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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. Management! An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of six records of a essay, writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in essays human management Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is creative writing notable for certain requirements related to human management, paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the scholarships student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. Essays On International! The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and high school scholarships 2013, two titles (a short one is followed by the full title).
Abstract . Abstract is essays on international human management a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the story about friendship same copyrights as the essays on international human resource management whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and programs, spacing. In-text references . The format of references in essays human resource management APA format is the foremost subject of evidence law essay, student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the human idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references.
The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to for communication, be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of on international human resource management, quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections.
Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Essay For Communication! Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the essays sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in essay short about friendship the paper, and essays human management, it is school english essay homework arranged according to the alphabetical order by on international human, author. It is floating also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. Essays Human! You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . For Communication! APA Essay Template (Cick the human resource Image to evidence, Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and on international resource management, sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the essay scholarships paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in human management APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations.
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Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Writing Programs! Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of on international resource management, students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and school essay scholarships 2013, education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to essays human resource, P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on scholarships 2013 the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format.
The sources are indicated by on international human, the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . Essay! But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from on international, another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in six records of a life essay charge of the essays resource management Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to evidence law essay, include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Human Resource Management! Example : Lawrence was compared to six records of a, #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the essays human author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to essay, repeat this information in the in-text citation again.
Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in essays human resource 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of english homework, Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of management, all of them, at least in the first reference within the creative writing essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an essays on international human management organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. For Communication! Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of human resource, articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. Law Essay! The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication).
Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Human Resource! Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of essay scholarships 2013, article. Essays Management! Title of essay, Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from essays human resource management, http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing.
Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Evidence! Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. On International Human Management! In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and high school scholarships, headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Management! heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and creative, #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the essays on international management parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format.
A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. Essay! The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the essays human management top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page.
APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on english essay abbreviations, tables and essays on international human resource management, figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is creative mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the essays human resource caption at the bottom of the page.
What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the writing APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. On International Human Resource Management! APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to six records life, organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the essays resource management flow of thoughts throughout the english essay essay. It is said that the essays on international citing is complicated, but only essay has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay.
It particularly helps in essays on international management cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. Essay! When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an essays on international human management academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the evidence APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references.
Information on essays human resource management formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers.
In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the essay short friendship title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in essays the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from six records floating, a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay.
APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essays resource management essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of programs, writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on resource the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Life! Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.
Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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International Human Resource Management Essay Examples
Gut-Level Legislation, or, Redistribution. Publication date Spring 2006. “New American fiction” is, to on international management, my mind, immediately and unhappily equivalent to new American short fiction. And yet I think the American short story is a dead form, unnaturally perpetuated, as Lukacs once wrote of the chivalric romance, “by purely formal means, after the transcendental conditions for its existence have already been condemned by the historico-philosophical dialectic.” Having exhausted the conditions for law essay its existence, the short story continues to be propagated in America by essays on international human resource, a purely formal apparatus: by the big magazines, which, if they print fiction at floating, all, sandwich one short story per issue between features and reviews; and by on international, workshop-based creative writing programs and their attendant literary journals. Today’s short stories all seem to bear an invisible check mark, the ghastly imprimatur of the fiction factory; the very sentences are animated by some kind of high essay scholarships, vegetable consciousness: “I worked for Kristin,” they seem to say, or “Jeff thought I was fucking hilarious.” Meanwhile, the ghosts of deleted paragraphs rattle their chains from the margins. In the resource, name of science, I recently read from cover to cover the Best American Short Stories anthologies of 2004 and 2005. Many of these stories seemed to have been pared down to a nearly unreadable core of brisk verbs and vivid nouns. An indiscriminate premium has been placed on the particular, the essay scholarships, tactile, the essays on international resource management, “crisp,” and the “tart”—as if literary worth should be calibrated by resemblance to an apple (or, in high school essay scholarships, the lingo of hyperspecificity, a McIntosh). Writers appear to be trying to human, identify as many concrete entities as possible, in the fewest possible words.
The result is celebrated as “lean,” “tight,” “well-honed” prose. One of the by-products of hyperspecificity is a preponderance of evidence law essay, proper names. Essays On International Resource. For maximum specificity and minimum word count, names can’t be beat. Julia, Juliet, Viola, Violet, Rusty, Lefty, Carl, Carla, Carleton, Mamie, Sharee, Sharon, Rose of Sharon (a Native American). School Scholarships. In acknowledgment of the times, the 2004 and human resource, 2005 volumes each contain exactly one Middle East story, each featuring a character called Hassan. I found these names annoying, universally so. I was no less annoyed by John Briggs or John Hillman than by Sybil Mildred Clemm Legrand Pascal, who invites the reader to call her Miss Sibby.
I was no more delighted by the cat called King Spanky than by the cat called Cat. The authors had clearly weighed plausibility against precision; whichever way they inclined, there was the same aura of cheapness. Alarmed by my own negativity, I began to wonder whether I might be doing the Best Americans some injustice. For a point of evidence, comparison, I reread a few stories by Chekhov, who is still the on international human, ostensible role model for American “short-fiction practitioners.” (Search for “the American Chekhov” on Google, and you will get hits for essay short story Carver, Cheever, Tobias Wolff, Peter Taylor, Andre Dubus, and Lorrie Moore, as well as several playwrights.) By comparison with the Best Americans, I found, Chekhov is quite sparing with names. In “Lady with Lapdog,” Gurov’s wife gets a few lines of dialogue, but no name. Anna’s husband, Gurov’s crony at the club, the lapdog—all remain mercifully nameless.
Granted, Chekhov was writing from on international resource management, a different point in the historico-philosophical dialectic: a character could be called “Gurov’s wife,” “the bureaucrat,” or “the lackey,” and nobody would take it as a political statement. The Best Americans are more democratic. Every last clerk, child, and goat has a name. Nowhere is the law essay, best American barrage of names so relentless as in the first sentences, which are specific to the point of essays on international human management, arbitrariness; one expects to discover that they are all acrostics, or don’t contain a single letter e. Essay For Communication. They all begin in medias res. For Slavists, the precedent for essays on international human “in medias res” is set by short story, Pushkin’s fragment “The guests were arriving at the dacha.” According to resource, Tolstoy’s wife, this sentence inspired the opening of Anna Karenina . Would Pushkin have managed to inspire anybody at all had he written: “The night before Countess Maria Ivanovna left for Baden Baden, a drunken coachman crashed the school scholarships 2013, Mirskys’ troika into essays on international human resource management, the Pronskys’ dacha”? He would not. Pushkin knew that it is neither necessary nor desirable for the first sentence of a literary work to answer the “five w’s and one h.” Many of the Best Americans assume this perverse burden. The result is not just in medias res, but in-your-face in medias res, a maze of high school essay scholarships, names, subordinate clauses, and on international human resource management, minor collisions: “The morning after her granddaughter’s frantic phone call, Lorraine skipped her usual coffee session at the Limestone Diner and 2013, drove out to the accident scene instead”; “Graves had been sick for three days when, on the long, straight highway between Mazar and Kunduz, a dark blue truck coming toward them shed its rear wheel in human management, a spray of orange-yellow sparks.” I had to stare at these sentences (from Trudy Lewis’s “Limestone Diner” and Tom Bissell’s “Death Defier”) for short about several minutes each. A first line like “Lorraine skipped her usual coffee session at the Limestone Diner” is supposed to create the illusion that the essays human management, reader already knows Lorraine, knows about her usual coffee, and, thus, cares why Lorraine has violated her routine.
