wren nur noch Rentner auf ihren Lagoons oder Halbergs unterwegs. Han And Comparative Essay? Leute, wie z.B. Essay Questions Armenian? ich, drften dann gar nicht raus. das steht aber in essays on international, dem Teil, den er nicht kopiert hat.

Und ich frage mich, warum er diesen Teil weggelassen hat? Schreib den Satz am besten noch mal um, weil. Carlo! Was ist? Warum hast du den anderen Teil nicht auch abgeschrieben ? . Armenian Genocide? musste ich krzen und der Text war immer noch zu lang. Also habe ich jedesmal hinten was abgeschnitten. bitte bercksichtige, die Gte eines Essays (ohne dass bislang definiert wurde, was wir unter den Begriff fassen wollen) liest man nicht an comparative essay der vertretenen Meinung, sondern an questions genocide der handwerklichen Ausfhrung ab. Wenn jemand zwar eine krude Meinung vertritt, sie aber gengend und in deterrence, sich logisch begrndet, knnte er ein gutes Essay geschrieben haben. Ich mchte aber nicht ffentlich bis auf diese Kritik-Ebene gehen, weil ich Respekt vor Herrn Schenks Lebensleistung habe.

Wir knnen uns gerne ber die Richtigkeit seiner/solcher Ansichten streiten, dass wre aber ein neuer Fred. Schreib den Satz am besten noch mal um, weil. ER ? Kommt von DER Text. Essay? Weil der Text doch mnnlich sein tut. Knnte auch BS meinen, was im Ergebnis auf dasselbe rauskme.

Aber ich meinte IHN, den Text. Geography Coursework? Ich mag Texte. Essay? Sie sind Lebewesen. Em Resume? Homunculi ihrer Schreiber. Essay Genocide? Ein Kreationist wrde sich jetzt bepissen und sagen was fr ein Wunder! Das kann doch kein Zufall sein! Da muss ein groer Gestalter dahinterstecken. In diesem Fall heisst der groe Gestalter Bobby Schenk. Em Resume? Die Fundis von Yacht denken, dass er vor 20 Jahren die Segelwelt erschaffen hat.

Oh! Unter literarischen Aspekten habe ich BS noch nie betrachtet. Questions? Da hat er nichts drauf. Han And? Er bringt meine Seele nicht zum Schwingen. Ich habe ihn aber gerne gelesen und er hat mir sehr geholfen. Essay Questions Genocide? Ich habe mich mit seinen Bchern ber ein 44 Fussboot hergemacht, ohne gro. Ahnung gehabt zu haben. Denkt ber eins nach: welcher deutsche Autor wollte uns bislang Seemannschaft, richtiges Ankern , Manver usw. Coursework As Level? beibringen ? Keiner!

Whrend sich im englischsprachigen Raum sicher mindestens ein Dutzend hochwertige Autoren tummeln, hatten wir im deutschen nur ihn. Dass er sich auch noch nicht wie ein Fachidiot ausdrckt macht ihn umso besser, fr einen Laien wie mich. Essay Questions Genocide? Wieso sollten wir ihn an deterrence capital punishment etwas messen, was von ihm gar nicht gewollt ist? . Essay? ist nicht mein Ding, auer ich tippe eure Schreib- und Denkfehler. auf die Reihe. Creative Programs? Kein Vergngen, aber gehrt zu meiner Forumskultur, bitte bercksichtige, die Gte eines Essays (ohne dass bislang definiert wurde, was wir unter den Begriff fassen wollen) liest man nicht an essay armenian der vertretenen Meinung, sondern an deterrence essay der handwerklichen Ausfhrung ab. Wenn jemand zwar eine krude Meinung vertritt, sie aber gengend und in essay questions genocide, sich logisch begrndet, knnte er ein gutes Essay geschrieben haben. Ich mchte aber nicht ffentlich bis auf diese Kritik-Ebene gehen, weil ich Respekt vor Herrn Schenks Lebensleistung habe.

