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Boserup’s Theory on Technological Change as a Point of Departure for the Theory of Sociometabolic Regime Transitions. This chapter is devoted to the core theoretical propositions unfolded in E. Essays J. Gibson. Boserup’s 1981 book Population and Technological Change and represents an attempt to take these ideas further. For The Cold. The 1981 book makes an perception in honor of james effort to provide a theoretical explanation for the full course of power human history, from perception in honor of james j. gibson hunting and gathering communities through various stages of agricultural societies right into the industrial transformation. Architecture. First we re-examine her own data, confirming her core thesis about average agricultural output per area risingwith population density at the expense of declining output per labour hour, but demonstrating a strong discontinuity at the industrial end of her technology scale.Clearly, what is measured at this end, the transition to fossil fuel use in agriculture, leads to saving labour. Second, we explain our theory of sociometabolic regime transitions and in honor j. gibson, try to show how much this theory learned from Boserup. Thesis. This theory, though, supposes that it makes a fundamental difference if societies base practically all of their processes on solar energy, its conversion into plant biomass and, consequently, on agriculture as the key energy supply sector, or if they base their processes on fossil fuel energy sources – this is a qualitative leap beyond what Boserup introduces as gradual distinctions. In a third part, based on our comparative research on resource use, we elaborate on three examples for the lasting validity of Boserup’s arguments: on the non-linearity between population growth and land requirements, on the transferability of this thesis to other resources as well, and finally on the persistent relevance of population density as key factor allowing for lower resource consumption. This chapter confirms Boserup’s role as an eminent theorist and analyst of the development trajectory of agrarian societies, but also points to her weakness in understanding the industrial transformation. Ester Boserup’s 1965 book The Conditions of Agricultural Growth was well received and resonated deeply (Boserup 1965 ). In contrast, Boserup’s most mature and comprehensive book, 1981’s Population and Technological Change: A study of Long-Term Trends (Boserup 1981 ), in all its complexity, seems to perception essays in honor of james j. gibson have received less attention. This chapter is devoted to the core theoretical propositions unfolded in this 1981 book and represents an attempt to take these ideas further.

In her work Population and Technological Change , Boserup not only had the ambition to elaborate and generalise her ideas from essay 1965, she also made a number of attempts to explore the validity of her arguments using quantitative analysis. She did so mainly using national-level data (skilfully digging out the information on the few countries for which the data were available at perception essays j. gibson the time), analysing the essay, interrelations of her two main variables—population density presumably as the independent variable and technological change as the dependent variable—as well as the joint impact of both on perception of james other variables. This methodological approach that she helped pioneer is still very common, particularly in the context of reports from international organizations, but the data situation has, of essay on black course, much improved since. What we attempt to show in this chapter is not only that the theory of perception essays j. gibson sociometabolic regime transitions genuinely builds upon Boserupian foundations (even if it contradicts her preoccupation with gradualism) but also that data generated in essay power, the context of material and energy flow accounting (Haberl et al. 2004 ) are very suitable for putting her key propositions to perception essays in honor empirical tests. Essay. 3.2 Boserup’s Main Theoretical Propositions, and her Efforts at an Empirical Proof. In the preface, Boserup ( 1981 ) describes the claims of this book in relation to her book on the conditions of agricultural growth (1965). Because the latter focuses only on agricultural technology, it had to “abstain from the perception in honor, analysis of the effects of technological change on population change. It therefore discussed only the effects of population change, not its causes. This book deals with all types of population-linked technologies, and architecture, I have made an attempt to perception essays of james j. gibson deal with both sides of the interrelationship.” (Boserup 1981 , p. ix) Her later book, she says, has a broader scope; whereas the earlier book focuses exclusively on agricultural societies, the an essay that life, later volume also deals briefly with pre-agricultural communities and, in much more detail, with societies in early stages of industrialization.

However, even in the later book, she makes “no attempt to discuss the most recent technological innovations in the highly industrialised societies.” (Boserup 1981 , p. x) “This book is perception not a revision of The Conditions of Agricultural Growth ,” Boserup points out, “but only an attempt to broaden and deepen it.” Discussing the criticisms she received for her previous work, she self-confidently asserts “that I was on the right track and have nothing to regret, so far as the theory is concerned” (ibid.). In other words, the on something that changed life, 1981 book makes an effort to provide a theoretical explanation for the full course of human history, from hunting and gathering communities through various stages of essays in honor of james j. gibson agricultural societies right into the industrial transformation. Its overall structure complies with this ambition: a chapter on an essay on something changed your the theoretical framework is followed by a historical chapter on population and technology in the ancient world . She then discusses the role of demographic factors in European development and of james, the diffusion of industrial technologies. Finally, she deals with demographic transition and technological change in the Third World. Her basic theoretical framework for the core interrelation between demographic dynamics and technological development reads as follows (Boserup 1981 , p. 5 ff.): Inventions, or the acceptance of spreading inventions, have a strong demand component, and rapid population growth can generate such a demand.

Thus, population change induces inventions and business motivation, technological change and also facilitates technological change: more people available make doing things differently possible. There is also a feedback loop in in honor j. gibson, that technological change leads to who was responsible for the cold further population change. Increased population density in an area has a dual effect on the availability of life-sustaining natural resources: On the essays in honor of james j. gibson, one hand, it makes life easier because it allows for burden sharing in accessing these resources. On the other hand, in the long run, the ratio of natural resources to the population decreases. “One or the other tendency may prevail” (Boserup 1981 , p. 5). As a result of both tendencies, an increase in population density “provides an business motivation essay incentive to replace natural resources by labour and capital” (Boserup 1981 , p. Perception In Honor Of James J. Gibson. 6). These are the key theoretical propositions that lead her through the rich material throughout her book. She operationally defines her key variables: population density and technological change. For The War Essay. Both variables are measured at a national level, using the few internationally available data of her time. Perception Essays. Density is fairly straightforward: she defines 10 density classes (in persons per km 2 each distinguished from the next by factor 2: 0–1, 1–2, 2–4, 4–8 … 128–256, 256) that she will later group together. Next, she specifies technological levels (Boserup 1981 , p. 12 ff.).

Among the indicators she uses, per capita energy consumption (in coal equivalents), which can be considered practically equivalent to the amount of fossil fuel use, comes first. Next is the number of telephones per 1,000 inhabitants (again in its dependency upon electricity bound to fossil fuel use), an indicator of extending communication beyond the local community and cold, of interconnectedness. Average life expectancy, as an indicator of j. gibson health infrastructure, food supply and literacy rates, rounds out the set. She ranks the business, countries by each indicator, constructs an index in perception essays j. gibson, which each indicator carries equal weight, and finally puts the countries into 5 groups by architecture, the resulting index, with each group containing an equal number of countries (for the perception in honor, year 1970) (Fig. 3.1 ). Indicator values by technology level. (According to Boserup 1981 , p. 13, Table 2.3; calculated as indices, value of technology level I = 1) Boserup presents the relation between indicators and technology groups in essay power, the form of essays of james a table. That Changed Life. In general, the perception, technology groups exhibit a rise in life expectancy, literacy, and “connectivity” from business one group to the next using different levels of j. gibson fossil fuel inputs.

What becomes much more apparent when presented graphically is the relative homogeneity of essay on black power technology groups I–III according to these indicators. Then, there is an increase through group IV to group V clearly related to fossil energy use. Thus, what she shows here are not the subtle differences within the agrarian regime that were her original focus (differentiation by in honor, fallow periods and gradual intensification of land use) but the progressive use of fossil fuels as a source of energy. Perception Essays In Honor Of James. 1. In Honor J. Gibson. In her next step, she puts her core hypothesis of 1965, that high population density, far from making people starve, moves them in school english essay homework, a position to advance technologically, to a test with these data. The results (see graph in Fig. 3.2 ) do not convince her.

She feels there is no longer as close a correlation as between population density and high technological levels as “there seems to have been before the industrial revolution” (Boserup 1981 , p. 14), but even now she sees a pronounced inverse relationship only happening rarely, recognizing that “it became possible for a sparsely populated area by very rapid technological development to become the leading industrial nation in little more than a century.” (Boserup 1981 , p. Essays Of James J. Gibson. 144) Population density and technological level in 1970 ( 100 countries). (According to Boserup 1981 , p. 14, Table 2.5; technology groups as in original) Clearly, the business, proportion of high-density countries is highest among the top technology group, but the proportion of low-density countries does not continuously decline with technological advancement—there must be other factors involved as well. The issue could be resolved more easily if she drew a theoretical dividing line between population dynamics and technological advancement under agrarian regime conditions, where her hypothesis is perception in honor of james highly plausible and corresponds very well to historical observation, and essay homework, the roles of of james j. gibson population dynamics under industrializing and industrial conditions that are somehow qualitatively different. 2. Even the findings concerning her core thesis that average agricultural output per area rises in dependency upon who was responsible, population density at the expense of declining output per labour hour confirm her theory, but still there is a strong discontinuity with technology level V, the industrial end of the scale (see Fig. 3.3 ). In Honor Of James J. Gibson. The overall effect of density ( a ), and technology ( b ) on output. Power. (According to Boserup 1981 , p. 27, Table 3.13); number of perception in honor countries per cell very small (1–4) Yield per worker does not depend much on population density but strongly depends on technology. Density plays a role only in technology group V (with output per worker declining as predicted). Clearly, what this technology scale measures, i.e., transition to fossil fuel use, reflects itself in an emphasis on saving labour. From multivariate and bivariate perspectives (Fig. 3.3 ), one sees output per hectare rise with population density and output per worker decline. This finding confirms Boserup’s core theoretical assumption. However, with technology groups, the old assumption does not hold; both output per hectare and output per worker increase with the technological level because a technological level is not defined as improved technology within agricultural society but as the degree of transition towards the use of fossil fuels.

Why does Ester Boserup not draw a dividing line between systems functioning differently, as she herself repeatedly recognises? She clearly disapproved of the school homework, arrogance of modernist exceptionalism in bringing technological innovation and change to “traditional” communities that would otherwise be static. For this reason, perhaps, she opposed the dichotomous distinction of “modern” and “traditional” altogether and in honor j. gibson, introduced a much richer set of qualitative distinctions of food supply systems, differentiated by what she considers the decisive variable for architecture thesis, land use intensity: fallow periods (Boserup 1965 , p. 15 f., 1981, p. 18 f.). This line of reasoning was highly innovative vis-a-vis the simplistic distinctions of classical political economy between cultivated land and unused land and the derived processes of extension (cultivating additional land) and intensification (increasing output) and essays, was inspirational for contemporary land use science (see Chap. 5 by Erb et al. in this volume). Nevertheless, it still shares with the classics a particular blind spot: an unawareness of the crucial role of sources of energy. For her, contrary to mainstream thinking, tools and their improvement, as well as input factors such as fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides, play a secondary role. Her core argument, simplified, is that population growth increases density and makes it necessary to find ways to use land more intensively, which is equivalent to reducing fallow periods (up to essay on black power annual multicropping), which in turn drives technological development; solutions also rely on the availability of more people and more labour power. It makes a fundamental difference if societies base practically all of their processes on solar energy, its conversion into plant biomass and, consequently, agriculture as the perception of james j. gibson, key energy supply sector, or if they base their processes on fossil fuel energy sources. School English Homework. In the first case, societies as a whole absolutely depend on a positive high EROI (energy return upon perception essays of james j. gibson, energy investment 3 ) from agriculture, and if it is low, such societies are constrained in their complexity.

In the second case, they can afford to subsidise agriculture energetically. For agriculture, the subject of much of Boserup’s writing, this makes a huge difference, a qualitative leap beyond what she introduces as gradual distinctions. In the following paragraph, we will explain how we, building upon Boserup’s ideas, argue the need for drawing a qualitative distinction between what we call agrarian and industrial sociometabolic regimes. School Essay Homework. 3.3 Understanding Qualitative Change: Sociometabolic Regimes. The metabolism of all pre-industrial societies is based on essays the use of motivation biomass and thus upon the ability of plant organisms to utilise solar energy via photosynthesis to create energy-rich material from perception carbon dioxide, water and mineral compounds. In the form of nutrition and animal feed, biomass provides the energetic basis for sustaining the existence of humans and their livestock and can be converted into mechanical energy. Combustion (burning fuelwood, for who was responsible for the, example) provides space and process heating for in honor, domestic households (cooking), mining (metal smelting) and architecture, light. The conversion of heat into mechanical energy was not possible prior to the invention of the steam engine; thus, the availability of mechanical energy was subject to strict limitations. Essays J. Gibson. Water and wind power play an important yet very much subordinate role in an essay that changed life, terms of quantity.

With few exceptions, 4 biomass was by far the most important energy source until the industrial revolution, generally accounting for 99 % of all available primary energy. The production of available energy is based upon the controlled transformation of ecosystems by of james j. gibson, labour with the aim of an essay on something that your increasing the utilisable yield of essays biomass; i.e., upon the colonisation of nature. The basic precondition for this form of subsistence is that a positive energy yield (EROI) is obtained from agrarian activity; through agrarian land-use, significantly more energy in the form of english biomass must be produced than is expended in the form of human labour (and prerequisite energetic expenditures such as nutrition). It has been estimated that in Central Europe before the beginning of industrialisation in the agrarian economy, an EROI of c. Perception Essays In Honor. 10 to 1 was achieved (Krausmann 2004 ; Leach 1976 ). On Black Power. Any surplus may be used to supply the non-agrarian sectors of society—that is, to provide nutrition and fuelwood for urban centres, as well as feed for the draught animals that have to transport all this material. The higher the surplus, the more complex the possible societal structures become. However, this surplus is never particularly high because a system must be very well organised for the work of 10 farm families to be able to perception j. gibson sustain more than 1–2 other households (such as aristocratic landowners, craftspeople or bureaucrats). Under the agrarian regime, reactions to increases in food demand, which are usually caused by population growth, initially involve expanding the area dedicated to agrarian production—and this may often lead to attempts to capture new territories. As a last resort, where land is scarce and territory limited, the option remains to apply a greater investment of labour to the same land area with the aim of achieving a greater yield, in other words, the intensification of land-area use. However, the yield per invested hour of labour declines as intensity of use increases and architecture thesis, asymptotically approaches a physical limitation, from which point there is no benefit to in honor be achieved by further intensification.

In other words, growth is possible but leads to architecture thesis a diminishing marginal utility of perception in honor of james labour. When this limit is reached, we find the “typical” picture of agrarian societies, in which the majority of the population, including children, incessantly performs demanding physical work while still suffering from shortages of essential resources. Who Was For The Cold War Essay. This logic, which Ester Boserup has studied on a worldwide basis and of which she provides a detailed description, represents a fundamental limitation of societal development in agrarian regimes: as a rule, growth in this regime eventually leads, despite progress made regarding methods of husbandry and perception of james j. gibson, plant cultivation, to the stagnating or even diminishing availability of per capita material and energy resources. Furthermore, the on something changed your, absence of the possibility to transform heat energy into mechanical work limits the essays, degrees of freedom. Mechanical work can only be performed through the physical work of humans, animals and water/wind energy; thus, the productivity that was thereby attainable remained relatively low. 5 Altogether, the size and structure of societal metabolism and its spatial differentiation were subject to limitation through the controlled solar energy system. In Europe, before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, 2–4 t of raw material and 30–70 gigajoules (GJ) 6 of primary energy were appropriated per capita and year, whereby biomass accounted for over 80 % of all material and 95 % of all energy inputs: food for human populations, livestock feed and wood for construction and fuel.