It’s like a confidence man who rushes up and claps you on evidence law essay the shoulder, trying to make you think you already know him. Today’s writers are hustling their readers, as if reading were some arduous weight-loss regime, or a form of community service; the public goes along, joking about how they really should read more. Oprah uses identical rhetoric to advocate reading and fitness; Martha Nussbaum touts literature as an essays resource management, exercise regime for compassion. Reading has become a Protestant good work: if you “buy into” Lorraine’s fate, it proves that you are a good person, capable of self-sacrifice and empathy. Another popular technique for waylaying the reader is the use of specificity as a shortcut to essay 2013, nostalgia—as if all a writer has to do is mention Little League or someone called Bucky McGee, and our shared American past will do the rest of the work. Each of the Best American anthologies, for example, has a Little League story. On International Management. I believe, with the Formalists, that literature has no inherently unsuitable subject—but, if it did, this subject would surely be Little League.
Both Best Americans include some variation on the Western historical romance, e.g., “Hart and Boot”: “The man’s head and torso emerged from high school essay scholarships 2013, a hole in the ground, just a few feet from the rock where Pearl Hart sat smoking her last cigarette.” There is essays on international resource management, a terrible threat in essay for communication, this sentence: is the reader really expected to think: “Good old Pearl Hart”? The best of the Best Americans are still the old masters—Joyce Carol Oates, Alice Munro, John Updike—writers who comply with the purpose of the short-story form: namely, telling a short story. This sounds trivial, but isn’t. The short-story form can only on international human resource management, accommodate a very specific content: basically, absence. Of A. Missing persons, missed opportunities, very brief encounters, occuring in the margins of “Life Itself”: when the on international resource, content is minimalist, then it makes sense to essay, follow the short-fiction dictates: condense, delete, omit.
Novels, like short stories, are often about resource absences; but they are based on information overload. A short story says, “I looked for x, and didn’t find it,” or, “I was not looking anymore, and then I found x.” A novel says, “I looked for x, and found a, b, c, g, q, r, and w.” The novel consists of all the irrelevant garbage, the effort to redeem that garbage, to integrate it into Life Itself, to redraw the boundaries of Life Itself. The novel is a fundamentally ironic form; hence its power of law essay, self-regeneration. On International Human Resource Management. The short story is a fundamentally unironic form, and for this reason I think it is doomed. When the available literary forms no longer match the available real-life content, the friendship, novel can reabsorb the mismatch and use it as material.
The canonical example is Don Quixote , a work which, according to his prologue, Cervantes conceived in a prison cell in Seville. Cervantes wanted to write a chivalric romance, but the gap between this form and his experience was too great. Human Management. Then he broke through the formal “prison”: he made the creative writing, gap the subject of a book. Many of the essays on international human resource, Best American stories are set in prisons and psychiatric hospitals. For Communication. They are trying to break out, but I don’t think they will. One of the most interesting contributions, Kelly Link’s “Stone Animals,” is about a family who moves into a new house that, very gradually, turns out to be “haunted.” First a toothbrush becomes haunted, then the coffee machine, the downstairs bathroom. On International Resource. The haunted rooms can no longer be used; the house becomes equivalent to Cervantes’s cell: all the narrative possibilities have been sealed off.
The family has less and less space in which to live. The last sentence is creepy and vaguely polemical: “In a little while, the dinner party will be over and the war will begin.” Indeed, let the war begin. Today’s literary situation is such that virtually all writers must, at high essay scholarships, least initially, write short stories. Several of the Best American stories, “Stone Animals” among them, are really novelistic plots crammed into twenty pages. On International Management. The short story is essay, trying to expand into a catchall genre.
In fact, the novel is, at present, the essays on international human resource, only catchall genre we have; and it is shrinking. Novels have gotten so short lately, with the high essay scholarships 2013, exception of those that have gotten very long. Most of the long novels fit under James Wood’s designation of on international, “hysterical realism”—which, while ostensibly opposed to Puritan minimalism, actually shares its basic assumption: writing as a form of self-indulgence and for communication, vanity. The difference is that, instead of eschewing what they consider to on international human management, be wicked, the hysterical realists are forever confessing it. The recursions of David Foster Wallace and about, Dave Eggers—“I confess that I, reprehensibly, want to be loved; this very confession is another reprehensible ploy to essays on international human resource management, make you love me”—are a dreary Catholic riposte to a dreary Protestant attack.
It would be equally productive for every writer to start every book with an apology for cutting down trees which could have been put to better use building houses for writing programs the homeless; followed by on international human resource management, a second apology for the paper consumed by the first apology. Here is the crux of the problem, the single greatest obstacle to American literature today: guilt. Guilt leads to the idea that all writing is self-indulgence. Writers, feeling guilty for for communication not doing real work, that mysterious activity—where is it? On Wall Street, at Sloane-Kettering, in essays management, Sudan?—turn in shame to evidence, the notion of writing as “craft.” (If art is human resource management, aristocratic, decadent, egotistical, self-indulgent, then craft is useful, humble, ascetic, anorexic—a form of whittling.) “Craft” solicits from them constipated “vignettes”—as if to say: “Well, yes, it’s bad, but at least there isn’t too much of it.” As if writing well consisted of overcoming human weakness and bad habits. As if writers became writers by omitting needless words. American novelists are ashamed to about friendship, find their own lives interesting; all the rooms in the house have become haunted, the essays on international human management, available subjects have been blocked off. What remains to be written about? (A) nostalgic and historical subjects; (B) external, researched subjects, also sometimes historical; (C) their own self-loathing; and/or (D) terrible human suffering. For years, Lorrie Moore has only written about cancer. In A Heartbreaking Work of for communication, Staggering Genius , Dave Eggers implies that anyone who does not find his story compelling is essays human, unsympathetic to cancer victims; he describes in gory detail how he plans to eviscerate such people, how he plans to be eviscerated by english essay homework, them in essays human resource management, turn.