Wir knnen uns gerne ber die Richtigkeit seiner/solcher Ansichten streiten, dass wre aber ein neuer Fred. . Coursework As Level? widerspreche ich dem scharf. Armenian Genocide? YACHT hat den Segel-Journalismus erfunden. Also habe ich jedesmal hinten was abgeschnitten. Ich dachte die Brder YACHT haben den Katamaran erfunden? Oder war es Prophet Hausner ? . Em Resume In Usa? ich auf Rttgerings BLOG zu tun. Essay Questions? Dabei fiel mir folgender Satz ins Auge: lassen.

Das Ding sieht irgendwie racemig aus, kostet viel mehr als ein. normales Segel und macht mein Boot allenfalls um einen homoheupatischen. Betrag schneller. Creative Programs? Reingefallen! Eine Lektion in questions armenian genocide, Bezug auf Bescheidenheit. habe ich bei dem franzsischen Segler gelernt, . Coursework As Level? in Anlehnung an essay armenian genocide einen Beitrag von HANJIN in writing tense, diesem Forum: Es gibt. neben Francis Joyon noch ein zweites Exemplar vom bescheidenen.

Was sollen uns diese Worte sagen? Hattest Du nicht angekndigt, es sei Dir ein Leichtes, so einen Schreiber auseinanderzunehmen? Jetzt hast Du ja einen furiosen Start hingelegt - mit einem Rechtschreibfehler. Jaja, diese Monohullsegler. Essay Genocide? Eine Ortographie haben die! Und wer noch nicht mal Homopathie schreiben kann, der mu sich auch nicht wundern, da er ewig hinter Schenk zurckbleibt. Arroganz zielt auf soziale Distanz; und wenn die bei ihrem Trger einher gehende ber- bewertung eigenen Knnens gleichzeitig versucht, die Selbstberschtzung in on international, eine nor- mative Kraft umzumnzen, lockt das in essay armenian genocide, einem gebildeten Menschen, dessen Haltung und.

Umgangsformen sich normalerweise durch Anstand und Hflichkeit zgeln, mindestens. Widerwillen, wenn nicht Widerstand und – wie bei mir – Angriffslust hervor. dieses Forums fllt es nicht schwer, in formal essay writing, einem Trger selbst verordneter Arroganz einen. „Schnsel mit tlpelhaftem Dnkel“ zu erkennen. Questions Armenian? Ich muss mich berichtigen wenn ich. schrieb: Sich vor aller Augen in formal essay, die eigene Tasche zu lgen ist mehr als eine Kapriole. schlecht getarnter Eitelkeit: Disziplinen zu berrunden reicht es aber.“ von der Segelei leben muss und SCHENK sie sich gegnnt hat: einen Verleger seiner. Botschaften findet man als Autor nicht damit, dass man auf seine „zweifelsohne vor- handene Arroganz“ hinweist, wenn sie nicht mit einer zumindest gleich groen Por- tion Charme daher kommt; denn die Mischung macht’s ! weder Verleger noch die Co-Autorin Judith Duller-Mayrhofer zur Verfgung stehen. Einem aufmerksamen und zur Einordnung von Verhaltensweisen geneigten Beobachter. dieses Forums fllt es nicht schwer, in genocide, einem Trger selbst verordneter Arroganz einen.

„Schnsel mit tlpelhaftem Dnkel“ zu erkennen. viele knnten, vielleicht, unter umstnden, bei genauer analyse, den gedanken in capital punishment essay, erwgung ziehen , der is essay questions armenian a depperl, ich denke das natrlich im augenblick nicht. Was sehr kommod ist. Wenn man Bldsinn labert, verschwindet man halt zum nchsten Gast-Nick. Hat irgendjemand erwartet Carlo wrde sich ndern? :rolleyes: Stimmt alles, . Em Resume? nur die Schwafelei lt einem manchmal den Draht aus der Mtze springen. Genocide? vor allem, wenn er einen thread wie diesen hier auslst, ber einen Webseitenautor berichtet, ohne jedoch wirklich ein wenig recherchiert zu haben. Writing Programs? Da wird dem Bobby Schenk gehuldigt, ohne da Kater Carlo vom canale baltico NUR EIN EINZIGES BUCH von Schenk gelesen htte. Genocide? Schwtzern luft man jeden Tag ber den Weg. Geography As Level? Gbe es eine hotlist der nervigsten 40 Forumsmitglieder, htte Kater Carlo mit Sicherheit Platz 1. Nein, es polarisiert nicht. Essay Armenian? Es macht ein wenig traurig!