Regional differences in metabolism were related in particular to the varying relevance of holding livestock and who was war essay, climatic conditions. 7. Starting in seventeenth century England, increased use of coal led to the development of a new energy system. At the core of this energy transition was a transition from the use of energy flows with low power density in perception essays in honor, the form of biomass that is regrown annually to the exploitation of large-scale energy deposits that had accumulated over geological eras and existed in power, a concentrated form as coal, with a high power density (Smil 2003 ). Essays In Honor J. Gibson. Initially, coal was used solely as an often quite unpopular fuel for stoves in in honor, the households of manufacturing workers in urban centres, whose increasing requirements could not be supplied by fuelwood alone. Fortunately, coal supplies in England were found close to these centres, and coal could also be transported at low cost via waterways. 8. In nearly all other world regions, by contrast, only essays of james regional urban-industrial centres were affected by this metabolic transition. Accordingly, the business essay, average per capita coal use remained negligible in countries such as India, China or Brazil even at the beginning of the twentieth century, comprising far less than 100 kg/capita and year. Indeed, the European countries that were in the process of industrialising had an perception in honor of james j. gibson active interest in using colonialism to ensure that other world regions played a role as suppliers of cheap agricultural products and other raw materials, as well as outlet markets for growing industrial production and certainly not in allowing them to participate in industrial development themselves (see further discussion on this theme below). Responsible For The. Later, steam engines enabled the conversion of essays in honor of james j. gibson coal into mechanical power, which led to an essay that your a dramatic increase in the available capacity compared to what had existed under the previous regime. The possibility of extracting, transporting, processing and consuming materials underwent radical change, and an entirely new form of societal metabolism came into being as a result. Perception In Honor J. Gibson. In addition to biomass, huge quantities of essay coal, construction materials and ore were extracted and processed. In the United Kingdom, materials used, for example, increased from 60 to perception in honor of james 400 million tonnes per year between 1750 and 1900.

Population growth during this phase happened at essay on black power a somewhat slower pace than the increase in material and energy use. For the first time in history, there was rapidly growing demand for non-agricultural workers. Perception Essays Of James J. Gibson. The mechanical performance of large coal-powered machines created conditions that produced an immense number of jobs required for final manufacturing. Business Motivation. During this phase, although there was a rise in per capita material and energy consumption, it did not produce an increase in mass prosperity but was instead channelled into the expansion of the factory system and into exports. In Honor Of James. Coal represented a first important step towards emancipating the energy system from the land area and removing traditional limitations on economic growth. On Something Your. Rolf Peter Sieferle coined the vivid phrase “subterranean forest” for this phenomenon (Sieferle 1982 ). He showed that the energy (calorific value) contained in perception in honor of james, the amount of coal that was combusted annually in the United Kingdom by 1850 had already reached the equivalent of the essay on black power, fuelwood that could be produced from a virtual forest area the size of the essays in honor j. gibson, entire country. By 1900, this amount had risen to an area equivalent to a subterranean forest covering four times the land area of the entire country (see Fig. 3.4 ). We may interpret this finding to mean that to essay on black maintain societal metabolism at the same level, the United Kingdom would have required a territory four times greater than its actual land area and entirely covered in forest for use. Coal use in the United Kingdom (UK) as virtual forest area. Perception In Honor J. Gibson. (Source: Krausmann and Fischer Kowalski 2012 , p. 346, according to Sieferle 1982 ). Note: To convert coal use into virtual forest area, it was assumed that a quantity of fuelwood with the equivalent energy content to the coal used can be provided through sustainable forest management (i.e., through the use of annual growth and not standing timber mass).

The forest area required to produce this volume of thesis fuelwood is presented as a virtual forest area.) However, coal use did not remove all the in honor j. gibson, limitations of the solar energy system. A very profound reliance upon the area-dependent resource of biomass remained in place: the essay on black, need for nutrition. Access to more (technical) energy had not in any sense replaced human physical work but in perception essays of james j. gibson, fact had increased the demand for labour power in need of essay on black power nutrition. In a similar way, the railway did not replace the need for draught and working animals; on the contrary, the in honor, wide-meshed network of railway lines, in combination with an increase in transported goods and people, led to an increasing demand for working animals. Stocks of draught animals grew continuously into the twentieth century. Similarly, coal did indeed provide a substitute for fuelwood, but more timber than ever before was required for essay on black power, building the railways and for the emerging paper industry. Altogether, the demand for biomass grew paradoxically alongside the transformation of the energy system to feed people and animals and to supply new industries with raw material.

At the essays in honor j. gibson, same time, the potential for expanding the cultivatable area was largely exhausted, and the means of motivation raising area productivity were limited. The most important limitation was the chronic shortage of perception of james j. gibson fertiliser. Although mineral fertilisers, such as guano, Chile saltpetre and superphosphate, were increasingly used in agriculture by the end of the nineteenth century, the volumes employed were low and limited to perception in honor j. gibson special crops such as oranges or tobacco and the supply of plant nutrients for most of the cultivated land still had to rely on farm-internal means (manure, leguminous crops, etc.). Thus, a fundamental limitation upon traditional agriculture remained in place, which, in essays of james j. gibson, spite of successful biological innovations such as new cultivated plants and thesis, new land-use practices, led to stagnating grain yields in the nineteenth century. In the USA, a completely different development took place; a rapidly growing population but an extremely low population density of only 2 persons per km 2 meant that with the expansion of the essays in honor of james j. gibson, railway system, huge swathes of fertile prairie land could be cultivated for food production. Within a few decades of homesteading, over 100 million ha of high-quality agricultural land were gained in the Midwestern USA between 1850 and 1920, after the indigenous peoples, with their extensive land-use practices, had been violently expelled (Cunfer 2005 ). The nutrient-rich soils of the Great Plains allowed for high initial yields with little labour input. The labour productivity of this system of agriculture was extraordinarily high and enabled a small rural population to supply the densely populated urban centres on the coasts as well as to export large quantities of foodstuff to Europe. By around 1880, the USA was already exporting over 4 million tonnes of grain, providing basic nutrition for over 20 million people (Krausmann and architecture, Cunfer 2009 ). Not only the agrarian productivity of a pioneer country but also another resource—oil—positioned the USA to become the leading nation during the perception in honor of james j. gibson, next phase of the industrial transformation (Fig.

3.5 ). School Homework. The establishment of new energy sources in perception essays of james j. gibson, the United Kingdom (1870–2006) ( a ), and the United States (1750–2000) ( b ). (Data sources: Authors’ calculations based on Schandl and Krausmann 2007 , p. 97 (United Kingdom), and IEA 2008 ; Krausmann et al. 2009 ; Podobnik 1999 ). Note: In this diagram, the share of the total primary energy supply, represented by the three fractions of biomass, coal and oil/natural gas (including other energy forms), is depicted. The biomass fraction includes all biomass used as food for humans and livestock and biomass used for all other purposes, together with fuelwood. As shown, in the nineteenth century, the USA was able to perception of james j. gibson effectively compensate the weaknesses of the English transformation model (i.e., difficulties in producing sufficient food for a high-density and growing population) and to turn this to its advantage. However, it became clear that this level of agricultural productivity had no long-term potential and essays in honor of james j. gibson, after only a few decades, ran up against motivation essay, massive ecological limitations. Perception Essays In Honor Of James J. Gibson. The combination of large land areas with a low investment of labour was only possible because the prairie soil, then being ploughed for the first time, contained huge reservoirs of thesis plant nutrients accumulated over a long historical period.

These reservoirs, however, quickly began to deplete in the first decades of ploughing. The yields began to perception of james j. gibson decrease, and enormous problems with erosion appeared (Cunfer 2005 ). An Essay On Something Changed Life. However, in perception j. gibson, a situation where oil could be obtained cheaply and with a bundle of technologies coupled to this new energy source, a new and architecture thesis, successful agricultural model was possible. The tractor allowed for the substitution of all animal labour and a large proportion of human labour in agriculture, much as the motor saw raised the speed of tree-felling in comparison with the in honor, axe by a factor of 100–1,000 (and thus enabled the rapid deforestation of the rainforests). The agrochemical industry, based on petroleum and natural gas, helped to responsible cold war essay lift the chronic limitations on plant nutrients from which agriculture was suffering. From the perception of james j. gibson, 1920s onwards, huge amounts of atmospheric nitrogen were made available for agricultural use using the Haber-Bosch process, which requires a high energy input (Smil 2001 ). The average nitrogen application in crop farming increased to several 100 kg/ha as a result. Together with industrial potassium, phosphate fertilisers, pesticides and successes in plant and livestock breeding, area yields and labour productivity in agriculture were amplified within a very short space of time (Grigg 1992 ). Starting in essay, the USA and disseminated by essays of james j. gibson, agricultural companies active on the global market, these new agricultural methods were spread around the world under the term green revolution . 9 They found application in Europe after World War II. As a result, the proportion of the population engaged in thesis, agriculture fell to 5 % or less. The green revolution also took hold in large sectors of agriculture in the southern hemisphere and in honor j. gibson, helped create conditions in which global food production was able to keep pace with the quadrupling of the world population in the twentieth century. Your Life. The industrialisation of agriculture required a massive transformation of the agrarian landscape, which had to be rendered suitable for machine activity. This transformation led to a range of specific environmental problems. The position of agriculture in in honor j. gibson, societal metabolism and the energy system changed fundamentally.

Industrialised agriculture requires a high energy input, and today, more energy is who was for the war essay invested in agricultural production than is subsequently obtained in the form of food, which is partly due to the large quantity of essays j. gibson high-quality agricultural produce that is fed to homework livestock. In general, agriculture has been altered during the course of the sociometabolic transformation from being the perception essays of james, most important source of useful energy to becoming an energy sink (Pimentel and architecture, Pimentel 1979 ). With the industrial transformation, society has made itself dependent on abundant external energy sources for essays in honor of james j. gibson, the most important part of english its metabolism, namely, the perception essays of james, feeding of life its population. This industrial stage of agriculture does not comply with Boserup’s theory of population growth driving technological innovation and leading to a substitution of natural resources by labour and perception of james, capital. Bringing a completely new natural resource into play introduces a completely new pattern. 3.4 Examples of perception essays Later Research Findings that Could Have Been Anticipated from Boserup’s Theory. 3.4.1 Example 1: On the Non-Linearity Between Population and Land Requirement. One of perception essays of james j. gibson Boserup’s core ideas is inspirational: the anti-Malthusian message of a non-linear relationship between the (growing) number of power people and land requirement, with the key intervening variable being the perception in honor of james, intensification of use.

This proposition held on a global level throughout the architecture thesis, twentieth century (Fig. 3.6 ). One must assume, though, that generating more output on the same cropland was achieved by different methods before and after the green revolution , with its fossil fuel-based inputs and tools. Whereas before the green revolution , the mechanisms described in Boserup ( 1965 ), namely reduced fallow periods and, in extreme cases, shifting to multicropping, at the expense of increasing labour investment, presumably dominated and achieved an increase in output that could not quite keep up with population growth (so that there still had to be a substantial expansion in cropland), after the green revolution (i.e., from the late 1950s onward), the growth in yields far exceeded the growth in cropland. In the most recent decades, however, yields have again grown at perception of james j. gibson a slower pace than the architecture thesis, world population (Fig. 3.7 ). Development of global cropped area, average crop yields per unit area and population in the twentieth century. Indexed Development from 1910 to perception in honor of james j. gibson 2005 (1910 = 1) ( a ), and average annual growth rates for english homework, the period 1910–1950 and 1950–2005 ( b ). (Based on Krausmann et al.

2013 . Note: Since the in honor j. gibson, green revolution , these changes have been achieved not by increasing human labour inputs (on the contrary, the number of people globally working in agriculture has decreased) but by increasing labour input in its technical form, namely direct or indirect energy input on the basis of fossil fuels. Global trends in agricultural inputs 1961–2005. (Source: FAO 2007 ; IEA 2008 . Note: The number of tractors is a conservative estimate for the input of labour, as the size of tractors has increased considerably since 1961.) During the heyday of the green revolution , the number of tractors increased two-and-a-half fold, and the use of architecture mineral fertilisers increased fivefold. Again, we see a structural break from the late 1980s onward in which these inputs have stagnated and the overall energy input in agriculture dropped and has remained stable on a substantially lower level. If we relate this to the results shown in Fig. 3.8 , it is apparent that rises in crop yields and rises in fossil fuel-based inputs relate closely. No doubt this may change again in the future; the increasing prices of fossil fuels (and maybe even outright oil scarcity) and agricultural products may create a situation in which more labour-intensive forms of agriculture regain their place in society. Global primary energy use ( a ), and perception, material use ( b ), 1900–2010. (Source: Krausmann et al. 2009 (data update 2011) One international mistake could have been avoided by looking more closely at essay Boserup’s works. The original global estimates of land available for biofuels (“unused land”) were much too high (Haberl et al. 2010 provide an excellent overview).

Boserup would have taught them that on perception j. gibson this populated planet, there is no such thing as “unused land” (regardless of what it looks like on satellite images); the english essay homework, intensity of land use is in honor of james a matter of essay homework degree, with—for example—extensive pastures contributing essentially both to the nutrition of in honor j. gibson people and to the fertilization of their cropland. 3.4.2 Example 2: Generalizing the Thesis of Non-Linearity to Other Resources. An analogous argument may apply to the human use of other natural resources as well: although population numbers are one of the motivation essay, strongest drivers of the requirement of essays in honor of james energy and material resources, technological innovations allow, through increasing efficiency, a certain degree of non-linearity in this relationship. Essay On Black Power. Under the agrarian sociometabolic regime (or agricultural societies, as Boserup would say), an of james j. gibson increasing population density allowed for essay, urbanization, and perception j. gibson, urbanization both offered the conditions for further technological development and required them (such as fortifications, new means of transport and transport infrastructures, new weapons, etc.). However, urbanization and war essay, a lifestyle beyond the daily toil of agriculture was clearly limited by the low agricultural surplus that could be taxed from peasants, limits to transportation (land transport for in honor, bulky materials could only architecture thesis cover a few kilometres; ships were the only viable alternative), and limits to timber and fuel wood that used to be quickly exhausted in the vicinity of perception in honor j. gibson urban centres. (See part II in Boserup 1981 , pp. 15–92; see also Sieferle 1982 ) Thus, once the basic infrastructural investments were completed, the requirements of english natural resources (food, feed, timber and fuelwood, fibres, clay, metals and mineral building materials) grew at most at the pace of the population and, one may speculate, maybe often below for scarcity and efficiency reasons.

There was a certain built-in mechanism for territories to grow but not a built-in mechanism for individual consumption to grow. 10. The situation is very different in the industrial sociometabolic regime. There, technological innovations mainly reduce labour requirements and drive income (Ayres and Warr 2009 ). The more resources for a certain service are saved through innovation, the more resources are consumed overall (Sorrell and Dimitropoulos 2008 ). During all of the twentieth century, marked by the expansion of the industrial regime, the global resource consumption of perception in honor of james energy and all other materials increased much faster than the already very steep rise of the world population (see Fig. 3.8 ). In effect, per capita consumption of natural resources almost tripled during this century, and it is continuing to rise as the perception essays of james j. gibson, industrial regime expands to more and more countries. All this could not have happened with biomass as the essays in honor, core source of energy.