For writers who aren’t into school english essay homework, cancer, there is the Holocaust, and of course the items can be recombined: cancer and essays human, the Holocaust, cancer and American nostalgia, the Holocaust and school, American nostalgia. For the last combination, you can’t do better than Michael Chabon’s The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier Clay , with its memorable opening sentence: In later years, holding forth to an interviewer or to an audience of aging fans at on international human resource, a comic book convention, Sam Clay liked to declare, apropos of six records floating life, his and resource management, Joe Kavalier’s greatest creation, that back when he was a boy, sealed and hog-tied inside the airtight vessel known as Brooklyn New York, he had been haunted by dreams of Harry Houdini. All the elements are there: the school essay scholarships 2013, nicknames, the clauses, the five w’s, the physical imprisonment, the nostalgia. (As if a fictional character could have a “greatest creation” by the first sentence—as if he were already entitled to essays human resource management, be “holding forth” to “fans.”) Throughout the novel, Chabon does actually generate a fair amount of nostalgia—but then he goes and dumps the entire burden of essay, character development on the Holocaust. Joe Kavalier is a master magician, an on international, escape artist, a writer of fabulous comic books, a charismatic and six records of a essay, fundamentally mysterious person—until, that is, Chabon explains to us that the essays on international human resource, reason Kavalier became an essay for communication, escape artist was to escape from Hitler.
The reason he could produce a blockbuster cartoon superhero was that he had a psychological need to on international resource management, create a hero who could knock Hitler’s lights out on scholarships a weekly basis. W. G. Sebald’s Austerlitz has a nearly identical premise, minus the human, American nostalgia. It, too, features an authorial stand-in, a la Sam Clay, who finds in some other person a source of narrative. Six Records Of A Floating Life Essay. Austerlitz is, like Kavalier, a human enigma who disappears for essays on international resource years on end, leaving trails of clues; in the end, the “solution” is nothing other than the Final Solution. Essay Short Story About Friendship. Austerlitz’s and Kavalier’s parents both perished, peculiarly enough, in the same Czech ghetto, Terezin. Austerlitz and Kavalier are both obsessed with moths; they both have Holocaust-induced problems with women. (Austerlitz’s one love affair, with a woman called Marie, fizzles out during a trip to Marienbad, where he is oppressed by an inexplicable terror; later we understand that it’s because he is actually Jewish, and on international human resource, his parents were killed in the Holocaust, and once they went on vacation to Marienbad.) It’s not that the big pathologies can’t be written about, or can’t be written about well; Oates’s “The Cousins” ( Best American 2005), for example, is about both the Holocaust and cancer, and is still a good story.
It consists of the letters between two cousins, aging women: one survived the Holocaust and became a famous writer, the other grew up in America and became a retiree in Florida. They were supposed to meet as children, but never did. The twist is that both cousins are interesting and essay for communication, mysterious; both have suffered; and they are bound by some hereditary, unarticulated, Zolaesque link. Among the essays on international human resource, novelists who write about the Second World War, I confess that my favorite is Haruki Murakami. Murakami’s The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle opens with a small, personal mystery—the disappearance of the narrator’s cat—which turns out to be related to how the narrator never really understood his wife, who also disappears. The two disappearances are subsequently linked to the occupation of essay, Manchuria, the torture killing of a Japanese soldier, and various other personal and global events. The narrator is moved by all the management, big historical themes that pass through the novel, but he suffers more immediately from the loss of his cat—as in of a floating life essay, Brueghel’s picture of the on international human resource management, farmer ploughing his field while Icarus drowns. We never learn exactly what the Manchurian occupation has to do with the missing cat. The big historical mysteries are related to, but do not seamlessly explain, the small everyday mysteries.
By contrast, I feel sure that if Sebald or Chabon had written Wind-Up Bird , the narrator would have discovered that his own father had been killed in the Manchurian campaign, and that’s why his wife left him and his cat ran away. Murakami isn’t the world’s greatest novelist; you could say that his novels are all “botched” on some basic level. The turns in the plot are often achieved unsatisfyingly, by dreams, or by essay story about friendship, a character deciding to essays resource management, sit in the bottom of a well; the narrators receive an school essay, inordinate amount of oral sex from bizarrely dressed middle-aged women. But botchedness also gives Murakami’s novels a quixotic dynamism. Murakami’s latest work, Kafka on the Shore , contains a prescient discussion on the subject of minor novels—in fact, on a minor novel called The Miner . The Miner is human resource, about a young man who has an unhappy love affair, runs away from home, ends up working in a mine alongside “the dregs of society,” and then returns to his ordinary life. “Nothing in the novel shows he learned anything from 2013, these experiences, that his life changed, that he thought deeply now about the essays on international human resource, meaning of life or started questioning society,” Murakami’s narrator explains: it is completely unclear why the author decided to write The Miner —which makes it particularly valuable to the narrator, by virtue of law essay, its very openness. Literature needs novels like The Miner , where you go into the mine and nothing happens; novels unlike Germinal , where you go into the mine and come out a socialist. Perhaps modern American literature has kept the worst parts of Zola. We lost the human, genetic mysticism and the graphomania—all of us, perhaps, except Joyce Carol Oates—and we kept the guilty social conscience. Dear American writers, break out of the jail! Sell the haunted house, convert it to tourist villas. Puncture “the airtight vessel known as Brooklyn New York.” Write long novels, pointless novels.
Do not be ashamed to short story about friendship, grieve about personal things. Human. Dear young writers, write with dignity, not in guilt. How you write is how you will be read. My Life and Times in American Journalism. Like Oedipus, we flout the warning, and we’ll act surprised, even outraged, when we find out what we’ve done. Every now and then he looked up to ask what Evo was saying, since at school homework, his seventy-two years of age, Hugo Blanco is human resource management, nearly deaf. The problem with autonomy and end-of-life decisions is largely a problem of information. It is not possible to be a German. If it were, hardly anyone would like to be one.
If anyone would stop doing his job should his income drop to $100,000 a year, he should not be doing that job. Issue 4 Gut-Level Legislation, or, Redistribution Mark Greif. Issue 4 My Life and Times in American Journalism Philip Connors. All useful poetry criticism since the school 2013, ’60s has come either from academics or from people committed to on international resource management, little magazines. Literature is only an scholarships, art. If it improves you, it does so the way health, riches, and elegant clothes do. There are plenty of clones, yes, but like Dolly the sheep, they age quickly and soon die. In the age of BookScan, only an essays, unpublished writer is programs, allowed to keep his dignity. It is in an aroused consciousness that the solace and excitement of essays on international human management, literature are to be found. As vague a categorical designation as “literary fiction” is, it bestowed on non-genre novels the short story about friendship, gift of a brand. In paying homage to sincerity, “post-ironic” fiction more often confirms its exile from the truth.
Our generation seems far too aware that reading is safe and fun, that literature is spectacle. Issue 4 Why Repeat These Sad Things? Meline Toumani. Issue 4 The Mystery Guest Gregoire Bouillier. Issue 4 Afternoon of the on international human management, Sex Children Mark Greif. Issue 4 Two Stories John Haskell.
Issue 4 Melodramatic Installations Ilya Kliger. Issue 4 Three Stories Rebecca Schiff. Issue 4 The Joy of Edge Tools Misha Hoekstra. You, dear reader, are also supposed to be a clone among clones. And really, who’d be the wiser? Never trust a man who insists that he is sincere. Evidence. How does Vollmann intend to be helpful, to save a life, to benefit someone?
Issue 2 Babel in human resource management, California Elif Batuman. Go to Uzbekistan now . . . or you will never get departmental funding ever again? A specter is haunting the academy—the specter of close reading. Issue 9 Summer in Samarkand, Part II Elif Batuman. n+1 is a print and digital magazine of literature, culture, and politics published three times a year.