Da sitzt jemand, mit ein bis zwei Glas Rotwein zu viel und seine Frau ist schon ins Bett gegangen, weil sie den alten Griesgram nicht mehr ertragen will. In Usa? Keiner da zum spielen! Stimmt alles, . Essay Armenian? nur die Schwafelei lt einem manchmal den Draht aus der Mtze springen. Comparative? vor allem, wenn er einen thread wie diesen hier auslst, ber einen Webseitenautor berichtet, ohne jedoch wirklich ein wenig recherchiert zu haben. Questions? Da wird dem Bobby Schenk gehuldigt, ohne da Kater Carlo vom canale baltico NUR EIN EINZIGES BUCH von Schenk gelesen htte. Han And? Schwtzern luft man jeden Tag ber den Weg. Essay Armenian? Gbe es eine hotlist der nervigsten 40 Forumsmitglieder, htte Kater Carlo mit Sicherheit Platz 1. die Geschichte ber Nigel Tetley und seinen Suizid findest Du ganz einfach in as level, Wikipedia. Also bedient sich Bobby Schenk einfach nur moderner Suchmaschinen. Da ber die Umstnde von Tetleys Tod wieder etwas ans Licht gekommen ist, mag unter anderen daran liegen, da der Schenk nicht nur in essay questions armenian genocide, seinem Buch, sondern auch in capital punishment, seinem schrecklichen Artikel mit der Einhandseglerabrechnung mal wieder ein paar Fakten in essay genocide, den falschen Hals bekommen hat.

die Geschichte ber Nigel Tetley und seinen Suizid findest Du ganz einfach in han and roman empire comparative, Wikipedia. Also bedient sich Bobby Schenk einfach nur moderner Suchmaschinen. Misepeter, von denen ich hoffentlich niemals einen treffen werde - einfach nur tzend - wobei ich jetzt nicht explizid Dich meine, nur mal so allgemein an essay questions die Adresse aller Nrgler. Mich liest er gern; aber MOLLY kommt mit seinem Lesezwang an em resume POGOLINO, SUNFAST und. YOUNGBLOOD nicht vorbei - ein Schicksal, das er mit einer ganzen Reihe von Forum-Mit- Ich kenne einige Mitglieder, denen die von BARACUDA eingefhrt Punkte-Vergabe zu Hchstnden. auf ihrem Konto verhalf; die sahen danach ein, dass ihre Schreibe nicht mehr ffentlichkeitstaug- lich ist und suchten sich einen Raum (das Gesprch mit der Ehefrau, der Stammtisch, konspirative. Treffs gegen die Herrschenden etc). Questions Genocide? Dort wirken sie nun mit der ihnen eigenen Sprache, die mir. inzwischen berhaupt nicht fehlt - im Gegenteil. As Level? Das Forum reinigt sich zur Zeit selbst.

Am Ende. werden sich hier nur noch Friedfertige austauschen (die NELSONs, die vollkommen ohne Beleidi- gungsversuche auskommen, und dennoch in questions, aller Munde sind). Er ist mir misslungen (muss im Moment mit 8-Punkt-Schrift auskommen und. bersehe dabei leicht Tippfehler). Coursework? Kommt Zeit - kommt 12-Punkt-Schrift ! auf ihrem Konto verhalf; die sahen danach ein, dass ihre Schreibe nicht mehr ffentlichkeitstaug- lich ist und suchten sich einen Raum (das Gesprch mit der Ehefrau, der Stammtisch, konspirative. Treffs gegen die Herrschenden etc). Essay Questions Genocide? Dort wirken sie nun mit der ihnen eigenen Sprache, die mir. inzwischen berhaupt nicht fehlt - im Gegenteil. As Level? Das Forum reinigt sich zur Zeit selbst. Essay Questions Armenian Genocide? Am Ende.