Industrial agriculture uses large amounts of fossils to boost annual harvests of net primary production by an order of magnitude (Haberl et al. 2007 ). The rise of per capita energy and materials consumption, i.e., the in honor of james, non-linearity of resource requirements with elasticities above 1 in relation to population growth, is particularly pronounced in two phases (see Fig. 3.9 ). Of James J. Gibson. One phase is the period between the world economic crisis in 1930 and the first oil crisis in 1972—this is precisely the who was responsible for the, period of booming oil in the US, reconstruction after World War II in Europe, and the worldwide spread of the so-called green revolution in essays of james j. gibson, agriculture (Pimentel et. Business Motivation Essay. al 1973 ). The other phase has been visible on a global level since the turn of the twenty-first century, but regionally started much earlier: the essays in honor j. gibson, rapid industrial transformation, on an essay on something changed life a fossil fuel base, of a number of so-called emergent economies such as China, Brazil, Korea or India. Per capita global energy and materials use during the twentieth century. Essays. (Source: Krausmann et al. 2009 ) (data update 2011) The first decade of the who was, new century was marked by in honor, a shift in resource prices; for the first time in many decades, there was a steep trend upward (the long-term trend had always been declining) for oil and gas, cereals, and many metals and minerals. Cold War Essay. In the same decade, a major global financial crisis (which also exists today) and structural shifts in world trade occurred (Dittrich and Bringezu 2010 ). If Ester Boserup had had the perception essays of james, chance to use these sociometabolic indicators for her analysis, what conclusions would she have come up with? Would she have been able to maintain her generally positive outlook on population growth and technological advancement? 3.4.3 Example 3: On the cold, Role of Development and Population Density in Driving Resource Use. Development, in perception essays in honor, the sense of a transition from an agrarian to an industrial regime, implies a much more substantial increase in resource use than Boserup could be aware of.

On the basis of a number of historical and contemporary case studies, several authors (Haberl et al. 2011 ; Krausmann et al. 2008 ) published the following estimates (Table 3.1 ). Primary energy use 11 per capita has increased by a factor between 3 and 5, far beyond the range of any agrarian society; biomass use, although absolutely not decreasing, only supplies 10–30 % of the energy used. The same holds true for materials use—with the energy available, 3–5 times as much material can be mobilised. Who Was Responsible War Essay. In addition, the fraction of the population working in agriculture has decreased from above 80 % to less than 10 %. With the demographic transitions that have come along, population density has increased 3- to 10-fold, leading to a very strong increase in the impact (or, rather, pressure) of humans per in honor of james, unit area. The Boserupian idea that humans, specifically because of a higher density (and therefore rising collaboration and inventiveness), could be able to buffer the negative impacts of essay on black their increasingly intensive use upon the environment was partly true as far as local and regional impacts in rich countries are concerned but not on essays in honor of james j. gibson a global or long-term scale. Comparing the agrarian and the industrial regime: Population density, per capita resource use and agricultural population. (Source: Krausmann et al. 2008 ) Energy use (DEC) per who was responsible for the cold, capita. Energy use (DEC) per area.

Biomass (share of DEC) Material use (DMC) per perception essays in honor of james, capita. Material use (DMC) per area. On a global level, nevertheless, the mitigating effect of population density can be demonstrated. Both among developing (i.e., in the middle of business a transition from perception in honor j. gibson agrarian to industrial in the year 2000) and among fully industrialised countries, countries with above-average population densities are able to provide their people’s welfare at in honor j. gibson a substantially lower level of per capita consumption of natural resources (Fig. 3.10 ). This finding relates to different patterns of (historically evolved) lifestyle and consumption. Densely built urban centres, for perception essays of james, example, demand much less infrastructure materials for supply, disposal and transportation (Weisz and on black power, Steinberger 2010 ), as well as less energy for j. gibson, heating and an essay your, transport, than scattered settlements. In the same vein, densely populated regions tend to develop a diet that is not as resource (and area) demanding as the diet in regions where there is perception in honor j. gibson plenty of food available. In the opposite direction of architecture causality, one finds natural resources (such as timber, or mining products) being extracted preferably in low density areas, which boosts the metabolic rates in these regions. High density areas are instead only the essays j. gibson, consumers of these resources, and architecture thesis, the “upstream flows” do not weigh on their metabolic rates.

The combined effect of development status and population density on per capita material use (175 countries in the year 2000). (Based on Krausmann et al. 2008 ) This difference was considered so striking that UNEP based its scenarios of perception in honor of james j. gibson future resource use on the assumption that developing countries, over architecture, the coming decades, would tend to emulate the metabolic rates of industrial countries but maintain differences according to population density (UNEP 2011 ). Nevertheless, the essays in honor, IRP came to architecture the conclusion that the essays, already ongoing continuation of metabolic convergence would lead to an untenable level of perception in honor j. gibson global resource use, running up not only against all climate concerns but also against global resource constraints (fossil fuels, metals). Thus, Boserup, in contrast to most of perception in honor of james her contemporaries, correctly viewed population growth and density increase not just as rising but also as alleviating environmental burdens. Although Ester Boserup, in both her 1965 book and her 1981 book, provides one of the most subtle and essay, theoretically profound descriptions of the dynamics of agricultural societies, she fails to essays j. gibson perceive the qualitative differences introduced by the use of fossil fuels. School Homework. Her trust in human ingenuity makes her overlook the possibility of a substantial overshoot of human use of resources beyond what the earth system may provide us in the long run. Essays In Honor J. Gibson. Writing her later book a few years after Limits to essay on black power Growth by Meadow et al., she makes no reference to this work, as she had not done in her first book to Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (although the perception in honor j. gibson, two women were personally in contact 12 ). Her personal engagement in favour of development opportunities, her strong anti-Malthusian sentiment and her theoretical roots in an essay changed your life, classical political economy did not allow her to see something obvious: that the perception in honor of james j. gibson, widespread use of fossil fuels disrupted the logic of the school english, agricultural society so well analysed by her, and that it created a new dynamic that may eventually eradicate the perception essays in honor of james j. gibson, natural conditions for human welfare on the Earth. This transition is also reflected in several other tables in chapter 1 (Boserup 1981 ); there is never a more or less steady increase from group 1 to group 5. However a consistent pattern can be observed that groups 1–3 are fairly similar and then there is rapid change through 4 to business 5. She fails to register this explicitly. Practically, of course, this would always be blurred because there is often a protracted transition phase between one system state to the other. On the concept of EROI, see (Hall et al. 1986 , p. 28) In the seventeenth century in the Netherlands, for example, the exploitation of perception of james j. gibson large peat deposits, intensive use of wind energy and a dense network of waterways suitable for shipping formed the energetic basis for an exceptional economic development, the Dutch Golden Age.

It is estimated that during this period, up to 1.5 million tonnes of peat were dug annually, involving the excavation of 700 ha of peatland each year. Peat is a source—albeit not one of the oldest—of fossil energy. See (De Zeeuw 1978 ). One should imagine that a Pharaoh with 2000 labourers to build the pyramids had little more capacity at his disposal as a worker would today using a large road construction machine. One Joule represents 0.24 calories and is a very small unit. Essays. A megajoule (MJ) = 10 6 J, a gigajoule (GJ) = 10 9 J and an exajoule (EJ) = 10 18 J. The energy content (calorific value) of 1 kg of perception essays j. gibson wood is roughly 15 MJ, that of an essay that your coal is 20–30 MJ and that of petroleum is 45 MJ. The highest biomass conversion rates are seen in pastoral societies with a very high per capita livestock holding and the lowest are recorded in societies whose means of subsistence rely predominantly on human physical work and essays in honor, plant-based diets (for example, in the rice-cultivating societies of south and southeast Asia).

These densely populated manufacturing centres had come into existence because, as early as the seventeenth century, the English owners of large estates found it more profitable to use their land for perception essays in honor j. gibson, the production of the raw materials of the perception of james j. gibson, textile industry than to produce foodstuff for a rural population, which, in their eyes at j. gibson least, was seen as partly expendable. The term green revolution was first coined in 1968 by William S. Gaud, the director of the United States Agency for International Development USAID. See also (Leaf 2004 ). For the elites, growth of territory, of course, was the major mechanism for becoming richer; however, compared to today, differences in consumption levels between the rich and the richer were negligible. Measured as Domestic Energy Consumption (DEC), which includes, beyond the primary energy from commercial sources as measured by TPES (total primary energy supply), the food and feed energy consumed. Thus, it is a much better indicator for comparing energy requirements across historical periods in which food/feed energy comprised most of the perception in honor j. gibson, energy used. According to personal communication with Faye Duchin.

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and essay on black power, reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Marina Fischer-Kowalski 1 Email author Fridolin Krausmann 1 Andreas Mayer 1 Anke Schaffartzik 1 1. Institute of Social Ecology Vienna (SEC) Alpen-Adria University Vienna Austria. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Perception Essays In Honor Of James J. Gibson. Part of Springer Nature.

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Quaid E Azam- an Architect of Pakistan. Submitted to: Sir Superman Submitted by: James Bond Degree ‘34’ Syndicate ‘CIA’ Date: 21-03-2013 CONTENTS Chapter 1 * Background * Quaid’s early life * Education Chapter 2 * Politics * Membership of Congress * Hindu-Muslim Unity * Devotion to Muslim League * Leadership of Muslims Chapter 3 * Thought of essays j. gibson, Separate Homeland * Pakistan Resolution * Gandhi-Quaid meetings * Views about business Quaid Chapter 4 * Defending Policy of Quaid Chapter 5 * Formation of Federal Cabinet * Constitutional Problems * Establishment of essays in honor of james, Capital * Provincial Government Establishment of Administrative Headquarters * Foreign Affairs * Education Policy CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES 1) Syed Shamsul Hassan ed. , Correspondence of Quaid-i-Azam M. A. Jinnahand other papers, Shamsul Hassan collection, Organizational Matters, Vol. For The Cold War Essay? I (1936-1947) 2) Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity, (Karachi: Oxford University press, 1997) 3) Prof. Khurshid Ahmed, Islamic Ideology (Karachi: Karachi university,2002). 4) Quaid’s speech at university stadium Lahore, 30 october 1947 5) Syed Hussain Imam “Sterling qualities of Quaid”. ) Ahmad Khan Yusufi, Speeches, statements and messages of Quaid-e-Azam. 7) Rajmohan Gandhi, Eight Lives: A Study of the Hindu-Muslim Encounter (Albany, NY: State University of essays in honor of james, New York Press, 1986) 8) Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia. Essay? 9) www. national heritage . government. pk 10) “Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah”. Government of essays, Pakistan Website. 11) “Quaid-e-As is Mohammad Ali Jinnah”. The Jinnah Society. 12) “Jinnah: South Asia’s greatest ever leader”.

13) BBC’s Poll for South Asia’s greatest ever leader. 14) “The Father of essays in honor j. gibson, Pakistan”. The Most Influential Asians of the Century by TIME. 15) “Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Story of essays in honor of james, Pakistan. 16) “Jinnah’s speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan”. Essay Homework? 11 August 1947. 17) “Jinnah’s Thought at a Glance”. Yes Pakistan. com. Perception Of James? 18) “Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”.

Harappa. com. Responsible For The Cold? 19) “Pictures of Quaid (Album)”. Urdu Point. 20) “South Asia’s Clarence Darrow”. Essays In Honor Of James? Chow. 21) “I Remember Jinnah”. Daily Dawn (newspaper). 22) “1947 – August”. Chronicles Of Pakistan ACKNOWLEDGE This research paper is an essay on something life, dedicated to all those martyres who worked the reation of a separate home land for perception essays of james Muslims. They helped Quaid-e-As am in this great mission and gave sacrifices for our independence . They face many problems and hardships for the independence of Muslims in who was responsible war essay the subcontinent.

I would like to thank James Bond for assigning this topic to me. It was truly an enlightening experience for me to do research on this topic. I would also like to essays in honor, thank my respected teacher Iron Man for guiding me and an essay on something changed, providing me with more than enough knowledge on this topic. The research was mainly done using the perception essays in honor help of computers and internet therefore the bibliography section may look a little empty at first. But once one gets to visit these internet sites he is marveled by the amount of responsible cold war essay, data provided on the respective topic. So hats off to all those people who are spending their precious time to run these enlightening websites. Without these the worth of perception in honor, internet would be much less in motivation the context of knowledge. The main objective of this research paper is to highlights the efforts of the Quaid-e-As am Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the creation of Pakistan. This modern disease has even spread to those who live in the West but have Pakistani roots. It is perception j. gibson, however interesting that all these critical people studied in Pakistani schools, travelled on architecture thesis, Pakistani passports and have families in that country.

Painting a realistic image of Pakistan in our young people’s minds is the only way they can hope to perception essays j. gibson, have a sense of belonging to the country and the elderly generation has a duty to provide a great deal in helping such parents and families living abroad whose roots are still fastened firmly with this land. Coming back to he topic, it is changed your, very difficult to add something new or something that is not known about him. Yet the essays in honor of james paradox is that the younger generation has to be reminded of his contribution to the history of Muslims of the Subcontinent What I want to share with you about Quaid, is not only the information from school history books, magazines and films, but also what was told to essays j. gibson, me by for the war essay my father and those who saw the Quaid, worked for the cause of Pakistan and saw the creation of Pakistan. Pakistan’s story is so much linked with the life of the Quaid –e-As am that one cannot be told without the other. So who was this great man, who with the help of his type writer and an adoring sister created the largest country for Muslims in the world in a span of few years. In his biography of titled “Jinnah of Pakistan”, the American historian, Stanley Wilbert, makes the following observation that so accurately describes the legacy of Quaid and his footprint on perception j. gibson, history: “Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three.

During his lifetime, he brought the wisdom to essay, walk in the path of honor, the courage to follow his convictions, and an abiding compassion for others. He enriched us all by the nobility of his spirit. ————————————————- ————————————————- CHAP # 1 Quaid’s Early life Background According to Sarojini Naidu, a famous Congress politician, close friend and follower of Gandhi but also author of Quaid’s first biography, Quaid’s ancestors were Hindu Rajput who converted to perception of james j. gibson, Islam. Jinnah’s family belonged to the Ismailia Kahoka branch of Shi’a Islam. Early Education He studied at several schools at the Sind Madras a-tool-Islam in Karachi; briefly at that changed the Goal Das Ten Primary School in Bombay; and finally at perception in honor of james j. gibson the Christian Missionary Society High School in Karachi, where, at age sixteen, he passed the matriculation examination other University of who was war essay, Bombay. Higher Education in England In 1892, at the age of only 16, he sailed to England to study and in 3 years, at age 19, he became the youngest Indian to be called to j. gibson, the bar in essay on black power England. During his student years in England, Jinnah came under the perception essays in honor of james influence of 19th-century British liberalism, and his education included exposure to the idea of the democratic nation and progressive politics.

But later as an an essay on something that your life Indian intellectual and political authority, Jinnah would find his commitment to perception essays in honor j. gibson, the Western ideal of the on something that changed nation-state and the reality of Indian society of many religions, cultures and ethnic groups difficult to reconcile during his later political career. In 1896 he returned to essays j. gibson, India and settled in Bombay. He built a House in architecture Malabar Hill, later known as Jinnah House. He. Like most of the Congress at the time, Jinnah did not favor outright independence, considering British influences on education, law, culture and industry as beneficial to India.

Quaid had initially avoided joining the All India Muslim League, founded in 1906 because he regarded it as too religiously oriented. However he decided to provide leadership to the Muslim minority. Hindu-Muslim Unity ; Joining Muslim League His efforts to work for perception in honor of james j. gibson all Indians was so much respected that he was called; Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity. Eventually, he joined the Muslim League in 1913 and became the President at the 1916 session in Luck now. Jinnah was the architect of the motivation essay 1916 Luck now Pact between the Congress and the League, bringing them together on perception in honor j. gibson, most issues regarding self-government and presenting a united front to the British.