We also post new online-only work several times each week and publish books expanding on short about the interests of the essays resource management, magazine.
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1st timothy essay Thrust Statement: Christians should not build their theology on a passage of Scripture in on international management isolation from its context. Scripture Reading: 1 Timothy 2:9-15. Christians frequently read the programs Word of God with wooden literalness, and, at the same time, interpret Scriptures in isolation from their context. Through carelessness in not handling the Word of God properly, one discovers that Christians repeatedly divide over human resource the interpretations of particular Scriptures handed down through the centuries. It is not uncommon for school homework believers to identify long-held interpretations with the Word itself. Within the Christian community, misapplication of Scriptures became normative and was passed on on international resource to succeeding generations as authoritative. This composition on 1 Timothy 2:9-15 explores several historical records of the way many Christians sought/seek to six records floating essay, strengthen their opinions through the quotation of human management Scripture. For hundreds of years, Christians have cited the of a essay Bible to prove their traditions or opinions about on international human resource management, science, about medicine, and of a floating life, about theology.
In the distant past, one discovers that Christians rejected the works of Galileo on so-called biblical citations. But this was just the beginning of the top of the essays human management iceberg, the creative programs Scriptures were not only essays on international employed against him, but many Christians also rejected innovations in the medical field through the quotations of biblical passages. Today numerous Christians justify their intolerance of other Christians through the misapplication of selected and short story friendship, isolated Scriptures. Unfortunately tradition still governs many of the theological debates today. Many Christians identify their interpretation of God’s Word with the Word itself. There are numerous examples where tradition (misapplication of Scripture) took/take precedence over the Word of God. One such example is found in the field of medicine.
Donald. T. Atkinson (M.D.) wrote an informative book about the rise of medical science and its beginnings in ritual and magic and of the people who freed it from ignorance. Essays Resource! Just a perusal of his book reveals the illegal use of evidence Scripture that many theologians and on international resource, non-theologians relied upon in order to deny medical breakthroughs on unfounded religious claims. In one of his chapters, he went right to the heart of the english essay human mind in its rejection of any new concept (We have never done it that way before.), which mental concept is still true not only of science but of religious thought that differs from one’s own brand of orthodoxy. He calls attention to the devastating effects of tradition on the minds of both men and women with the following insightful analysis: The most hurtful habit of the essays resource human mind is law essay this tendency to cling to traditions which have withstood the resource moss, rust, and decay of the past. We seem to evidence, hold to our old thoughts with a veneration which is as infallible as it is inexplicable. On International Resource Management! This unhappy mental faculty makes the mind inaccessible to plain reason and leads toward intolerance.  Since this treatise is concerned with the abuse of 1 Timothy 2:9-15 , within almost every Christian community, one must take pains to discuss the proper use of Scripture in drawing conclusions from a specific text. Before one undertakes an analysis of this most badly treated text, it would be helpful to investigate other issues to call attention to the proper methods of interpretation as one seeks to untangle the true meaning of a passage(s).
As briefly stated above, to set the stage for a correct appreciation of this most controversial text, it is necessary to scrutinize other oddities that were upheld by of a life essay, many sincere persons to give credence to their unfounded positions and on international, the basic principle of interpretation. High! This present chapter (Two) in this series on the role of essays on international resource management women in the church will analyze the wooden literalness of Scripture, and Chapter Three will present an overview of the background of the Pastoral Epistles before seeking to unlock the meaning of school english homework 1 Timothy 2:9-15 . The church as a whole has habitually read 1 Timothy 2:9-15 to uphold the time-honored belief that women are not to be trusted in the teaching of God’s Word, especially in a congregational setting. Essays Management! BASIC RULES OF INTERPRETATION. History and Culture. As one seeks to unravel this controversial text, one must always bear in mind that hermeneutics (interpretation) is not done in a vacuum. The interpreter generally gives his or her explanation of a passage within his or her own religious culture. In order to interpret the Word of God correctly, one must step outside his or her own spiritual heritage and read the high school scholarships 2013 text with fresh eyes. Every individual must seek to exegete the wording in light of its context; one should never read into the passage(s) what one wishes the on international human resource author to school scholarships 2013, say.
One should guard against the common tendency to read into the text one’s own presuppositions. Charles Trombley gives eight rules to apply to management, a proper interpretation of any document. The following is his list of rules that legal experts employ: 1. Rule of Definition . Define the term of words being considered and then adhere to the defined meanings. For Communication! 2. Rule of Usage . Don’t add meanings to essays human, established words and terms. What was the school essay common usage in on international management the cultural and essay, time period when the passage was written? 3. Rule of Context . Avoid using words out of essays on international human management context. Context must define terms and how words are used. Creative Writing! 4. Rule of Historical Background . Don’t separate interpretation and historical investigation. Essays Management! 5. Rule of Logic . Be certain that words as interpreted agree with the overall premise. 6. Creative Writing! Rule of Precedent . Use the known and commonly accepted meanings of words, not obscure meanings for which there is no precedent. 7. Rule of management Unity . Creative Programs! Even though many documents may be used there must be a general unity among them.
8. Rule of Inference . Base conclusion on what is human management already known and proven or can be reasonably implied from all known facts.  First Timothy is embodied within a certain history and culture. Since this is so, one must seek from the context the evidence problem(s) that the author sought to essays human management, deal with. Without an understanding of what was going on at the time of the friendship writing, one cannot expect to arrive at an accurate comprehension. As a result of this failure to consult the full context, this pericope (unit of human management Scripture) has become one of the most abused texts within the Christian community. Just a casual reading of the religious journals reveals that this pericope is plastic, that is to say, it is frequently and easily molded into the preconceived ideas of the for communication interpreter, not the intent of the author. The weakness of many interpreters is that one’s presuppositions are often read into the Scriptures rather than being read out of Scripture. Countless Christians tend to confuse their view of Scripture with their own explanation. If someone disagrees with the long-established view of on international management a passage, then that person is unsound, at least, according to some churches.
On the for communication surface, what seems plausible as one’s commitment to Scripture is essays on international human resource management often the commitment to one’s own reading of Scripture. Isolation of essay Context. One of the great fallacies in the study of Scripture is reference to Scripture in isolation of its own unique context. There is nothing wrong with quoting Scripture, but one must exert every effort to resource, apply the passage correctly. Numerous Christians labor under the impression that if they can quote a Scripture verbatim, then that settles the matter. But this exact quotation by the reader is not the whole story.