werden sich hier nur noch Friedfertige austauschen (die NELSONs, die vollkommen ohne Beleidi- gungsversuche auskommen, und dennoch in geography coursework, aller Munde sind). Ja, nur doof wenn man keine Ehefrau, keine Freunde oder keinen realen Stammtisch mehr im richtigen Leben hat, die man mit Schwachsinn und senilem Imponiergehabe zutexten kann. Essay Armenian? Dann bleibt nur noch 24 Std. Essay? am Tag die virtuelle Welt des Internets. Essay Genocide? Da mutiert dann ein Spieer mit bersteigertem Geltungsdrang zum Seeheld, ein greiser Zwerg mit Htchen mit seinen glorifizierten Segelerfolgen aus der mehrrmpfigen Steinzeit zum Elitesegler, eine organisierte Geschwaderfahrt auf gecharterten Treibhusern zur hochkartigen Regatta ….. und Illusionen verprellt hat, drfte das Ende des Forums gekommen sein. Han And Roman Empire? Das Glockengelut. zum Finale hat schon eingesetzt. fr meinen Gleichgltigkeitsbereich.

Sie neigen auffllig dazu, Neid und Missgunst (frher mal. Untugenden) im Yacht-Forum hoffhig zu machen. Essay? Dass Sie in coursework as level, dem Beitrag von Simon Edeler. zu Moderationsfragen unerwhnt bleiben, sollte Sie nicht nachdenklich stimmen. Questions Armenian Genocide? Hier sind. schon ganz andere Koniferen gescheitert. Mich wundert, da hier so lange keiner der im obigen Beitrag enthaltenen falschen Aussage widersprochen hat. Und da bediente sich Bobby Bobbele Schenk schon lange dem Internet und ist eben nicht 30 Jahre her. D.h., da Tetleys Tod nichts mit der Segelei zu tun hatte.

Rttgering fand eine Menge inhaltlicher Klpse in coursework, Schenks Publikationen, mal nebenbei, schade, da Rttgering seine Seefieber-Seiten offline genommen hat. Schenks Bcher und Diavortrge waren interessant in essay armenian, den 70ern, noch in geography, den 80ern, sicherlich 1. Essay? Hlfte 90er evtl. Writing? noch, wo es kein Internet gab, wenig andere Publikationen zum Thema Weltumsegeln. Aber es gibt heute (und damals) auch andere, bessere, interessantere. Die Inhalte dort auch als Salzkrner betrachten. sie berhaupt durchliest, danach zum Entsorgen. Essay Questions? Danke Bobby!

Wer mit seinem iPHONE unterwegs ist, neigt zu kurzen Beitrgen, die dann zu Unschrfen. fhren knnen. Em Resume In Usa? Entweder nennt er ein Psycho-Trip-Buch von Schenk oder einen anderen. wie so oft in questions armenian, letzter Zeit (wenn er uns nicht gerade die Marktwirtschaft erklrt) die Ant- wort schuldig bleiben ? NELSON kann weder Autor noch Titel nennen; es gibt kein Psychtripp-Buch. merkst Du nicht, da Du zum Pflegefall mutierst? Selbst Dir persnlich bekannte Freunde, mit denen Du gesegelt bist, gehst Du im Forum, in deterrence punishment, der ffentlichkeit, schrg enervierend von der Seite an. Fr jeden normalen Menschen, Segler, ist ersichtlich, da Nelson vermutlich die Nonstopp-/Einhand-Bcher etwas despektierlich als Psychotripbeschreibungen abtut. Das ist seine persnliche Meinung, und solange er nicht detailliert Namen nennt, wird keiner mit ihm streiten ! Da Nelson recht klug ist, nennt er keine Namen, da auch er wei, da sog.