Jinnah broke with the Congress in 1920 when the Congress leader, Mohandas Gandhi, launched a law violating Non-Cooperation Movement against the British, which a temperamentally law abiding barrister Jinnah disapproved of. One Western journalist asked Quaid, why he never went to jail while all Congress leaders like Gandhi, Nehru, Patel and Baldev Singh have been in many times in prison. Quaid replies: “I am a parliamentarian. Prison is for on something that changed life criminals”. In 1924 Quaid, officially reorganized the Muslim League and Devoted the next seven years attempting to bring about Unity among various ranks of Muslims and to perception essays in honor j. gibson, develop Rational formula to effect a Hindu Muslim settlement, Which he considered the pre-condition for Indian freedom. This task was very difficult and was frustrated in the start. Balder Singh “He once remarked that every time, I put my hand in english essay homework the pocket, I find forged coins, refereeing to disunity and internal fight among Muslim leaders”. Even if he was working tirelessly to unite Muslims in essays of james Hindustan, he attended several unity conferences between Congress and Muslim league. Essay On Black Power? He wrote the “Delhi Muslim Proposals in 1927”, pleaded for the incorporation of the basic Muslim demands in the Nehru report, and formulated the “Fourteen Points” Furthermore, in 1927, Quaid entered negotiations with Muslim and Hindu leaders on perception in honor of james j. gibson, the issue of a future constitution, during the struggle against the all-British Simon Commission. The Muslim League wanted separate electorates while the Nehru Report favored joint electorates. Quaid personally opposed separate electorates, but accepted the decision of his party.

He then drafted compromises and put forth demands that he thought would satisfy both. These became known as the 14 points of Mr. Jinnah. Business Motivation Essay? However, they were rejected by essays in honor j. gibson the Congress and other political parties. The British government called 2 Round Table Conferences in London to let Hindustani leaders to work out their differences, but talks failed. Quaid was so disillusioned by the breakdown of talks, that in 1931 he relocated to London in order to practice in the Privy Council Bar. Devotion to Muslim League. That was a dark time for Muslims in India.

But luckily, prominent Muslim leaders like Allama Iqbal, the responsible for the war essay Aga Khan and Chaudhary Rah mat Ali made efforts to convince Quaid to return from London to India and take charge of a now-reunited Muslim League. In 1934 Quaid returned and began to re-organize the party, being closely assisted by Liquate Ali Khan, who would act as his right-hand man. In the 1937 elections to perception essays in honor, the Central Legislative Assembly, the League emerged as a competent party, capturing a significant number of motivation essay, seats under the Muslim electorate, but lost in the Muslim-majority Punjab, Sind and the North-West Frontier Province. After the perception election success, Quaid offered an school alliance with the Congress – both bodies would face the perception essays British together, but the essay on black Congress had to share power, accept separate electorates and perception in honor of james j. gibson, the League as the representative of India’s Muslims. That was a proof of Quaid was willing to go a long way to have an independent united Hindustan where Hindus and Muslims would be equal partners. The latter two terms were unacceptable to the Congress, which had its own national Muslim leaders and essays of james j. gibson, membership and perception essays of james j. gibson, adhered to One India. Even as Quaid held talks with Congress president Rajendra Prasad, Congress leaders suspected that Quaid would use his position as a lever for exaggerated demands and obstruct government, and motivation, demanded that the perception in honor League merge with the Congress. The talks failed, and while Quaid declared the resignation of for the cold war essay, all legislators from provincial and central offices in 1938 as a “Day of Deliverance” from Hindu domination, some historians assert that he remained hopeful for of james an agreement.

But it was becoming clearer to an essay your life, Quaid and perception in honor, his associates that may be Congress was interested in in honor of james such solution. Gandhi often said to Quaid; “Let the in honor of james British leave. Afterward, we can figure out a solution. ” In one of his famous letters, Quaid asked Gandhi to be more precise as to how the power would be distributed. Gandhi replied; “My dear Jinnah, I cannot answer your questions because my inner light is not working”. Quaid wrote back; ”To hell with your inner light.

Why do not you admit that you have no answer to what I am asking”? ————————————————- CHAP # 3 The Idea of business essay, Pakistan By the way, a wish for a separate homeland for Muslims of perception j. gibson, Hindustan was in the air for some time. In a speech to the Muslim League in 1930, Llama Irbil raised the idea of an independent state for school english homework Muslims in “Northwest India”. Chaudhary Rah mat Ali published a pamphlet in 1933 advocating a state called “Pakistan”. Thought of Separate Homeland Following the failure to work with the Congress, Quaid, who had embraced separate electorates and the exclusive right of the in honor of james Muslim League to represent Muslims, was converted to the idea that Muslims needed a separate state to protect their rights. He came to believe that Muslims and Hindus were distinct nations, with unbridgeable differences—a view later known as “the Two Nation Theory”. Quaid declared that a united India would lead to architecture thesis, the marginalization of Muslims, and eventually civil war between Hindus and Muslims. This change of view may have occurred through his correspondence with Allama Iqbal, who was close to him. Pakistan resolution In the session in Lahore in 1940, the Pakistan resolution was adopted as the main goal of the Muslim League. The resolution was rejected outright by the Congress, and criticized by many Muslim leaders like Maulana Abu Kalama Azad, Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan, Side Abdul Al Muddy and the Jamaal-e-Islamic. On 26 July 1943, Quaid was stabbed and wounded by a member of the extremist Chasers in an attempted assassination. During the mission of British minister Stafford Cripps, Jinnah demanded parity between the number of perception in honor j. gibson, Congress and League ministers, the League’s exclusive right to appoint Muslims and a right for Muslim-majority provinces to secede, leading to the breakdown of talks.

When it became clear to both British and for the cold war essay, Congress party that Quaid and Muslim League would not budge from its demand, they made a common front against him. Gandhi-Quaid meetings. In 1944 Gandhi held talks fourteen times with Quaid in perception of james Bombay, about perception in honor j. gibson a united front— while talks failed, Gandhi’s overtures to Jinnah increased as a last ditch effort to avoid the partition of Hindustan. Perception Essays Of James J. Gibson? But League was becoming very representative of all Muslims. Responsible Cold? The League’s influence increased in the Punjab after the death of perception essays in honor of james j. gibson, Unionist leader Sikandar Hayat Khan in 1942. In the 1946 elections for the Constituent Assembly of India, the an essay on something your life Congress won most of the perception in honor j. gibson elected seats, while the League won a large majority of Muslim electorate seats. On Black? Interim Government portfolios were announced on 25 October 1946. Muslim Leaguers were sworn in on 26 October 1946. The League entered the interim government, but Quaid refrained from in honor of james accepting office for himself.

This was credited as a major victory for Quaid, as the League entered government having rejected both plans, and was allowed to thesis, appoint an essays in honor of james equal number of ministers despite being the minority party. The coalition was unable to work, resulting in a rising feeling within the Congress that independence of Pakistan was the only way of avoiding political chaos and possible civil war. Different views about Quaid. Some revisionist historians like H M Serve and Ayesha Jalap assert that Quaid never wanted partition of India. Life? It was actually the outcome of the Congress leaders being unwilling to share power with the Muslim League. It is asserted that Quaid only used the Pakistan demand as a method to mobilize support to obtain significant political rights for perception essays in honor Muslims. Whatever the case may be, looking at the poor situation of war essay, Indian Muslims today and their second class status, Pakistanis should be grateful that Quaid gave up the idea of a united India after the British departure and insisted that Muslims in essays Hindustan should have their own homeland. Quaid has gained the admiration of major Indian nationalist politicians like Leal Krishna Advani whose comments praising Jinnah caused uproar in his own Bharatiya Janta Party Jessant Singh likewise praised Jinnah for standing up to the Indian National Congress and the British. Everyone from Mount baton, Gandhi, and Nehru down to ordinary persons, friend and architecture, foe all agreed that during his lifetime, he brought the wisdom to walk in the path of honor, the courage to follow his convictions, and an abiding compassion for others.

He enriched us all by the nobility of his spirit. In his book “Verdict on India” (1944), Beverley Nichols, the British author and journalist has a chapter; Dialogue with a Giant. This is about his meeting with Quaid. He wrote; “Mr. Jinnah is in a position of unique strategic importance. He can sway the battle this way or that as he chooses. His 100 million Muslims will march to in honor of james, the left, to the right, to the front, to the rear at his bidding and at nobody else’s. If Gandhi goes, there is Nehru or Raj opal or Paten or a dozen others.

But if Jinnah goes, who is there? ” CHAP # 4 Jinnah’s Vision for Pakistan Defending Policy of Quaid. In 1937, Quaid defended his ideology of equality in his speech to the All-India Muslim League in Luck now where he stated, “Settlement can only be achieved between equals. ” He also had a rebuttal to Nehru’s statement which argued that the only two parties that mattered in India were the British Raj and INC. ” Jinnah stated that the Muslim League was the third and “equal partner” within Indian politics. Quaid gave a precise definition of the term ‘Pakistan’ in 1941 at Lahore in business motivation essay which he stated: “Some confusion prevails in perception essays j. gibson the minds of some individuals in architecture regard to the use of the word ‘Pakistan’. This word has become synonymous with the Lahore resolution owing to the fact that it is perception of james, a convenient and essay power, compendious method of describing it. Whilst giving an interview to American press representatives in July 1942, when asked by one of the journalists whether the Muslims were a nation or not, Quaid replied: “We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and essays j. gibson, nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral codes, customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitudes and ambitions, in short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all cannons of international law we are a nation. ” A controversy has raged in Pakistan about whether Jinnah wanted Pakistan to be a secular state or an Islamic state. His views as expressed in his policy speech on 11 August 1947 said: “I think we should keep that in front of us as our ideal and you will find that in course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the State”. Jinnah, 11August 1947 – presiding over the constituent assembly. Quaid wanted a secular state, but with Islamic principles. Essay? The reason is essays in honor of james j. gibson, that a true Islamic state is not a theocratic state “Pakistan is essay on black power, not going to perception of james j. gibson, be a theocratic State to an essay on something your life, be ruled by priests with a divine mission.

We have many non-Muslims – Hindus, Christians, and Parses – but they are all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and perception essays in honor of james, will play their rightful part in the affairs of school, Pakistan”. Broadcast talk to the people of the United States of perception essays j. gibson, America on Pakistan recorded February 1948 Inaugurating the assembly on 11 August 1947, Quaid spoke of an inclusive and pluralist democracy promising equal rights for all citizens regardless of religion, caste or creed. This address is essay homework, a cause of much debate in essays j. gibson Pakistan as, on its basis, many claim that Jinnah wanted a secular state while supporters of Islamic Pakistan assert that this speech is being taken out of context when compared to other speeches by in honor of james him. On 11 October 1947, in an address to Civil, Naval, Military and Air Force Officers of Pakistan Government, Karachi, he said: “We should have a State in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find free play”. On 21 February 1948, in an address to the officers and essays j. gibson, men of the 5th Heavy and 6thLight Regiments in Mali, Karachi, he said: “You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil.

With faith, discipline and your, selfless devotion to j. gibson, duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve”. Architecture Thesis? CHAP # 5 Quaid-e-As am as a Governor General On 14th August 1947, Quaid-e-As am Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the 1st Governor General. He remained Governor General for thirteen months. In Honor Of James? During this period, he solved many important national issues. Some of them are mentioned as under: Formation of Federal Cabinet As soon as the Quaid-e-As am took an that life immediate action and nominated members of the Federal Cabinet to essays of james, run the Government affairs smoothly. Liquate Ali Khan was elected as the Prime Minister. Other members of the cabinet were also nominated. This first cabinet of Pakistan took oath on 15th August 1947. Members of the Cabinet 1. Business Motivation Essay? Vardar Abdul Rib Nester (Transports) 2. Raja Ghazanfer Ali Khan (Agriculture) 3. Fazal-ur-Rehman (Education) 4. I. Essays Of James J. Gibson? I Chundrigar (Industry) 5. Glulam Mohammad (Finance) 6. Jogander Nath Mandala (Law) 7. Sir Afar Ulla Khan Adjani (Affair) Constitutional Problems The Act of 1935 was amended and enforced in the country as there was no constitution available of the newly born state.

Thus this great achievement was done under the administrative leadership of the motivation essay Quaid-e-As am. Establishment of Capital Karachi was made Capital of Pakistan. Provincial Government Quaid-e-As an elected Chief Minister and Governor. Here are chief ministers of provinces: Khan Iftikhar Husain Midmost – Punjab Khuwaja Nazam-ud-Dn – East Bengal Khan Abdul Qayyum – N. W. F. P Mohammad AyeChurro – Sind Chief Commissioner (British) – Baluchistan Administrative Head Quarters For the administrative reformation, a committee was set up and Chaudhary Mohammad Aye was made the Secretary General. Civil Services were re-organized and perception essays j. gibson, Civil Services Academy was constituted.

The Secretariat was established. Moreover, Head-quarters for Army, Navy and Air Force were set up. An ammunition factory was also set up. Attention to Foreign Affairs Realizing the sensitivity of foreign affairs, Quaid-e-As am paid his utmost attention to the Foreign Policy. He developed healthy relations with the who was responsible for the cold war essay neighboring and developed countries that were the main objective of the Foreign Policy. In Honor Of James? Membership of architecture, UNO After independence, Quaid-e-As am paid immediate attention for acquiring membership of the United Nations Organization (UNO).

On 30th September 1947, Pakistan became the member of the UNO. This all, was done under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-As am. Implementation of Education Policy Education plays an perception essays in honor j. gibson important role in the development of a country. It improves living standard of architecture, a nation and development. Education sector also needed attention at perception essays of james the time of independence. For this purpose, he held the first Educational Conference in 1947.

He wished that every citizen of Pakistan should serve his nation with honesty and national spirit. He made nation with honesty and national spirit. An Essay Changed? He made acquisition of scientific and essays, technological education compulsory for the students. Quaid-e-As am did a lot to improve education policy of the country. In the Service of Pakistan. Quaid-e-As am served his country till his death. Despite his bad health, he kept on thesis, going through the important files.

He succumbed to deadly disease of consumption. First Cabinet of Pakistan First cabinet of Pakistan was also elected by Quaid-e-As am. He took of it. Perception Essays Of James J. Gibson? Liquate Ali Khan was first Prime Minister of Pakistan. Architecture Thesis? CONCLUSION In the conclusion I would like to say that Quaid was great leader and a true Muslim and perception essays of james j. gibson, he was a real architect of Pakistan. He was great leader and he proved it by the creation of Pakistan and he is guiding star for who was responsible for the war essay the generation to come and essays of james, he is role model for generation to come.

Limitations First of your, all I am thankful to Allah Almighty who enabled me to make this assignment. J. Gibson? It is wisely said that one feels no pains after he has been successful in doing a work. Responsible For The Cold? But I would like to mention some as they are asked. I live in hired hostel where internet is not available. Therefore, I faced many difficulties in gathering data. In Honor J. Gibson? Moreover, I do not have my own computer so I had to work on my roommate’s computer or on the lab computer.

I had much burden of studies of other subjects. So, I could not give as much concentration to this assignment. I am very firstly living in hostel therefore I have time management problems. I also do not possess very vast general knowledge. Bibliography * Syed Shamsul Hassan ed. , Correspondence of Quaid-i-Azam M. A. Jinnahand other papers, Shamsul Hassan collection, Organizational Matters, Vol. I (1936-1947) * Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity, (Karachi: Oxford University press, 1997) * Ahmad Khan Yusufi, Speeches, statements and messages of Quaid-e-Azam. * BBC’s Poll for school english homework South Asia’s greatest ever leader. * “1947 – August”. Chronicles Of Pakistan. * “I Remember Jinnah”.

Daily Dawn (newspaper). “Jinnah’s speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan”. 11 August 1947. * “Jinnah’s Thought at a Glance”. Yes Pakistan. Perception? com. Perception? * “Jinnah: South Asia’s greatest ever leader”. * “Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Story of Pakistan. * “Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876–1948)”. Essays J. Gibson? Harappa. com. * Prof. Essay? Khurshid Ahmed, Islamic Ideology (Karachi: Karachi university,2002). * “Pictures of Quaid (Album)”. Urdu Point. * Quaid’s speech at university stadium Lahore, 30 october 1947. Essays J. Gibson? * “Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah”. Government of who was cold, Pakistan Website. * “Quaid-e-As is Mohammad Ali Jinnah”. The Jinnah Society. Rajmohan Gandhi, Eight Lives: A Study of the Hindu-Muslim Encounter (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1986). Essays Of James? * Syed Hussain Imam “Sterling qualities of Quaid”. * “South Asia’s Clarence Darrow”.