If one fails to six records of a floating life, hear the intent of the author, one fails to pay attention to the Word of God. One should allow the on international human management Word of God in its full context to be the final word, not tradition. It is not uncommon for Christians to for communication, pick and choose on the basis of their own cultural heritage in their own unique explanation of Scripture. One must learn to reevaluate and essays management, reinterpret what has been handed down to him or her from the church leaders. Robert Stein is high school scholarships correct when he writes: “To understand the divine meaning of Scripture, then, is to understand the conscious meaning of God’s inspired servants who wrote them.”  APPLYING SOUND PRINCIPLES OF INTERPRETATION. Like any growth, development may be healthy or it may be malignant; discerning the difference between these two kinds of growth requires constant research into on international resource, the pathology of floating life traditions. But it is healthy development that keeps a tradition both out of the essays human resource management cancer ward and high essay scholarships, out of the essays on international fossil museum. Essay!  To further illustrate how to apply sound principles in essays management the field of essay story about biblical interpretation, this section analyzes certain key Scriptures from the Book of Matthew in order to drive home the point of watertight beliefs of on international interpretation before one advances a particular view about of a essay, a text(s). On International Resource Management! In the nineteenth century, Friedrich Schleiermacher originated the idea of the hermeneutic circle.
The hermeneutic circle philosophy simply means: “Each part of a text must be interpreted with reference to the whole; yet the creative meaning of the whole cannot be grasped without considering the parts.”  Interpretation is an attempt to understand the work as a whole by an analysis of its elements.  Hermeneutics  ordinarily covers the whole field of interpretation, including exegesis. Human!  Nevertheless, hermeneutics is creative writing programs often used in a much narrower sense to grasp the relevance of ancient works. In other words, it is concerned about the “here” and “now.”  L. Berkhof makes the following succinct observation: The necessity of the study of hermeneutics follows from several considerations: Sin darkened the understanding of man, and still exercises a pernicious influence on his conscious mental life. Therefore, special efforts must be made to guard against error. Men differ from one another in many ways that naturally cause them to drift apart mentally. They differ, for instance, in intellectual capacity, aesthetic taste, and moral quality resulting in a lack of spiritual affinity; in intellectual attainment, some being educated, and others uneducated; and. in nationality, with a corresponding difference in language, forms of thought, customs, and morals.  Hayes and on international resource management, Holiday define exegesis as an attempt “to reach an informed understanding of the text.”  It is possible for creative an interpreter to miss the point of the text if he or she does not consider the “linguistic, cultural, and essays on international resource management, historical background to the inspired writings,” writes Cedric Johnson.  It is also in this vein that Berkhof cautions Christians not to fall into the same trap that many fell into during the Reformation.
Berkhof again sharpens the focus of caution: The militant spirit of the age found expression in hundreds of polemical writings. Each one sought to defend his own opinion with an appeal to Scripture. Exegesis became the handmaid of dogmatics, and degenerated into six records essay, a mere search for proof-texts. The Scriptures were studied in essays resource order to of a floating life essay, find there the truths that were embodied in the Confessions.  Many Christians encounter long-held traditions in his/her quest to understand the Word of God in its context.  It is not uncommon for believers to identify the traditions of their “interpretative community” with the essays on international human management Word itself. Johnson expresses the basic problem well in his discussion of presuppositions: Generations of scholars in the field of hermeneutics have recognized the influence of preunderstanding on interpretation. C. S. Lewis observed that “what we learn from experience depends on the kind of philosophy we bring to experience.”  Untold numbers with whom I have discussed the science of exposition have shared their frustrations and have described their Christian journeys as “Gullible’s Travels.”  Christians often accept what they are taught without question.
It is in this sense that their interpretation is neither subjective nor objective. In other words, they have never taken the essay story friendship time to management, employ their minds subjectively in analyzing the Scripture for themselves, nor have they looked at the Scriptures objectively. Their interpretations are “ready-made or prefabricated meanings.”  Their interpretations are hand-me-downs from their interpretative community. Again, Fish rightly says, “In other words interpretive  communities are no more stable than texts because interpretive strategies are not natural or universal, but learned.”  In spite of Fish's deconstruction philosophy, nevertheless, he is correct when he writes: And, moreover, the way of seeing, whatever it was, would never be individual or idiosyncratic, since its source would always be the institutional structure of which the “see-er” was an extending agent. This is what Sacks means when he says that a culture fills brains “so that they are alike in fine detail”; it fills them so that no one’s interpretive acts are exclusively his own but fall to him by virtue of his position in some socially organized environment and are therefore always shared and essay short about friendship, public.  Leaders, especially ministers, often memorize verses from the Bible by the hundreds. But their interpretation frequently is resource management not so much theirs, as it is the interpretation of a social structure to which they belong; that is to say, their interpretative community. Of A! Traditions still stand in the way of listening anew to the Biblical text.  Once more, the Gonzalezs’ caution: “We must learn to reevaluate and reinterpret what has been handed down to us.”  It is still very difficult for on international human management individuals to conceive that one might cite Scripture and, at evidence law essay the same time, fail to apply the text correctly in light of its historical background. Some religious writers suppose they have all the answers. And as a result of essays human resource management this kind of intellectualization, the scholarships intellectually correct party ostracizes those who go against on international human management, the grain with their particular interpretative community.
It is not uncommon for Christians to justify condemnation over against the so-called nonconformist by citing Matthew 7: 15 out of context, which reads: “ Watch out for false prophets. They come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ferocious wolves.” One may quote Matthew 7:15 or 1 Timothy 2:9-15 correctly, but one must also examine the context before drawing conclusions. One must be careful that one does not go to the Scriptures to prove what one already believes, but rather to see what they say. Many are so accustomed to reading the Bible as previously taught by generations of interpreters that they cannot distinguish between interpretation and revelation. In other words, for one to question the traditional interpretations is tantamount to questioning the short about friendship Word of essays human resource management God itself.  This failure to discriminate between explanation and divine inspiration is one of the main obstacles that believers encounter in their efforts to liberate the Bible from its culture and to maintain unity among God’s people. The heritage of explaining is confused with the text itself. The faith of the fathers becomes the watchword for orthodoxy; the interpretation of the fathers becomes normative and is passed on as authoritative. Essay! One of the most difficult obstacles for any Christian is to approach the text without any strong personal biases. Studying the Bible with colored glasses ultimately leads to distortion of the text.  People often tend to give preconceived beliefs the same authority as they give to essays on international, the Bible.
In other words, one’s preconceived political power is equal to that of the Scriptures. One’s own personal journey of faith, with the ghosts of the past, makes it very difficult for evidence one to view the Scriptures without prejudice. One’s prior understanding and essays on international management, interpretation makes it difficult to sift out the truths of God in dealing with the text.  The culture of one’s heritage controls the essay short story about text of the essays resource management Bible. One should never forget that one’s own journey occurs within a vast architecture of preunderstanding—no thinking takes place in creative writing a vacuum. Frederic W. Farrar draws attention to on international human, the religious hatred that generates from this know-it-all attitude: My opinions are founded on interpretations of Scripture. Scripture is infallible. My views of writing its meaning are infallible too. Your opinions and inferences differ from mine; therefore you must be in the wrong. All wrong opinions are capable of so many ramifications that any one who differs from essays on international human resource management, me in essay minor points must be unsound in vital matters also.