Psychotrips z.T. Essay Questions Armenian? sportliche Erstleistungen sind, da es den Seglerinnen und Seglern nicht um psyche ging, sondern ums Segeln. Da solche Beschreibungen mit Wasser + Wind aber recht zh geraten knnen, evtl. Coursework As Level? psychische Einblicke dadurch zu einem kleinen Teil des Gesamtpakets werden. Armenian Genocide? Einige Leser finden da dann geradezu interessant, Nelson eben halt nicht, so what ?! Vor allem ist er nicht verpflichtet, auf Deinen schrgen Beschu zu reagieren. Da Du ihn nach einem Bsp. Roman Empire Comparative Essay? fr Psychotripliteratur von Schenk frgst, zeigt Deine besondere Auffassungsgabe. ob er will oder nicht - oder es drngt sich ihm einer auf; ein potentieller Mitsegler ? nard Moitessier (Der verschenkte Sieg) vorzuziehen zeugt von besonderen Geschmack - Nelson schrieb nichts gegen oder fr Moitissier, oder den Verschenkten Sieg, brigens ein tolles Buch. Er ist einer von mehreren, aber kein primus inter pares, er ist nur inter pares. ob er will oder nicht - oder es drngt sich ihm einer auf; ein potentieller Mitsegler ? nard Moitessier (Der verschenkte Sieg) vorzuziehen zeugt von besonderen Geschmack - Bedienungsanleitungen sind nicht die schlechtesten Lektren - wenn Du diese auch mal gelesen httest, wre @Kleenkes diese Bemerkung zu deinem Knnen erspart gewesen: Zitat: Keiner war auf dem Schiff, der mit Funkgert und Plotter/Navi umgehen konnte - besonders Du nicht. kein Papst, noch nicht mal deutscher Segelpapst, noch nicht mal der hchste.

deutsche Fahrtensegler. Questions Genocide? Er ist einer von mehreren, aber kein primus inter pares, er ist nur inter pares. bisher eine unangefochtene Instanz des deutschen Verlagswesens, hat ein sehr. schnes Vorwort geschrieben in geography as level, einem Buch, das sich Segeln lebenslnglich nennt. Essay Questions Armenian? Er schreibt dort unter Anderem: Geheimwissenschaften sind.

Trumen wir mit ihm, lernen wir von ihm. Geography Coursework? Lesen. wir, wie der Amtsrichter aus dem meerfernen Bayern zu einer hchsten Ins- tanz im Segelsport wurde. lernen zum Teil, andere Teile besser nicht. Diese mut Du aber selbst erkennen, offensichtlich bist Du als scheinloser Segler noch nicht auf der Wissens- oder Erkenntnisstufe, um Schwchen bis hin zu Fehlern in questions armenian genocide, Schenks Literatur zu finden. Deshalb hole ich von Verlagsseite ernannte Himmelflieger auf den Boden zurck, Erdung soll nicht schaden, gelle ? Unser Mkelfrager soll sich unbesttigten Infos zufolge im letzten Drittel dieser Ergebnisliste als Skipper aufgefhrt finden., ist es Christos, Janis oder doch Igor ? (Achtung, rethorische Frage, lassen wir das, solcherart Rethorik braucht nicht beantwortet werden.) 2010 immerhin etwas besser als letztes Drittel, 2. Programs? Hlfte. Essay Genocide? Und da hat unser Buchtenbummler, selbst erklrter Hobbysegler ohne Ehrgeiz fr Regatten, einen guten 3. In Usa? Platz belegt, 2011 immerhin echtes Mittelfeld mit den Plazierungen 14 + 12 und dann leider 2 DNFs, welche eine gute Plazierung verhinderten. Ich sehe weder Multi-Expertise beim Unaussprechlichen, noch Moderationsknste, noch Exzellenzcluster. Yacht-Forum aufgeschlagen, vorher oder nachher lie er sich nicht blicken. Questions Armenian Genocide? Der Mann ist.

eine unsaubere Quelle, dessen smtliche Texte aus dem Forum entfernt wurden. In Usa? Unsau- bere Forum-Mitglieder bedienen sich der bei sich gespeicherten Texte. Questions Armenian Genocide? Falls Sie sich auch. derer bedienen, werde ich bis zum Jahresende keinen ihrer Beitrge mehr kommentieren. auch sonst kein Autor bekannt geworden, dem er eine Laudatio gehalten htte.

Was. er in creative writing, seinem Vorwort schreibt, kommt aus seinem Herzen (wer das nicht gelesen hat, enthalte sich der Meinung, sonst klingt das nach Ehrabschneidung).

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