Chow. * “The Father of Pakistan”. The Most Influential Asians of the Century by TIME. * Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia. * www. national heritage . government. Architecture? pk ————————————————- ————————————————- THE END… ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

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A model pie chart report step by step. This lesson gives you a step-by-step approach to dealing with pie charts in task 1. I talk you through how to in honor of james identify the main points, select the supporting details and then structure your report. I then show you two model answers: one with standard vocabulary and then a much more advanced version with more vocabulary and grammar you can borrow. The following pie charts show the results of a survey into the most popular leisure activities in the United States of America in 1999 and 2009. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. The first step is to identify the main points of the two charts. Motivation! This is not just an perception in honor of james important part of the task and your band score, it will also help you write your description. The main points are normally obvious. Sometimes they are so obvious that candidates ignore them. English Essay! Look at these questions: How many activities are there in each chart?

Just count Are the activities the same in each chart? Read the key Are there any changes in popularity between the two years? Look at the colours. There are 8 activities for perception essays in honor of james each year 7 of 8 activities are the same There are a number of business essay, differences in popularity between the two years. These two pie charts show the changes in popularity of different leisure activities in the United States of America between 1999 and 2009. We can see that the most popular leisure activities were almost the same in both periods, but there were a number of differences in popularity between the various activities.

Step 2: choose the details to include. There are 16 different figures you can include. This is too many. Perception Of James J. Gibson! The task is to select and report the most important details. School English Essay Homework! This will include naming all the activities, but not all the numbers. To do this, try looking for: what#8217;s gone up what#8217;s gone down what hasn#8217;t changed what#8217;s new.

Putting this together, we need these details: walking is most popular in essays in honor j. gibson, both periods yoga disappears and weightlifting is new swimming doubles aerobics, jogging and cycling all fall soccer and camping don#8217;t change much. This will vary from task to task, but typically you will be looking at two content paragraphs. As you write your paragraphs, you want to think of three key ideas: highlight the main points they come first group similar ideas together find a logical structure to present the points. This is the big one and will take time to learn. An Essay On Something That Changed! To help you on your way, I show you two model answers with extensive vocabulary notes. My suggestion is start with the first one. Don#8217;t be worries that it looks too simple. it isn#8217;t. Perception Essays In Honor! It is in fact extremely good band score 9. The when you have that right, take a look at the second version which has some more advanced vocabulary. This is the final report. These two pie charts show the changes in popularity of an essay on something that your life, different leisure activities in perception essays in honor, the United States of America between 1999 and 2009. We can see that the thesis most popular leisure activities were almost the same in both periods, but there were a number of differences in perception in honor j. gibson, popularity between the motivation various activities.

It is clear that walking was the most popular activity in both 1999 and 2009, with around 30% of perception in honor of james, Americans saying that they preferred it. Also, yoga was no longer among the preferred activities in 2009, but weightlifting was chosen by essay, 10% of people. The second most popular activity was soccer at just under 20% in both years, a figure that was matched by essays of james, swimming in 2009, having almost doubled in popularity over the previous decade. Most of the other activities became less popular over changed your, the same period of perception in honor j. gibson, time, with cycling, jogging and aerobics all falling by at least a half to under 10%. The one exception to this trend was camping which stayed almost unchanged at on something your life around 9%.

These two pie charts show the changes in popularity of different leisure activities in the United States of America between 1999 and in honor of james j. gibson 2009 . We can see that the most popular leisure activities were almost the architecture thesis same in both periods , but there were a number of differences in popularity between the various activities. It is in honor clear that walking was the most popular activity in an essay changed, both 1999 and perception essays in honor of james j. gibson 2009, with around 30% of Americans saying that they preferred it . Power! Also, yoga was no longer among the preferred activities in perception essays in honor, 2009, butweightlifting was chosen by 10% of motivation essay, people. The second most popular activity was soccer at just under 20% in both years , a figure that was matched by perception in honor, swimming in 2009 , having almost doubled in popularity over the previous decade . Most of the other activities became less popular over the same period of an essay that, time , with cycling, jogging and aerobics all falling by at least a half to under 10% . Th e one exception to this trend was camping which stayed almost unchanged at around 9% . #8220; These two pie charts show #8220;: the normal phrase to describe what the chart/graph is about. #8220; We can see that #8220;: a phrase to state a main point. #8220; It is clear that #8220;: another phrase to identify a main point. Perception Essays In Honor! #8220; popular/popularity/preferred #8220;: you are going to repeat the word #8220;popular#8221;. On Something Changed Your Life! That is not a problem, provided you also use some variations. One way to do this is to perception essays of james j. gibson change the form of the word from #8220;popular#8221; to #8220;popularity#8221;. The other word I use in this report is #8220;preferred#8221;: you should note I vary this too, using it as an adjective and a verb. Other variations include #8220;to express a preference#8221; and on something that changed life #8220;favourite#8221;. Perception Essays In Honor Of James J. Gibson! #8220; 1999/2009 #8220;: another word you are going to repeat relates to time.

Again, you want to make sure you have some variation here. Note these: #8220; between 1999 and 2009 #8220;, #8220; in both periods #8220;, #8220; in both years #8220;, #8220; over the previous decade #8220;, #8220; over the same period of time #8220;. #8220; a number of an essay on something that changed your life, #8220;: a simple but exceptionally useful phrase. Avoid using phrases like #8220;lots of #8221; in IELTS. #8220; various #8220;: a useful and in honor j. gibson more advanced variant for #8220;different#8221; #8220; exception to perception essays in honor of james a trend #8220;: Learn this phrase. You will need to talk about things that do not follow the normal pattern. Numbers are very important in j. gibson, this task. I suggest you take a look at my lesson on dealing with numbers. Essays In Honor! #8220; around 30% #8220;: you will use per cent a lot in this task. You do need to include numbers, but you should avoid using too many of them. When you do use them, try to do what I have done here and use language too, #8220;around#8221; is good language for #8220;about#8221; #8220; a figure that was matched by #8220;: #8220;figure#8221; is an exceptionally useful word which can be used with numbers or percentages. This is a harder phrase that you could try for perception essays of james yourself when talking about two similar/identical numbers. #8220; at just under 20% #8220;: more good number language. This is school english essay very much better than 18%. Perception! #8220; having almost doubled #8220;: more approximate number language.

Remember the language of maths: #8220;half#8221;, #8220;double#8221; etc. #8220; all falling by at least a half to under 10% #8220;: the phrase to note here is #8220;at least#8221; #8220; which stayed almost unchanged at around 9% #8220;: this is better variation of #8220;did not change#8221; The above report is architecture exceptionally good. It covers all the perception essays j. gibson right details (Task response), has a good range of grammar with relative clauses (Range and accuracy of grammar), is responsible very coherent (well organised and linked) and has some range of vocabulary, even if some words are repeated (Lexical resource). This answer can help you by extending the range of vocabulary you use for: These two charts illustrate how the preferred leisure activities of Americans changed between 1999 and 2009.Generally speaking, while the list of activities remained almost identical over the decade, there were a number of changes in perception essays in honor of james, their relative popularity. It is immediately evident that walking was by some distance the most popular pastime in both years,accounting for of james j. gibson just under a third of the preferences expressed. Of equal note is that by 2009, yoga had disappeared from the list of preferred activities and had been replaced by weightlifting, which was chosen by one in ten Americans.

Among the less popular activities, the most notable development was that the proportion of people who went swimming doubled, making it equal second in popularity with soccer at 18%. In stark contrast, around as half as many Americans went cycling in 2009 as compared to ten years earlier, with the result that it became less popular than camping, at 7% and perception essays in honor of james j. gibson 9% respectively. Likewise, the number of people who went jogging and essay on black did aerobics also dropped significantly, with less than 5% of respondents to the survey choosing them. These two charts illustrate how the preferred leisure activities of Americans changed between 1999 and 2009. Perception Of James! Generally speaking , while the in honor list of of james, activities remained almost identical over the decade, there were a number of changes in their relative popularity. It is immediately evident that walking was by some distance the most popular pastime in both years ,accounting for just under a third of the preferences expressed. Of equal note is that by 2009, yoga had disappeared from the list of an essay that changed your life, preferred activities and had been replaced by weightlifting, which was chosen by j. gibson, one in ten Americans.

Among the less popular activities , the most notable development was that the proportion of in honor, people who went swimming doubled, making it equal second in popularity with soccer at essays in honor j. gibson 18%. In stark contrast , around as half as many Americans went cycling in 2009 as compared to thesis ten years earlier, with the result that it became less popular than camping, at 7% and 9% respectively. Likewise , the number of people who went jogging and did aerobics also dropped significantly , with less than 5% of perception essays in honor of james, respondents to the survey choosing them. #8220; illustrate #8220;: a useful alternative to the standard #8220;show #8221; #8220; remained almost identical #8220;: a variation of #8220;stayed the same#8221; #8220; The most notable development #8220;: #8220;development#8221; is a useful alternative to #8220;change#8221; and architecture thesis #8220;notable#8221; works in the same way as #8220;significant#8221;. #8220; respondents to the survey #8220;: one word you may find yourself repeating a lot is perception essays in honor j. gibson #8220;People#8221;. Thesis! One way to avoid this is to use #8220;Americans#8221;. This is a more advanced version you respond to perception essays j. gibson a survey and the people to who was responsible cold war essay respond to a survey are #8220;respondents#8221;. #8220; while #8220;: a useful and slightly more advanced variation of #8220;but#8221; #8220; Generally speaking ,#8221;: an alternative to #8220;in general#8221;. It is a good habit to use a phrase like this in perception essays in honor, your summary paragraph. Note the comma. #8220; It is immediately evident that #8220;: a variation of the standard #8220;It is clear that#8221;. Architecture Thesis! Again, it is a good habit to use a phrase like this when you are writing about the main points of the chart/graph. #8220; Of equal note #8220;: a useful linking phrase when you are joining two important main points. Perception Of James J. Gibson! #8220; Among the less popular activities #8220;: this is good writing as it explains to the reader that this paragraph is in honor of james j. gibson about a different topic.This is a good structure to essays of james borrow. #8220; In stark contrast #8220;: this is a set phrase when you have a large contrast.

Don#8217;t overuse it, it only works for big differences. #8220; Likewise #8220;: another very useful linking phrase. You use it between two sentences which are about similar ideas. Note the school essay comma. #8220; accounting for just under a third #8220;: you could just say #8220;around 30%#8221;, but this way you use more language. #8220;Accounting/accounted for#8221; is a very useful phrase when dealing with numbers. Another example would be: #8220;Children under 14 account for almost a quarter of of james j. gibson, people who play golf regularly#8221;. #8220; by some distance the most #8220;: when you make a comparison, it is a good idea to try and qualify it in some way. if you say it is the biggest, ask yourself the question #8220;By how much?#8221;. Another alternative her would be #8220;significantly the most#8221;. #8220; one in ten Americans #8220;: #8220;one in ten#8221; is a very useful variation when you are talking about percentages. #8220; proportion #8220;: another key word for essay power task 1 an perception of james excellent variation for percentage. #8220; dropped significantly #8220;: you should have a number of thesis, variations for saying #8220;rise#8221; and #8220;fall#8221;. #8220;Drop#8221; is quite a neutral word so you can qualify with adverbs like #8220;significantly#8221; #8220; had disappeared #8220;: think about tenses if you are given two charts relating to different periods in the past. Can you use a past perfect? #8220; which was chosen by #8220;: two points to consider here. The relative #8220;which#8221;is a key piece of grammar and the passive, both of which are key pieces of grammar for this task. Perception Essays! #8220; with the result that #8220;: note the structure here.

The fall in popularity means that it has become less popular. Business Motivation! This is an idea you can borrow. To get my next lesson in your inbox. Perception! How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there.

Or just get all my free lessons by business motivation essay, email. 27 Responses to A model pie chart report step by perception in honor j. gibson, step. I appreciate your concern about leaving valuable tips for taking this high-stake test. Also it is that your life kind of you to perception put all these information online for free. I am going to take the test On Nov 26 so I was wondering if you could reply my comments and give feedback on my performance.

Thanks you in advance. I do try and an essay changed answer all my comments. If I don#8217;t, it simply means that I am taking a break form the essays j. gibson site. it#8217;s a really great and very helpful lesson. Dominic you#8217;r awesome #128578; Very helpful! Fantastic stuff. Thanks heaps. hello sir, my exam is in 2 days and I#8217;d really be grateful if you check my writing for these two charts and tell if I#8217;ve gotten it right! here it is: These two charts show us the change of popularity in homework, different leisure activities in the United States of in honor, America between 1999 and perception in honor of james 2009. We can see that seven out of eight leisure activities are identical and show slight changes to perception essays in honor a higher or lower percentage while others almost maintain their pace or disappear completely. In this period of time a new activity adds to the preferred ones of the people of the United States. The first thing to note is that walking takes the lead in both years with a proportion around 30%, and then comes soccer with an insignificant increase in its percentage. Both of essay power, jogging and swimming have almost doubled in this period of time whereas aerobics and bicycling fell in numbers. Camping has almost remained the same with the perception in honor slight increase of 1%, while yoga which ranked 5% in thesis, 1999 has disappeared all together in 2009 to perception essays in honor of james j. gibson be replaced by a new activity called weightlifting with the percentage of architecture, 10% it#8217;s 163 words, please tell me if it#8217;s good enough! thanks in advance #128578; I simply don#8217;t have the time/resources to check work properly from the site.

I have had a quick look though and the one thing that stands out is tenses. You use a range of present tenses (simple and present perfect), while you must use a past tense to describe data that is in essays in honor j. gibson, the past (1999 2009). Best of luck. Life! let me know how it goes. I just wanted to tell you that I#8217;ve gotten my IELTS score today, I got: Listening 8 , Writing 7, Reading 7 and Speaking 7.5. an overall of 7.5. and I have you and this awesome blog to perception essays in honor j. gibson thank for this because I took no courses whatsoever and perception in honor studied depending on your tips only! so, THANKS a billion :)) GOOD INFO FOR ME TO PREPARING FOR MY FINAL EXAM QUESTION. Essays In Honor! Great Piece Dominic!! quite helpful indeed xxx. Who Was For The Cold! i just want to information related reading and writing also because its huge hadal of my life just few days left my exam. my exam date 14 feb , i am tensinate abot my exam please help me sir gives some tips please support me sir. There isn#8217;t a lot you can do immediately before the exam to improve your English. Essays Of James! Take a look at my exam days tips at the top of the page. hi dominic, do i need to download any apps for mac and ipad to view the images inside the boxes. thanks #128578; Hope not!

They appear fine on my Macbook and Ipad. Let me know if you have problems I am having one of my periodic tidy ups. Can I ask, if the two charts with one in the past and essay power one in perception in honor of james, the future, which tense should we use to describe and compare? Good question. Let me do a lesson on this for you.

Typically the main language you want for an example like that is the language of on something that, change. I#8217;ll try and get this done in the next few days. Is it o.k to write this essay without a summary? In short no. Perception In Honor J. Gibson! You do need some sort of summary/overview to complete the question fully. The pie chart illustrate the outcome of survey on several leisure activities. Of Americans in who was for the, year 1991 and j. gibson 2009. As observed, the favorite free-time activity of American pupils in 1991 and. 2009 was Walking, 29% and 31% respectively. However very less people of.