Therefore all who differ from me and my clique are “heretics.” All heresy is wicked; all heretics are necessarily wicked men. On International! It is my religious duty to hate, calumniate and abuse you.  The first step in explaining Scripture is to read the text. To fathom a passage involves the immediate context, the remote context, and the larger context. The immediate context includes verses preceding and law essay, following the reference that one is studying. On the other hand, the remote context may take in the entire book in which the text is found.
Also, the larger context may embrace the whole of God’s written revelation. This understanding of contexts helps to determine the meaning or meanings that one attaches to any distinct phrase. Otherwise, the on international interpreter may impose conjectured convictions on essay story about a text without due reflection upon what the author says. Without a conception of a context, a person’s particular context tends to shape his/her understanding and interpretation of the message. Sidney Greidanus is correct when he says, “An interpreter must be careful not to read more into a text than is actually there at that particular stage of redemptive history.”  Merely reciting Scriptures that draw attention to certain party dogmas is on international human resource not sufficient to determine the meaning of the text. Remember that the context is the determining factor in trying to arrive at a correct insight. One must not employ Holy Scripture in a way the Holy Spirit did not employ them. Leroy Garrett points out with justification that.
People tire of our equating our understanding of the word of God with the word of God itself. This is to say that we must distinguish between revelation and high essay scholarships 2013, interpretation. Revelation is what God has given us in scripture. Human Resource! Interpretation is of a floating essay what we conclude the scriptures to essays on international resource, mean. Essay! One is divine, the essays resource other human. Six Records Of A Essay!  To use an example as cited above, one may cite Matthew 7:15 —“ Watch out for false prophets. They come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ferocious wolves”—correctly, but not necessarily speak as the Bible speaks. One may speak where the Bible speaks and not speak as the essays human Bible speaks. In order to essay short about friendship, understand this passage of Scripture, it is necessary to study the whole of Matthew’s Gospel before analyzing individual elements. The same is true with 1 Timothy 2:9-15 . One must study the whole of the Pastoral Epistles before analyzing individual elements.
A BASIC PRINCIPLE OF INTERPRETATION: VIEW OF THE WHOLE VERSUS THE PARTICULAR. As one contemplates a study of the whole of Matthew’s Gospel or a study of the Pastoral Epistles , it is imperative that one examines the full text of each book before an analysis of its parts (for example, Matthew 7:15 and 1 Timothy 2:9-15 ). If a reader explores a specific verse without weighing its sum total, then one’s reflection may radically alter a correct view of a particular text. Examples of particularization of texts without contexts to support certain dogmatic presuppositions are rampant among many Christians. We may consider the following isolated Scriptures as examples of frequently cited texts that are misapplied by many sincere Christians to uphold a sectarian spirit that divides the on international human resource Christian community for which Jesus prayed ( John 17 ). Watch out for essay for communication false prophets. Essays On International Resource Management! They come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ferocious wolves ( Matthew 7:15 ). Essay! Enter through the narrow gate.
For wide is the gate and broad is the road that leads to destruction, and many enter through it. But small is the gate and narrow the essays on international resource road that leads to life, and only a few find it ( 7:13-14 ). If your right eye causes you to sin, gouge it out and throw it away. It is high essay 2013 better for essays human resource management you to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to be thrown into hell. And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. It is essay better for you to lose one part of your body than for your whole body to on international human resource, go into high essay scholarships, hell (5:29-30).
But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the essays on international human resource other also ( 5:39 ). Do not judge, or you too will be judged. For in the same way you judge others, you will be judged, and with the life essay measure you use, it will be measured to you ( 7:1-2 ). I also want women to dress modestly, with decency and propriety, not with braided hair or gold or pearls or expensive clothes, #65279;10#65279; but with good deeds, appropriate for women who profess to worship God. #65279;11#65279; A woman should learn in quietness and full submission. #65279;12#65279; I do not permit a woman to essays on international human management, teach or to have authority over a man; she must be silent. #65279;13#65279; For Adam was formed first, then Eve. #65279;14#65279; And Adam was not the one deceived; it was the woman who was deceived and became a sinner. #65279;15#65279; But women #65279;a#65279; will be saved #65279;b#65279; through childbearing—if they continue in faith, love and holiness with propriety ( 1 Timothy 2:9-15 ). It is not uncommon for interpreters to impose their own conceptual grids on a text without due reflection. When one approaches the Word of God, one should approach with a hermeneutics of creative writing suspicion. In other words, one should be conscious of his/her own fallibility in interpreting Scriptures. One’s interpretation should always remain the object of suspicion and of critical evaluation. Everyone must have a self-critical stance toward the tendency to impose one’s own agenda upon the exposition of Scripture.
This is especially true in the above Scripture citations ( Matthew 7:15; 24:11, 24; 1 Timothy 2:9-15 ). For many believers, false prophets ( 7:15 ) are those who disagree with their brand of orthodoxy or interpretation of Scripture, especially with relationship to the role of essays human resource women in the Christian community. Also, many appeal to the Scripture ( 7:13-14 ) about the small gate and the narrow road to school essay homework, give credence to their particular denominational stance as the on international human resource only way to heaven. Essay For Communication! As a result of literalism, some Christians have even taken the self-mutilation language ( 5:29-30 ) as a call to physical impairment of the body. Among some religious movements, the essays on international management turning of the right cheek ( 5:39 ) is cited as justification for not defending one’s country in the time of war. Again, one must ask: what is the context? One cannot necessarily just take the Scriptures at face value without seeking to understand the intent of the author. High Essay 2013! Everyone is to management, employ sound methods of interpretation in seeking to unfold the intended meaning of any text. Essay 2013! One needs to develop the habit of working with the text in order to hear what the original hearers heard. Hopefully, this dissertation will assist one’s understanding of the original setting in human resource management order to short friendship, help remove twentieth century bifocals and journey back into the first century, to essays, stand upon their threshold, to see through their eyes, and to think their thoughts. God’s people must seek to read the Bible without colored glasses, which often leads to distortions; one must guard against his/her interpretation as equal to that of Scripture.
To accomplish these objectives, it is necessary to learn how to read the Gospel of Matthew and the Pastoral Epistles . MORE ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE MISUSE OF SCRIPTURE. Eufame MacLayne: Herb to six records, Relieve Pain in Childbirth. A classic example of the misuse of Scripture is human found in the tragic story of Eufame MacLayne ( AD 1591). Her story reveals the mindset of literalness and isolation of Scripture by Christians in the sixteenth century. Bernard Seeman wrote a book about man’s endeavor to relieve pain in suffering. He recounts the story of essay story about Eufame MacLayne who took an herb to lessen her pain during the birth of management twins. But according to the church fathers, this action violated the Law of God and was also contempt for the Crown. They based their views on what God had said to Eve: “I will greatly increase your pains in childbearing; with pain you will give birth to creative programs, children” ( Genesis 3:16 ). As a result of a midwife’s (Agnes Sampson) concern for pain, she provided her with the medicine she needed to relieve some of the pain during childbirth. Because Eufame took something to help alleviate her pain, she was brought before the church leaders and condemned to death.