America have chosen Yoga (5%) and Jogging (3%) as their pass time in 1991. and 2009 respectively. It can be seen from chart that popularity of Jogging(3%) and Aerobics(4%) saw. an declining trend in year of 2009. On the perception essays in honor j. gibson other hand, Swimming(18%) saw an rising trend in 2009,double of American have it as their leisure activity than people in 1991.Popularity of Soccer and perception essays in honor of james Camping were remained almost same in 2009 but, 5% of people who were doing Yoga in 1991 was clearly replaced by Weightlifting with popularity of 10%. Architecture Thesis! Overall, the three activities Soccer, Camping and Walking almost have same popularity in 2009 as in j. gibson, 1991 where as, Weightlifting introduced as new leisure. An Essay On Something That Changed Life! Activity in perception essays in honor of james, 2009 replacing Yoga from 1991. I have learnt A lot by browsing this useful site. Thanks a lot in updating my Writing and architecture other Skills.

Awesome site to Augment knowledge with respect to IELTS. In Honor! I came across your page as I was even scared of reading charts and graphs and wanting to overcome this fear. I followed your step-by-step guidance while I was looking at the two pie charts. I think I am understanding how to make a Task 1 essay better than before and feeling the fear lifted away from my mind. I#8217;m glad to have found your page. Thank you. Thank you for putting so much effort on this website! I have a question here about #8216;difference between#8217;. In the introduction part, it says #8216;there were a number of differences in popularity between the school english essay various activities.#8217; , to me it seems like the difference is between activities, like soccer 20% but walking 30%. To me #8216;differences between popularity in various activities#8217; seems more relevant to the next paragraph. Can you give some advice on my understanding of perception essays in honor of james j. gibson, this phrase?

Thank you!

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James J Gibson - Wikipedia

Eden Gardens Extension Lahore Ferozpur Road – Housing Project. Eden Gardens Ferozpur Road Lahore : After completion of Eden Gardens of More than 700 Housing units, Now offer Eden Gardens extension of perception essays in honor j. gibson 3.5 5 Marlas Residential plots. EDEN GARDENS is located at Attractive Location has Contemporary Designs . Eden Gardens proves once again the innovative abilities of Eden Housing. The Project is located on who was responsible for the cold Main Ferozpur Road only perception essays of james, 11 kilometers from Kalma Chowk on Lahore Ring Road interchange, thus making its location a strong attraction among other features. Ideal Location (Main Ferozpur Road at Lahore Ring Road Interchange) All Basic Amenities (Electricity, Gas, Water Supply) Independent Houses Independent Portions. Eden Gardens Extension Lahore – Development Work in Block A in Progress. EDEN NE APNA OFFICE BHE CHAN. KER LEYA HA,, PESAY BHE PURAY DE DEYEY HAIN.. LEKIN ABHI TAK KUCH NAI PATA K PLOT KB MELAY GA..

KIA HUM SB EKATHAY HO SAKTAY HAIN ??/ PLZ WTSAPP 03004778454.. If anyone wants to sell his/her plot please contact me at 03014499362… I am direct buyer not a dealer…But all dues must b cleared with a properly maintained file. Is there any further updates regarding “Eden Garden Extension” possession or belloting etc of “block B” as i heard they will clear it in perception essays of james j. gibson 2017. Perception Essays? Waiting for any kind of exact and architecture thesis confirm update if have any. Thanks.

Any update on Eden Garden Extension? Map, Development, Allotment etc. If anyone interested to buy this plot, contact me without hesitate, several instalment are paid. 0332-3799492. Plz confirm have someone latest news for eden garden ext block b progress or possession ?? They have started the Construction work but they are saying that they will provide possession in in honor of james j. gibson the dec 2016 when the next map of school english essay eden garden extension approved so lets see what happened…. The same fraud case is with us too….everytime when we go to perception essays in honor j. gibson, there marketing office they say that ring road construction design has now been finalized and they will start constructing soon.. but still no construction started. we must go to consumer court now…contact me too 03464993549. Eden is big fraud. If any one selling house in eden garden please contact 03008494111. last year August main kaise sara balance zabardasti le ke kaha ke Dec 2015 main map and Dec 2016 main possession. But, kuch bhi nahi howa abi tak.

Aaj call ki thi ma ne, Next year ka keh rahy hain eden waly……… have you any new updates… I have visited the Eden office yesterday to of james j. gibson, inquire about the Eden Garden Ext plot. – Allocation may start end of in honor j. gibson this year. – Possession will in mid 2017. Yani k 1 saal ki goli. Brother, do you have nay update, if we need to withdraw from this project what to perception essays of james j. gibson, claim our submitted payment?

Please update, thanks. Any one visit Eden housing head office. Have any update regarding allotment of poly. Any one visa Eden head office. i want to sale my 3.5 marla plot in eden garden extention. My phone number is perception essays of james 03334824905.

I am also a victim. Responsible For The Cold? i booked a plot in perception essays of james eden garden ferozpur road and thesis paid all amount in cash. but still i have nothing. Please let me have your contact. I have one plot to essays in honor of james j. gibson, sell in thesis Eden Garden Extension B Block.Payment is cleared and perception essays j. gibson final payment letter with complete receipts available.Any body interested contact 00 966 566120453. I have also a house in motivation Eden garden which I booked in perception in honor 2008 along two year installment plan which my all payment is also cleared in essay power the same year 2010 till know I have not receive my house possession as well as they are not reply any of my email and perception essays in honor of james phone calls, no idea what to do further , AOA: BHIYO AO SAB MIL KAR ALLAH K HAZOOR DUA KAREN YA HAMEN EDEN WALEY ZAMEEN DE DEIN YA ALLAH IN KA BERA GARAK KAREY AUR IN KO ZAMEEN K NEECHEY DAFAN KAR DE KHAS KAR DR AMJAD KO AUR IN KE AHLEY KHANA KO AUR JO JO IS CASE MEIN SHAMIL HAIN AUR IN KEY FRAUD MEIN IN KI SUPPORT KAR RAHEY HAIN. DUA MEIN BARI TAQAT HOTI HAI AUR IN LOGON KA KHUDA PER YAQEEN NAHIN HAI AUR NA YE ALLAH SE DARTE HAIN. HAM ITNE SAREY LOG KUSH BHI NAHIN KAR PA RAHE. Changed Life? HAMRE CHOTEY CHOTEY BACHEY HAIN HAMAREY OOPER ZULAM HO RAHA HAI HAKOOMAT B KHAMOSH TAMASHAYEE BANI HUI HAI. Perception Essays In Honor J. Gibson? AUR HAMEIN MIL KAR ARMY ADALAT MEIN BHI JANA CHAHYE KUSH KARNA PAREY GA. SAB AKATHEY HO JAIN . PLEASE KUSH KARNEY KA WAQT AGIYA HAI. yes I have 5 marla plot in perception of james j. gibson Eden ext block B, need to sail in 1000000/=

I need 1 plot 5marla. Kindly let me know if any body has update about perception, Eden Garden B Block extension as I am out of country. Ahmad Bhi, Salam. I do not trust these guys anymore. Looking at the ground realities, it does not seems so. I am thinking to convert it into school essay homework better option.

Please Confirm Any update of in honor of james Eden garden extension block B ?? They are asking remaining payments and said that They will allocate plots by power this year and will give possession by next year In Sha Allah….. I just visited today. i think when they give us possession batter idea to give rest amount as we paid already money but waited long time and there is still no hope. ahmad bhai if you please write me your phone number thank you. if anybody recently visited the site please update me. most of perception essays j. gibson people wrote fraud and an essay changed life no hope to in honor of james j. gibson, get plot. I am living out of Pakistan and can not follow what is going on please if some body have updated info massage me. thanks. I visit the site, develment in progress and meet with contractor who hope me that development will be completed in architecture December 2015 Insha Allah.

big fraud be careful. BHAI LOGO KOI B FIKAR NA KARE HAMEIN YE PLOT YA GHAR JO B HAIN ZAROOR MILEIN GE. KEUNKE ALLAH KE GHAR MEIN DER HAI ANDHER NAHIN AUR YA TO YE EDEN WALE ALLAH KE KHALAF ILAN E JANG KARDEN YA ALLAH KI ZAMEEN PER HAMESHA KE LIYE REHNE KA DAAWA KRDEN TO MANE GE KEUNKE YE HAMARI B ZAMEEN HAI ALL NE HAMEIN B KUSH HISSAH DE KAR BHEJA HAI INSHALLAH ALLAH HAMEN MAYOOS NAHIN KARE GA .SAB BHAI DUA KAREN. Allah he janay kon bsher ha ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; sirf fraud hi fraud ……. I paid full amount of my 2 plots. I have visited eden office December 2014 regarding possession and they show me Advertisement of the same project, mentioned possession time period. Probebly Dec-2015 or maximum march 2016. Please share with me if any one have other than taht informations…. As Eden they already started the pipe line for Sewerage roads. Is any one visited the site for the same as Eden info. We have paid full amount to them and we booked 3.5 marla plot in Jul-2011 and perception in honor j. gibson now its time for essay, possession but still they said wait till Dec-2015…what the hell is this…

Please comment share your thoughts on current status of in honor of james Eden Garden Ext. Block B scheme plot handover process. any update on eden garden extention. I have proof from responsible for the, LDA that Eden Lands is not registered with them. I recently approached LDA and the reply i received clearly states that “no scheme with the name of Eden Lands exists in LDA records”. All they are giving us is a lollypop that is made out of stone. kindly ap sab logo se request ha k in logo k khalif koi action lya jya ye pher court me jya jy…wo be supreme court me……03016485745. I also booked a plot in eden garden Lahore. Perception Essays In Honor Of James? now I heared that they dont have in motivation earth in this place and this all booking is fraud actullay this place is enough for houses only and perception essays in honor the house money the spent somewhere already. and the plot booking money instalment they want spent on these house.

I think ke take money from school essay homework, people to perception essays of james, complete the housing scheme by an essay that changed life fraud. and in the last plot wale logouN ko hari jhandii dikha daiN. yaa tu un ka paisa hazam ker laiN ya agle 10 years maiN un ka paisa qistouN per wapis karaiN. Perception Essays J. Gibson? tu plot walo kia tum log is per who was war essay, khoush ho aur ager ye sab ghalt he can any body give me the perception essays right picture….tu ager aisa he tu case kerna hi pare ga in business ke fraud per….I already paid all instalment of my plot. plzzzzzzzz kuch karo.. eden garden walo… me ne apni sari jama ponji laga k plot ki booking krwai thi.. khuda krare ab ye log ham pe rehm karen and perception essays according to plan ye project complete karen.. allah hamarey sath hy ..inshallah. Hi friends, i was watched khara sach on ARY channel 12/13 feb 2014. kindly tell me how can i recover my polt money from eden garden extension. i am worry after this program. Kindly friends reply me on nhassan_epc@hotmail. Of James J. Gibson? i need yours advice. Eden Gardens itself is perception essays in honor incomplete yet so thinking of Extension is a day-dream in my view. Get united all effectees or forget about your hard-earned money perhaps.

Seemingly, it is impossible to get your plot by school next 5,7 years. let us come to the terms that this project has following problems as par my search through various means. 1. Of James? Ring Road problem was told to who was responsible cold war essay, us but even after its said solution, no progress has been made on the site. 2. Perception In Honor? Perhaps they do not have acquired sufficient land as they have sold out and an essay on something that changed there are various stay orders as well which yet need to be tackled before they resume work. 3. 5 Marla plot was sold to us in 1150000/ which is a low price for today for which they wish us to give up and sell out our plots to their spread out dealers at in honor j. gibson a heavy loss so that they might resell them at a very high price due to Metro, Ferozepur Road Signal free project and thesis Ring Road. 4. we either have to in honor, wait FOR ANOTHER AT LEAST 5 YEARS or we should raise some voice collectively. May be 25 of us can unite and on something changed your life give them tough time, but this needs concern and a bit of pain… best of luck to all effectees.

Thanks for essays, concern. School English Essay Homework? I have also the similar openion as yours. I went to LDA, they told me the same that they don’t have acquire sufficient land. Perception In Honor Of James J. Gibson? so try to get your money. they are not going to give plot or houses to anyone. Mubasshar Luqman also exposed them in His program last week.. That Life? So please if you want any thing from me I am with you. I have 5 plotts booked with them for me and my brothers.

Dear u can contact me on my cell : Altaf 03349786976. any update on perception essays of james j. gibson eden garden extention. plz keep me with you. i have also one file plot in eden extension ab kia ho ga. my cell number 03004236165.

let we make a chain of all affected members by eden housing ferozpur road. and go must make plan jointly for taking any action. An Essay Changed Your Life? I thing 1st we all must go the CM house and stay there till solution, This is the time we fight for essays j. gibson, our rights and must get shade from eden miscomitted people. come on and be start.

selling my plot 5 marla in eden lands ferozepur road having some urgency. nice place paid all the instalments of 5 years and also the development charges. tht cost me 1350,000 PKR. that the five years before price now the an essay on something changed your life price has gone up. but need money quickly so need no profit just the perception j. gibson money which i paid. If u r intrested plz call me at 07804132895 U.K. Please comment share your thoughts on current status of Eden Garden Ext. Block B scheme plot handover process. Pls tell me information enden new project in perception essays Lahor. I’m waiting ur response. Eden doesnt hav a good repute regarding delivery of its projects… not months but it takes years and years of of james j. gibson delay in its projects.. when i bought i was awed by the big name of Eden, later realized my mistake but of no use.. if u r patient enough and on something changed even willing to risk ur money perhaps then Eden is the perception j. gibson place for u otherwise think of some difrnt place.. Responsible Cold? wish u luck!

I am from USA and like to know about this project. would you mind to of james j. gibson, send me the information about this project. I am intrested in buying. Hi! Khawaja from U.K. selling my plot 5 marla in essay on black eden lands ferozepur road having some urgency. nice place paid all the instalments of 5 years and also the development charges. tht cost me 1350,000 PKR. that the five years before price now the price has gone up. Perception Essays In Honor Of James J. Gibson? bu need money quickly so need no profit just the money which i paid. If u r intrested plz call me at 07804132895 U.K. i want to sale my 3.5 marla plot in eden garden extenstion all big instalment are paid i want to who was responsible for the, sale in 900000. The same fraud case is essays in honor of james with us too….everytime when we go to there marketing office they say that ring road construction design has now been finalized and they will start constructing soon.. but still no construction started. we must go to consumer court now…contact me too 03454664346.

I am 100% agreed with you , Simply we can say that they are big fraudiay ,liar and architecture they have given the fake news regarding his projects. Before, going to court the best way we approach to essays of james j. gibson, Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharaz and explain our problems with Eden House. What is for the cold war essay your opinion. please share. sia muje 5 marla ka plot lena he .plz dataeil send me. Would you please send me the details on my i.d? please tell what your medical treatment speciallty.

Any body can give me the griginal picture of Eden garden luxury villas firoze pure road either is costruction will be start or is perception in honor of james fraud or some thing else. Beacuse i have to know that Eden Housing giving back the an essay that changed your money of A B block (luxury villas). any one can share with me the status of perception essays of james C block of luxury villas. this is fraud scheme because i am affected with it i had purchased 3-marla house in eden garden home feroz pur road and school english homework they were suppose to give me the possession in MAY-2012 but they didnt then they said due to ring road we are delayed so we will give you in j. gibson NOV-2012 but didnt then again they said we will give you in an essay on something changed your MARCH-2013 and they didnt fullfil their commitment now they are saying that we will give you in next year march 2014 however i have made my all payments according to perception essays, their schedule but they are using unfair means so i would request to all interested people who are impress with their promo activities please verify first then invest your money because i have put all my savings but no use …………if anybody need any information you can send me mail. We too have purchased plots in same fraud scheme, pls contact me at mustajabr@live.com and 03008449917. I purchased a house in eden garden to see the ads. and their homes in gulberg lahore. they promised to complete the scheme in on black power 3 and half year, it started in august 20109. All installments are complete and we are waiting for perception essays in honor of james, possession but now they are extending the time of delivery. 1st they gave the time of dec. 2013, today I called and thesis they are now saying in Jun-July in 2014, God knows better but I am worried about my hard earned money. Perception Essays In Honor Of James? Reason of delay is essay Ring Road in Lahore.

Can you please share me Eden Luxury villas firozepur latest of perception essays of james A,B and C block. Beacuse, last month i called the on black construction dept. they have given the news taht A B block have been cancelled and C block under considering weather we start the perception essays of james construction or not. As per construction dept. only A B block was effeted by business motivation essay ring road. If u have any news share with me beacuse i am working abroad. I perchased 5 merla house at perception essays in honor of james ferosepuer road I already paid finstalment of my house plz send latetast report plz. please send the power complete details if you are effected the fraud in essays in honor j. gibson Edin. i started paying for 3.4 marla house on ferozpur road eden garden what is the update on the delivery date, 1st they told may 2012, then dec 2012 and school english whats next any information? I bought 5 marla house in 2008 in perception phase 1 . my cousiin was working in their company and i done the essays in honor of james deal through him as i am in of james the uk. today i have been told by his wife that the an essay changed your life owner of eden gardens lahore has sold the project to an american company. He said that all the houses have been cancelled and everyone who has invested will loose their money.

I am not going to let these bastards play with our hard earned money . They explain to me same as Mr. Perception Essays In Honor Of James? Bhatti. They will start the construction at the end of March 2013. Let see what happen in march. Architecture? God knows or Eden Developer but i pray to God for good news. Mr. Bhatti if you any news regarding C-Block in eden garden,Please share me. OR , How many block they planned in eden garden (luxury villas firozpur road) well , same story here as many of perception you. i am thinking to essay on black, go to essays of james j. gibson, consumer court. there is no case fee. u can ask for basic money pay back along with compensation for mental discomfort. for your more guidance here is the link check out the procedure n benefits of consumer courts i would suggest you all to go to consumer courts. I couldn’t believer that a well known company can be a cheater one. now they people are not ready to essay, listen and don’t answering that when they are giving us allotment numbers. I’ve visited the site and there’s no sign of any development nor any sign board of land acquisition, i got the news that Eden yet have not acquired the lands for perception essays of james j. gibson, this projects.

The lands owners of an essay life this area told that Eden was supposed to purchase their lands but still not purchased nor they’ve contacted them. Perception In Honor Of James J. Gibson? Meanwhile we’ve done our payments almost 70% of the architecture thesis total amount. Eden has collected development charges from of james j. gibson, us but no development started at essay on black site. So this is the time to get together all effectees of Eden Garden to take a legal action again them otherwise they’ll delay this project as they already have delayed the housing units projects. If you people request them to give you livarage for the installment payment to be paid deffered they don’t agree and put a fine and perception if you still deffer you payment they put your plot cancelled. All people should get together, if there are some people already united, pls consider me with you. Keeping in that your view the above mentioned doubt in my mind I personally went to the marketing office of Eden Garden located 1-KM canal Bank Road, Thoker Niaz Beig, Lahore and discussed the of james issue with the concerned Authority and marketing officer for this project. According to them they explained me the current status of this project and give me the architecture following description. 1. Because of the Changed location of proposed RING ROAD joining Ferozepur Road, (Southern Wing), qwhere they had started A block of this project, and constructed structure of almost 140 houses.but they had stopped due to perception of james, the nenw plan of Ring Road which will crosss these houses.

Now this Issue has been satteled and they are gouing to that changed your life, start again. 2. In Honor? They also told me that this project is of 3,5 years payment plan and in Feburary or march they will issue the MAP of who was for the B- Block as it had been already submitted to LDA. Perception? So after that they will start allotment No. fork Community. Spo my dear Please wait untill March 2013 , if there will not be any activity we will do some thoing. According to me the delay is because of Ring Road, hopefully so. lets think positively. march 2013 has been past. any 5 marla plot sale offer. i want to on black power, buy 5 marla plot . any body who want to sell please send me offer. contact no 03214243673. i am intresting in in honor edan garden 5 marla plot on for the war essay instalment bases please send me details.if u have other low instalment housing socity also send his details.

Can I ask for my balance / deposit details. i have a 5 marla plot in eden housing scheme and still i m keep on paying instalments but untill now i hv no information about of james j. gibson, my plot number,,but still i believe on Eden people. I want sale my plot 5 marla in eden land feroze-pur-road sector F on wide road 80 feet if someone interested can contact 03004369868. I’ve booked 5 plots in Eden Garden Ext. Block B for 10 marla plot category. Thankful if someone can share the on black current status of this land this project. anyone can tell me that who is the lucky one person who have house in eden and they lived him. I AM LIVING IN SAUDIA ARABIA DAMMAM. I WANT TO BUY A PLOT OF 5 MURLA BUT I NEED ALL INFORMATION FOR THE PAYMENT AND THE LOCATIONS OR AREA OF PLOT PLEASE GIVE ME ALL DETAILS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE.

TELEPHONE NO: 00966 50 78 55 787. TELEPHONE NO: 00966 54 60 40 726. I have 5 marla plot front to essays of james, park in Eden Land on Ferozpur Road Lahore. Please contact on following number for details. bhot jhot bolty han eden waly abi tak logo ko plot nahi dhikay hna lary ma rakha how ha.

I need 5 marla plot eden garden housing sceme.relpy me. i want 3 marla fully constructed home apparment, payment will be advance, serious person send me Email. how much price in 5 marla in who was responsible eden garden extention (B) block. plz tell me if there is still available plots .i am interested in 5 marla.tell me total price and instalment of it . plzz lemme to know also…. Hi… We need a fully constructed 7 marla house , ready to be lived in.. I have 2 plots of 3.5 marla (total 7 Marla) in Eden Garden Extension-B with Adjoin.

If any serious part interested to buy, can contact me at 0314-4254184 before 30 September 2012 as my flight to Dubai in October 2012. I have regularly paid all the installments and development charges. I have 5 marla plot in Eden Garden Extension. Essays In Honor Of James J. Gibson? All payments are clear. I want to sale only for business motivation, Rs.8,50,000/= pls sand me your 5 marlas pyment and total cost of plot. with regards . thanks a lot.i am in perception in honor of james j. gibson ksa and send me map . i want to sale my plot of 5 marla. i have paid 8,86769 until now (more than 3 and half years installments). On Black? Round 17 months installments left.

I have to move back to my region thats why wanna sale. Anybody interested you can purchase it for in honor of james, 9 lakh. Perception In Honor Of James? Only serious buyers contact me. All installments , down payments and development charges are paid. Perception Essays Of James? Original receipts with me. I have 5 Marla Plot in architecture thesis Eden Lands Ferozpur road lahore i already paid 40 Installments only 19 installments to go I want to sell my Plot for PKR 900,000. As the perception of james market value of the english essay homework plot is 1300,000 after all installments being paid. Anyone interested do contact me at 03008669980. I have 5 Marla Plot in perception j. gibson Eden Lands Ferozpur road lahore i already paid 4 Installments only 19 installments to motivation, go I want to sell my Plot for PKR 900,000. Perception Of James? As the english essay market value of the plot is of james 1300,000 after all installments being paid. Anyone interested do contact me at 03008669980.

Total installments paid are 40 not 4. I book a Plot of 5 marla.i have paid 300,000 to date but due to some reasons i was unable to pay instalments and development charges.after some period i contact them and perception in honor of james j. gibson they offer me plot of 3.5 marla in another scheme with monthly instalment of Rs.3000.But i am not interested.if any body interest to Purchase,Contact me @03454754627. Dear sir I want to in honor j. gibson, buy a plot of 5 marlas .Please tell me how? My cell no#03476497446. You can Buy my Plot if you need al details call me at 03008669980.

I want to urgently sell my 5 marla plot file. I have paid half of the installments payment and dnt have anymore money to continue. Call me 0345-4225901. (Demand Rs.450,000/-.) Only serious buyers plz… Dear All Friends, I am Intrested ths Soicty Bying Plot.So please Tell me. Essays Of James? mai purchase karo yaha k na. Perception Essays In Honor Of James? becoz mai 1st time kesi socity mai plot purchase kar raha hon. or uper logo k comment read kar k dar gia hon k yai fraud hai. plz tell me. Arman, if you want to buy a plot in Eden Garden Ex. Architecture? then let me know I wana sale my plot. Essays Of James J. Gibson? I hv paid 324,000/-. Please contect me. I have booked two adjoined plots of 3.5 Marla in perception essays in honor of james j. gibson Eden Garden Extention, now due to some reason i want sale out both plots, if anybody interested please contact at 0314-4254184. I have already paid 50% amount.

I have booked to plot of 3.5 Marla in Eden Garden Extention, now due to perception essays of james j. gibson, some reason i want sale out both plots, if anybody interested please contact at 0314-4254184. I have already paid 50% amount. now i dont want to sell my plots please dont contact me. To, Muhammad Manasha. As you said you got your money back after 5 year, I want to discuss you, please give me your contact no. i want to that changed life, sell my 2 five marla adjecent plots in eden garden block b confirm booking. i have paid all 10 instalments also paid development charges.if anybody want to purchase contact me 03004321180. please send me complete information of perception essays in honor 5 marla plot ,, info related wit adv ? full amount ? and instalment etc. I want to business motivation essay, sell my 3.5 Marla plot in of james j. gibson Eden Garden Extension Ferozpur Road in Rs. 324000/- only .Total cost of the plot is Rs.558000/- ( Rs.4584/- Instalment per month and develpoment charges have been paid. Its plan of 42 instalments. Perception J. Gibson? I have paid Rs.324000/-.

You can contact me on perception in honor of james j. gibson 0321-4300063 and email hunzala23@hotmail.com. Please send me details of 5 marla house, Regards, Azeem. Dear all, Please go to Masjid of your area and announce on laud speaker that these Eden people are cheaters. Power? Please do it to save other. i purchase well furnishd home so any one sale to intrusted so contect me my email. I have one home at Gulberg V, Near Zafar Ali Road About 1.25 if you interests let me know.

Under NAB ordinance all acts of EDens as described on this board fall under definition of corruption and fraud. I had filed an application to Chairman NAB against Dr. Essays In Honor Of James? Amjad who is mastermind of all this fraud. Business Motivation Essay? By grace of perception j. gibson God NAB made him to return my money along with 10% mark up. I have got my money back after 5 years and thanked GOD. Please give me your contact no. Please give us your contact number.

Aslam o alikum, Sir, please guide me how to file a complain at NAB against eden garden housing , i have also invested Rs 2.1 million since 2008 for 2 plots and no respons from eden managment. Business? would be greateful to perception essays, you. Do you have any update from Eden management? Kindly share your contact details. Dear Muhammad Mansha Sahib. I read your views Please guide me I have also been paid of perception essays of james Rs.687,377/- for Eden Garden Ext. Now I am very much worried. Essays? I am a Govt. Servant and cannot afford this lose. I want to sell my 5 Marla plot due to some emergency in Eden Garden Extension Ferozpur Road in Rs.

315104/- only Total cost of the plot is an essay on something life Rs.800000/- ( Rs.6525/- Instalment per month and develpoment charges per month Rs. 27777/- ( I have paid 3 Instalments of development charges. In Honor? Its plan of 42 instalments. I have paid Rs.315104/- . You can contact me on 0321-8455203 and business email ahsandanish@hotmail.com. eden walo kuch Khuda ka koof kaho na gareeb logo ko tang karo jo commitmnet ki hain on ko pura karo.

i have purchased a plot in eden gardens extension. I have paid around 3.5 lakhs by now in installments, but there is no development yet….anyone who is interested to in honor, take a legal action, please join me….. I want to sell my 5 marla plot/app in architecture thesis Eden gardan ext. all payments up to date till march 2012. Perception In Honor Of James? 8x installments paid 6548/ each. Development charges paid 4x installment 27777/ each. no extra demand contact 03458318112. Assalam O Alaikum, I want to sell my 7 marla plot in Eden lands. Essay On Black? It is perception in honor facing 80? wide road. all payments up to school english essay, date till now. 35 installments paid. Development charges paid. it is perception essays in honor of james j. gibson situated on who was war essay a very good location in H block. please contact: 03008481191, 03477776403.

i want to perception, book a plot 3 and half Marla now at Feb 2012 is there any plot for me now if any how many payment required.kindly reply me the detail.thanks. aoa i selling my file 3.5 marla in architecture thesis eden garden extention taol paid amount 204000/- if u want buy then call me this is my no 03444183836. What is the baloting date of plot which one have already booked from you. I want to Sell my two plots adjacent total area 5.5 marlas in C block (available in essays in honor of james map)Eden lands Ferozpur road-Lahore. Business Motivation? Paying regular installments and essays of james j. gibson now want to sell it on urgent basis, possession due in October 2012. Good location, walled, secured and english essay gated community, located at main ferozpur road, DHA phase 9-10 is at back of the society.

Fair deal and documentation with eden office, excellent investment if you can wait for perception in honor, an year. pls contact: lpeas send me total detail of 3.5 marla dabal setory i like youre checeem. I have a 5 marla plot in Eden Garden extension. Want to sell it. Toatl payment made is 2,18,000. Available for sale on 2,00,000. Perception In Honor? Contact me on 0321-4473008. to sale your file for 5 marla plot please contact on my number 0321-402-4444. i want to sale file eden garden extention please contect me 03007538574. can u plx tell me the perception essays j. gibson total amount of essays in honor of james j. gibson 3.5 and 5 marla house me w8ng ur reply. can u plx tell me the essays of james j. gibson total amount of school english essay 3.5 and 5 marla house me w8ng ur reply.

what is perception essays in honor of james balloting date of perception essays eden garden extension. Anyone interested to sale his 5 marla plot in eden garden extension contact Khurram 03002852632. The only Housing Scheme I recomend to be fit for residence in in honor future is bahria neshman the development is excellent and alsmost complete. Master piece of development. pls tell what is the location of behria neshamen. is it fully developed ready to contruct or about price of perception j. gibson 10 marla plot. Bahria neshman is opposite of Central park main ferozepur road lahore. This scheme is ready to consturct many house are under construction here 200 awami villas are under const. Essays? here only 5 and 8 marlas plot are aviable the homework price of 5-marla is Rs. 975000 and 8-marla is 1275000- water, sui gas, electricy, sewerge, etc is perception essays in honor already present in this scheme. i want 5 marla hose ready to essay power, live , plz send me low cast installments details. for lahore location.

i want to perception in honor of james j. gibson, know do you have any low cast house which is able to rasidence now. plz if do you have than just send me details of price installments , locations, and some pictures of perception in honor j. gibson house and perception in honor j. gibson locations , i will preffered about lahore location. I required 5 marla plot. please send me installment detail on my email id. Could you kindly supply me a copy of payment schedule and the concessions and the rebates to essays in honor, be afforded in case I choose to make payment before the stipulated time frame or in lump sum. Reply as soon as possible. please tell me mode of payment. Full payment of plot 500Sqf or 1000 Sqf. and installment schedule complete information in this regards. Jhoot bolta hay tum sub murdabad…. O bahi hum ko aik jooogi do hum nay chamri ka karobar krna hay Edend Sexation Garden mae…… I am selling my Eden Lands 10 Marla Plot…

Eden Projects are delayed but I think its far better than other housing projects. Anyone interested in essays in honor buying do contact as I am leaving for who was cold war essay, Dubai and wish to essays in honor of james, sell it maximum by 15 Oct, 2011. I have paid about Rs. 1,500,000 and rest will be paid in architecture installment of Rs. 25000. sir i leave in perception in honor of james j. gibson karachi n i’m intrested to get 10 marla plots plz tell me from where i can get the form n also tell aboutthe down payment….plz mail me. MY CONTECT.NUM IS 03017744748. PLEASE TEL ME ABOUT 5MARLA PLOT FULL DETAIL AND PAYMENT SHUDULE .THANKS. SIR PLZ SEND ME 3.5 MARLA PLOT DETAIL I SUBMIT U INSTALLMENT PLZ SEND ME DETAIL. I WANT TO SALE MY HOUSE FOR 3.9 MARLA IN EDEN GARDEN EXTENSION LAHORE RS [1200000]. CONTACT ME [03234417956].

how do you have a house in eden garden, whereas the plots even are not mapped in essay eden garden extension . CAN YOU PLEASE LE ME KNOW. we want 3.5 marla plot 3nos pl con.t.00971506435439. please send me one kenaal and 10 marla plote scheme with all history of in honor downpayment and on black installmentin eden garden interchanges ferozpur road lahore. thanks. hi concern. In Honor J. Gibson? eden. need all detail about price and mode of payment, 5 marla plot in your ferozepur eden garden extension. i have booked a plot of marla in july when will be it announcment plz rep. I have seen your advertisement in TV, So kindly send me all details of architecture five (5) marla plots on my email id. salaam….i have seen ur advertisement regarding eden garden extension at feroz pur road……..visited ur website but no information regarding payments etc if possible pls send me full detail. i want to perception essays, purchase a plot in eden 3 AND HALf marla house on on something changed life Ferozpur road.plz send me a detail last date.thanks full to essays, u. i saw ur advertisement on tv channel.i want to buy a 5 marla residence plot .plz tell me total payment ,monthly and down payment. plz mail me on architecture thesis my mail adress.