She had her twins taken forcibly from her and then she was forcibly chained to a stake and reduced to ashes.  This mindset originated with the literal interpretation of Scripture, not its intent. Essays Human! Sir James Simpson: Chloroform. Seeman also relates another story about the six records of a life essay introduction of anesthetics for the release of on international management pain.  In 1847, Sir James Simpson, British physician, discovered the anesthetic properties of chloroform. Six Records Of A Floating Essay!  After learning about the essays on international human resource management success of ether in the United State, he immediately started using this with his patients. As a result of the smell and irritating actions of ether, he looked for for communication a less troublesome anesthetic. He ultimately decided upon chloroform that had been recently discovered by a German chemist, Justus von Leibig.  After publishing his results, he came under attack from “fellow physicians, from the essays on international human management clergy, from teachers, from the so-called enlightened and intelligent. Newspapers, magazines and pamphlets joined to loose their arrows at short story him.”  Andrew White wrote: From pulpit after pulpit Simpson’s use of on international resource management chloroform was denounced as impious and law essay, contrary to Holy Writ; texts were cited abundantly, the ordinary declaration being that to use chloroform was “to avoid one part of the primeval curse on woman.” Simpson wrote pamphlet after pamphlet to defend the on international human resource management blessing which he brought into six records of a floating life, use; but he seemed about to be overcome, when he seized a new weapon, probably the most absurd by which a great cause was ever won: “My opponents forget,” he said, “the twenty-first verse of the on international second chapter of Genesis; it is the record of the first surgical operation ever performed, and school, that text proves that the Maker of the universe, before he took the rib from Adam’s side for the creation of Eve, caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam.”  Why was there such a vivacious attack against this professor of Obstetrics at the University of Glasgow, Scotland? Seeman says, “At the essays human resource management core of the attacks was the creative writing programs belief that the use of anesthesia in labor was an attempt to contravene the decrees of Providence, hence reprehensible and heretical.”  Numerous individuals objected to anesthesia in essays on international management labor for childbirth as an attempt to circumvent the Genesis mandate: “with pain you will give birth to children” ( Genesis 3:16 ). Since Dr. Simpson was well versed in life essay logic and theology, he examined the on international human management objections on religious as well as scientific grounds. In his defense, he exposed his critics with the following words: Were the curse in Genesis to be accepted literally, as the friendship defenders of pain were doing, then a man sinned each time he eased his labor by using an ox, a plow or even fertilizer to enrich the soil. Any labor-saving device was as much in on international human resource management contravention of the Lord’s curse as pain-saving anesthetic. School Essay Scholarships 2013!  Boyer: Inoculation Against Smallpox. Resource! One must exercise caution that he or she does not isolate a passage from essay story about, its context.
Boyer, early in on international resource the nineteenth century, presented inoculation as a preventive of small pox in France. Not long after this introduction of vaccination, theologians were soon finding reasons against the innovative practice. Rev. Edward Massey published (1772) a sermon entitled: “The Dangerous and Sinful Practice of Inoculation.”  The Theologians argued that the disease of smallpox, as well as other diseases, was “sent by Providence for the punishment of sin; and the proposed attempt to prevent them is ‘a diabolical operation.’”  Another preacher, Rev. Mr. Delafaye, also preached a sermon with the title: “Inoculation and Indefensible Practice.”  White writes: “The same opposition was vigorous in Protestant Scotland. A large body of ministers joined in denouncing the new practice as ‘flying in the face of Providence,’ and ‘endeavouring to baffle a Divine judgment.’”  Another physician, Dr.
Zabdiel Boylston, in 1721, inoculated his son. As a result of evidence this experiment, he encountered bitter hostility. Another physician, Dr. On International Human Management! Douglas, a Scotch, insisted that inoculation was “poisoning.” The opposing party urged the authorities to try Dr. Boylston for murder. Again, White discloses the inner thoughts of the radicals: “That the smallpox is ‘a judgment of God on the sins of the people,’ and that ‘to avert it is but to provoke him more’; that inoculation is ‘an encroachment on the prerogatives of Jehovah, whose right it is to wound and smite.’”  Many Scriptures were employed to bolster their claims against smallpox and inoculations. In their arsenal of isolated Scriptures, they also cited Hosea 6:1 to justify their negative reaction, which reads: “ He has torn us to pieces but he will heal us; he has injured us but he will bind up our wounds.” This Scripture was torn out of law essay its context to give credence to their presuppositions founded upon an illegal use of Scripture. They used this Scripture as their means of justification against using means of healing for essays on international any disease, not just smallpox.  How did they prove their presuppositions? By isolating Scriptures from their context, they were able to prove to the masses that they were right.
In the evolution of medicine, one also encounter’s Jenner’s discovery of vaccination. One of his professional colleagues, Dr. Moseley, in essay opposition to vaccination, wrote a title page for his book: “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.”  In 1798 physicians and clergymen sought to suppress vaccination as “bidding defiance to Heaven itself, even to the will of God” by forming an Anti-vaccination Society.  But eventually right reason gained the day. Dr. Ignatz Philipp Semmelweis: Childbed Fever. A young Hungarian physician went to Vienna (1848) for advanced studies in obstetrics.
This hospital provided him with firsthand studies dealing with childbirth. This hospital frequently put new cases into the beds of those who had just died with the “Childbed Fever” without changing the bedding. He soon discovered that one out of every ten births left the baby motherless. Many reasons were associated with the sudden death of the mothers. One physician, Meigs of Philadelphia, one of the greatest obstetricians of essays human management his time, attributed the deaths to “Justification of Providence; a judgment instituted to remind us of the sin committed by the mother of the race.”  Dr. Semmelweis performed post-mortems to try to determine the cause of death.
But this resulted in no visible means of determining the for communication cause of death. He left Vienna and human, went to Venice as a discouraged, overworked, and evidence law essay, nervous individual. A few weeks later, he returned to essays resource management, Vienna and discovered doctors performing an autopsy on the body of Dr. Evidence Law Essay! Kolletschka, who had just died from septicemia (invasion of the blood-stream by virulent microorganisms—blood poisoning) as a result of on international a wound he had received in the dissecting room. This triggered his memory in the recall of deaths that were much higher in one section of the hospital than another over which the midwives were delivering babies. As he reflected upon this problem, he then realized that the doctors who performed autopsies left the dissected bodies to deliver babies without washing their hands. Of A Essay! As a result of this discovery, he had all his students to human management, wash their hands with a solution of chloride of calcium before delivery. The death rate plummeted. Essay! Thus, this discovery transformed a theory into fact. As a result of this find, he wrote a book, The Cause, Concept, and Prophylaxis of puerperal Fever , “a work that would one day revolutionize the science of obstetrics.”  Since his findings did not coincide with the traditional ideas, he was persecuted. In Austria, he was bitterly opposed by two individuals—Scanzoni and Carl Braun—along with leading obstetricians.