I M INTRUSTED IN 3 AND HALF MARLA PLOT PLS SEND ME PAYMENT DETAILS ON MY EMAIL ADRESS . hi…….plz send me the details of 5 marla house on Ferozpur road. amount and details……….. Mobile Number is , 03224250227. hi…….plz send me the details of perception essays in honor of james 5 marla plot amount and for the war essay details……….. can u plz send me the detail map around it. send me details of perception of james 5 marla plot. can you pls send me full detail of eden housing extions new project for 5 marla with all cast plot becaus iam in u.a.e i wil purches one plote . and tel me 5 marla full price and every month installment plz repley me thanks.

plz send me an application form for eden garden extension,bcoz im in saudia arabia, can you pls send me full detail of eden housing extions new project for that changed, 5 marla or ready house .i am in saudi arabia and want to buy ready house or 5 marla plot. Dear Sir, please provide me price, payment schedule and perception essays in honor j. gibson site map of 3.5 and 5 marla plots. Regarding commercial plot also give me details. Khalid Mehmood Kashif. Fauji Foundation Hospital. Bedian Road Lahore Cantt. I want to sell my 5 Marla plot due to some emergency in architecture thesis Eden Garden Extension Ferozpur Road in Rs. 315104/- only j. gibson, Total cost of the plot is motivation Rs.800000/- ( Rs.6525/- Instalment per perception in honor of james, month and develpoment charges per month Rs.

27777/- ( I have paid 3 Instalments of development charges. Its plan of 42 instalments. I have paid Rs.315104/-. You can contact me on 0321-8455203 and email ahsandanish@hotmail.com. Hi please tell me 20 merla price in eden extension housing scheme. I am interested to school essay homework, book a plot in Eaden Garden Extention however, I worried to perception essays in honor, saw the perception essays comments of perception essays j. gibson several individual above. English Homework? Becoz i am a poor man and in honor of james can not afford to who was responsible for the cold war essay, lose just a penny and its such a huge amount for essays in honor of james, me.

Plz guide me those brothers who already have experienced with Eaden Garden Extention administration as now i hisitate to who was for the, book plot. deer sir i want perchase 5 marla plot am from saudi arab will u send me detail and can you send me plot s map who still not take anyone thanks mahmood aslam cell# 00966508785364. FOR DETAILS YOU CAN CONTACT ME ON MY NUMBER 0321-402-4444. i want to purchase a plot in essays of james j. gibson eden. Perception In Honor Of James? whats ur ADVISE to perception in honor, me? plz send me details for perception j. gibson, payments or downpayment and about project, A sincere advice, please do not waste your money, keep it with you or invest elsewhere.

Don’t invest with Eden. Asif (0334-4440331) i am Ali from kuwait, i want to perception essays, purchase 1 plot 10 marla, can you give me details, how much down payment and how much total amout and monthly installment, if you have gent in thesis kuwait, please give me the contach no. Mob# 965 66872804. i m intersted to perception essays, buy 5 marla plot in eden gardens,plz tel me about payment mode and motivation essay devlopment chargs.thanx saudia arabia 00966568381430. i want to purchase a plot in perception essays in honor eden. whats ur ADVISE to me?

KABHI BHOOL KR B IN SE PLOT KHARIDNE KI GHALTI NA KRNA MERE BHAI, YEH FRAUDIAY HEN, IS KA MALIK DR AMJAD HE, JO BAHUT BARA DAKU HE. i required 3.5 or 5 marla plot pls send peyment and school essay locesion plan. i do agree with mr majid khan comments. Essays? i also bought an essays in honor of james, house in eden gardens of 8 marla. Perception In Honor Of James? we visited two months ago,and found no construction over there. we phoned several times to thesis, eden main office but they all r lairs. Essays In Honor? we lives in english homework a rented house and paying 18500 rupees rent. In Honor Of James J. Gibson? now we r planning to sue eden in court,they should pay our rent till the develierences of houses. i do agree with mr majid khan comments. i also bought an house in eden gardens of 8 marla. we visited two months ago,and found no construction over there. we phoned several times to eden main office but they all r lairs. Business Motivation? we lives in a rented house and paying 18500 rupees rent. now we r planning to sue eden in court,they should pay our rent till the develierences of perception essays in honor houses. i also bought house in eden gardens.eden promised to delivered during 2010. now its middle of 2011 and there r no chances of devilerence. so pls think ten time before to invest in school eden. I required 5 marla plot. Perception Essays Of James? please send me installment detail on my email id. I want to on something that your life, sell my 5 Marla plot in Eden Garden Extension Ferozpur Road in essays j. gibson Rs. Thesis? 315104/- only Total cost of the perception essays in honor of james plot is Rs.800000/- ( Rs.6525/- Instalment per that changed life, month and in honor of james develpoment charges per month Rs.

27777/- ( I have paid 3 Instalments of business essay development charges. Its plan of 42 instalments. Perception In Honor? I have paid Rs.315104/-. You can contact me on school 0321-8455203 and email ahsandanish@hotmail.com. hi this is perception essays in honor of james j. gibson agood housing project but where is an essay your life ur phon no please give detail where is we contect us. i have 4.5 marlas model home if interstesed to purchase call me 03434017677. my demand is360000. let me know where is perception essays in honor your home located and on black power what will be final price i am interested to of james, buy your home. contact me at an essay on something that changed your 03009411810. pls sand me your 5 marlas pyment and total cost of plot. with regards . thanks a lot. I want to sell my 5 Marla plot in Eden Garden Extension Ferozpur Road in perception essays of james j. gibson Rs.

315104/- only business motivation, Total cost of the plot is perception essays in honor j. gibson Rs.800000/- ( Rs.6525/- Instalment per month and develpoment charges per business essay, month Rs. 27777/- ( I have paid 3 Instalments of essays j. gibson development charges. An Essay On Something Changed Life? Its plan of 42 instalments. I have paid Rs.315104/-. You can contact me on 0321-8455203 and email ahsandanish@hotmail.com. Send me compelet detail of 3.5 marlas plot and perception essays paymet shedule Iam intrested in eden if it can easy posible and no hidden policy. pls sand me your 5 marlas pyment and an essay on something changed total cost of plot. Perception Essays Of James J. Gibson? with regards . thanks a lot. can u plx tell me the perception essays in honor of james j. gibson total amount of perception in honor j. gibson 3.5 and 5 marla house me w8ng ur reply. u r the biggest frauds. where you have completed the 7oo houses as you r claiming in your add. u r biggest frauds, even not a single house ready in Eden gardens. i am thinking to sue you and drag you in essay court Inshallah. Stop making false commitments with the people of Pakistan.

You people don’t have an idea that how hard work is required to pay the amount of plots to you guys. Where you have completed the essays 700 houses as you r claiming in your add. I have visited it latest, there is nothing except freezed under-construction. U r biggest frauds, even not a single house ready in Eden gardens. I am thinking to sue you and architecture drag you in court In sha Allah or get my money back . same reason with me. can you give me all down payment of 3.5 and 5 marla plots dealits. and you have any agent in dubai give me his no thanks. Hello Folks don’t trust on Eden Group, This piece of advice is essays in honor j. gibson just for essay, your own benefit. I am from London and i bought one house and two 5 Marla Plots in perception in honor j. gibson Eden Land Ferozepur Road lahore along with my friends. House has not been delivered yet (it seems only on black power, 30% work is perception essays completed) and motivation the plots God knows. we all friends are planning to consider all the possible legal actions against them. If you still do not believe just do a bit goggling on Eden group and you would find out. plz what the essays in honor of james action you r taking if it is in honor of james possible tell me i will be the part of it.i have also purchase but there is nothing.

What is the current status of Eden Garden Ext. Plots handover process these days? Same with me in 2008 i bought house from them on installments at their faisalabd project and of james j. gibson 2009 was delivery date but so far nothingoffer there then they offer me to shift other project so i moved to motivation, eden residencia but same story it is also plain ground nothing there. i am now seriously thinking to go court because by all means iam not going get back ny 20 lac money or plostt so better to start with court may after one or two year i will get positive response. Sir, plz. tell me the total amount with all inclusives (development and other charges)of a five and 3.5 marla plots you offering on perception in honor of james installments. Thanks. Could you please email me the payment details for a 5 marla house on Ferozpur road. can u please send me the downpayment and payment details on my mailing address. heloo dear anyone sir. can u tell me total amount of plots.

iam wating your answer. total ammount of 5 marla is essay power 550000/pkr. after 2 months 110000/pkr. after 18 months 18% I believe this won’t be 11 kilometers from Kalma Chowk? Can we see the road hoardings on Ferozpur Road after 11 kilometers from Kalma Chowk? Did anyone see it before? Let us know.

It is in honor of james j. gibson 11 KM.. its true. PLZ UNCLE GIVE ME THE NUMBER OF EDEN. i hv just seen ur advertisement in war essay tv.can u please give me details 0044-1865-600666.this is my landline number. or send my email plz. Eden is a big fraud. I’ve bough the Plot in Eden Garden Extension, still its a plain ground and no work have been started as yet…No plan, No plot number allocated, no ballating etc.,… thy r cheater…we should all make a union and sue them and drag them in court of law…. hi i also bought a 4.5 marla house in eden gardens in perception of james 2008 and they suppose to gv possession in 2010 and its 2012 and still no sign of house and they email me that they will hand over in 2013 which i dont believe that they will. On Something Changed Life? we will take them to perception essays in honor, court as government working fast at the moment because of election. Business Motivation Essay? plz get together and do something. Please confirm either the “Eden Life Sargodha project ” is the project of the same company which have the issues in Lahore projects as intimated on ARY program because its serious to think out essays of james j. gibson, before making any investment. Representative of business motivation Eden Builder regretted they the in honor j. gibson said project was not linked with Eden builders and also claims that they have 5000 to 6000 kanals in sargodha for said project. I also got the architecture information from TMA sargodha and their representative confirm me that they have only perception in honor j. gibson, 347 kanals land for essay power, their piland farms project and perception in honor of james eden builders got the approval only for 347 kanals and its location toward chak no 88 in an essay on something that changed life sargodha on bypass.

Please share the information which every body have about the in honor of james j. gibson Eden life sargodha project as well as other project (along with issues) and eden builders to safe the investment and to avoid fraud. Regards, Abid chaudhary. I booked a house named as Dream House in my daughter name located at Ferozepur Road five years back .As per contract they were suppose to give me possesion after 36 months.I am regularly making payment.They are telling me now we can give you plot now and refusing their commitment at all.Therefore i advise you not to do any business with these fraudulent people.This is same company giving impression that this company is split between Two brother and a Sargodha Walla is on black power agood guy . Belive me they have gone out of Lahore because they are finding it difficult to business in essays in honor j. gibson lahore. Dear I am also a sufferer lets get together reply me at capt.riffat@gmail.com. I also have plot in EDEN Lands Ferozpur Road, suppose to school english essay, have possession long time ago but nothing happened yet. Essays Of James J. Gibson? if any iformation please do share with me or advise. Architecture Thesis? naeembutt777@gmail.com. Dear Brother,I have also booked 3 plot 5/marlas each in perception of james eden garden ext, paid fully, have you any current update? because i am sending them thousands of emails,but never replied from eden ? is ka owner kon ha ? I agreed with you.

Yes bro I have also a plot and I give all payment but nothing is on black given to me. yes true… its a big fraud. I am suffering from same issue. all my savings are gone and perception i am just waiting from thesis, some response from their side. I am also suffering same issue from perception essays in honor j. gibson, last 6 years. Toady I call , Eden said will next year………… pray karain, Thanks for the update, Keep in touch and if possible visit them personally instead calling.

Also if possible visit the land area and school english essay check the progress if any, and j. gibson share with every one. May Allah give them hidaya. I’m suffering from same issue. DO NOT BUY ANY PLOT OR HOME FROM ANY EDEN PROJECTS BECAUSE EDEN IS FILLED WITH MONEY HUNGRY VAMPIRES. The journey of fraud and breach of trust started as “Developers Group”in 1981, which later became “Eden Developers” before turning into “Eden Housing” as of today counts in one of the most un trust able housing companies.Company itself claims that they “started with a meager paid-up capital of PKR 250,000. Business? Today this figure is exceeding PKR 6 Billionthis shall be noticed that they can hide there real assets for taxation reasons. as well as they confess that ”But the fiscal gains are not the only parameters to perception essays in honor of james j. gibson, gauge successes of this futuristic organization, having so many other peculiar achievements”So from here we will try to tell you the secrets behind there this fast achievements. Any update about who was responsible for the cold war essay, Eden garden Ext.? mn ny ARY News per perception essays in honor of james, es k mutaliq 1 program dykha tha, jo k boht horrible seen tha.

Keya etny sary mutasra afrad mill k kuch nahe ker sakty? Ya her koi eden walon k rah mo karam py bytha hy ? Akher Eden walon ny koi to of james j. gibson, passion plan deya ho ga? i just booked my three polts 5 marla each two of my siter and brother residing in abroad i made all payment i am Gvt officer my brother and sister made payment through m and at my suggestion so worried do not know the latest posion after their meeting in gulbrg with client may b july 2015pl.let m inform regarding its status of bellting as well pcession. hi palz call me 00971526159712 wathssapp. DHA Multan Balloting Result 2017 Today Online. DHA Multan 5 Marla Balloting Results Uploaded. DHA Multan Complete Balloting Result List Today Online. Balloting/Draw Results of Shaikhupura Khadim e Punjab Housing Scheme Phase-II Today. Khadim e Punjab Housing Scheme Sheikhupura – Balloting on 24 August 2017 at Services club.

FGEHF and EHFPRO Launched Executive Lifestyle Residency Apartments Karachi Cantt – Registration Started. Naval Anchorage Gawadar Extends Last Date for Plots Form Submission upto 30 September 2017. Naval Anchorage Gawadar Housing Scheme EOI for Pre-Qualification of Constructors. Jalozai Housing Scheme Phase 2 Nowshera/Peshawar – Last date to submit applications extended to 15/9/2017. Balloting/Draw Results of of james Shaikhupura Khadim e Punjab Housing Scheme Phase-II Today.

Real Estate, Housing Town Planning News 2017.

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