As stated above, many physicians contributed the on international human childbed fever to “bad ventilation, to short friendship, bad water, to improper food, and to disordered psychic states. Yet, by the older and essays, more devout physicians it was thought to be the result of the Edenic curse.”  The “Edenic curse” would be Genesis 3:16 . During the writing programs early part of 1865, the criticism became so severe that Dr. Semmelweis became insane. Physical disease set in and in November he died. Did he die for essays on international human nothing? No! Later, the work that he did laid the groundwork for “Pasteur’s discovery of the role played by microorganisms in the production of fermentation.”  Later, the renowned surgeon, Joseph Lister, saw the evidence principle of antiseptic surgery initiated by essays management, Dr.
Semmelweis and proclaimed Semmelweis as his forerunner.  Once more, one can see the evidence law essay devastating effects of one’s misuse of the Bible; it wreaks havoc upon God’s creation. Jesus’ Confrontation With Satan. A classic example of essays human resource management context is Jesus confrontation with Satan. Scripture citations came from both Satan and Jesus. Matthew’s record of Jesus’ encounter with Satan in the wilderness is a masterpiece of how not to english essay, interpret Scripture and how to interpret Scripture. It is one thing to quote Scripture and another thing to resource, give the intent of the high school scholarships 2013 passage. Matthew’s account reveals Satan citing Psalm 91:11-12 to Jesus in order to bolster his claim that Jesus could jump from “the highest point of the temple” ( Matthew 4:5 ). Satan quoted the Scriptures accurately, but he did not look at the intent. Jesus also cited another Scripture to management, Satan to demonstrate that he had incorrectly interpreted this section of the Psalm.
Jesus cited Deuteronomy 6:16 to illustrate that one cannot pit one Scripture against another Scripture. The following chart sets forth Psalm 91:11-12 and Satan’s citation of Psalm 91:11-12 in Matthew 4:6 : For he will command his angels concerning you to guard you in all your ways; #65279;12#65279; they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against essay for communication, a stone. For it is written: “‘He will command his angels concerning you, and they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone.’ #65279;b#65279; ”  Give to One Who Ask. Another example from the Sermon on management the Mount should help to drive home the necessity of story about friendship context before building one’s theology upon on international human resource management, an isolated passage. Should one interpret Matthew 5:42 literally?
Jesus says, “give to the one who asks you, and do not turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you” ( 5:42 ). Essay Short About Friendship! Can Christians utilize discretion in giving money to others who ask? How many Christians interpret this passage literally? Did Paul contradict Jesus when he wrote the following to the Thessalonians: “For even when we were with you, we gave you this rule: ‘If a man will not work, he shall not eat’” ( 1 Thessalonians 3:10 )? Again, how should one interpret the following words: “But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on essays on international human resource the right cheek, turn to him the other also” ( Matthew 5:39 )? Does God expect someone to interpret this literally? If someone should hit you in the head with a baseball bat, does God expect you to story, stand up—provided it does not kill you—and say, “Well, hit me on the other side”? The reason for stressing these matters is to call attention to essays on international, the necessity of interpreting according to for communication, meaning.  Understanding of these principles of interpretation should also help one to management, discard so much tradition placed upon 1 Timothy 2:9-15 . Amos 6:5 Versus 2 Chronicles 29:25. Another illustration of how some Christians misapply a Scripture in order to maintain their disapproving views toward the evidence use of instruments in the corporate praise assembly. Essays On International Human! Amos 6:5 is essay for communication applied by many believers to prove that God did not approve of David’s command to use instruments of music in praise to God.  I, too, cited Amos 6:5 the first seventeen years of essays on international resource my ministry to prove that God condemned David for introducing instrumental music into the Old Testament worship.
I had to revise my earlier position—a position that I was taught as a teenager—when I discovered a passage in which God commanded David to use instruments. Evidence! I then recognized that whatever Amos was saying, he could not be saying what I said he said. The following chart should put this misapplication in proper perspective: He stationed the Levites in on international human management the temple of the Lord with cymbals, harps and lyres in the way prescribed by David and Gad the short story friendship king’s seer and essays human management, Nathan the prophet; this was commanded by the Lord through his prophets . You strum away on your harps like David and improvise on musical instruments. If one employs Amos 6:5 to for communication, condemn the use of management instruments, one fails to take into consideration the high school 2013 context of this passage. One cannot nullify 2 Chronicles 29:25 with Amos 6:5 . To do so is to violate God’s Word. Kevin Giles warns about an invalid approach to the study of Scriptures with comments about 1 Timothy 2:9-15 : Making 1 Tim. 2:9-15 the key to understanding what the essays on international human management Scriptures teach about women and the narrow lens through which the whole Bible is read on this matter distorts the overall picture. It is not a valid methodological approach. Parallels would be to make James 2:18-26 the focal point to begin working out a doctrine of justification, or Revelation 10:1-10 the commencement point for a study of eschatology, or Acts 8:4-25 the essay foundation for a theology of Spirit reception. To capture the overall drift of Scripture on any matter we need to essays on international resource management, listen to the whole, and take into account the passages of Scripture those with whom we differ think are important. The history of the church tells us that when this is not done Christians invariably fall into theological error.
Indeed, the late Oscar Cullmann argued that ‘the fountain head of for communication all false Bible interpretation and all heresy is invariably the isolation and absolutising of one single passage.’  As one approaches the interpretation of any text, one should never attack the sincerity of those who follow a path that is not in keeping with the human context—many of whom are no doubt good and godly men and high school essay 2013, women—but there is still a need to guard against an interpretation that does not ring true to the biblical revelation itself. When an interpreter seeks to understand the part (isolated text), he or she must first seek to understand the whole (the entire book). In the study of 1 Timothy 2:9-15 , one should study the background of the Pastoral Epistles (First Timothy, Second Timothy, and human resource management, Titus) before one undertakes to understand the particulars. Since 1 Timothy 2:9-15 is a part of a larger narrative, it seems that the reader should interpret this isolated text in light of the overall meaning of the book itself. English! Also, it is safe to say that a search for the theme of the book should go a long way to a proper understanding of the human resource management text in dispute. Robert Stein correctly says, “The way an author helps his readers understand the high school essay scholarships 2013 meaning he seeks to convey is through context.”  As one seeks to essays on international human, find an answer to the meaning behind 1 Timothy 2:9-15 , one must always be conscious that one’s prejudice(s) can be so deep-seated that, in effect, a verdict is passed even before the evidence (the whole book) is considered. This mindset results in the impossibility of understanding the text. Yet again, the words of Kevin Giles is to the point about looking for an overall theme in the interpretation of evidence law essay any passage: The prohibition on essays women’s exercising authority and teaching in writing church in 1 Timothy 2:11-12 is addressed to a particular situation. This text is to be understood against the backdrop of false teaching that had erupted in Ephesus, which had led both men and women astray. Women had been allowed to teach in church, since Paul first founded the church several years previously, but now he forbids them from doing so.   Donald T. Essays Human! Atkinson, Magic, Myth and Medicine (New York: The World Publishing company, 1956), 272.  Charles Trombley, Who Said Women Can’t Teach? (South Plainfield, NJ: Bridge Publishing, Inc., 1985), 135-136.  Robert H. Stein, A Basic guide to Interpreting the Bible: Playing by the Rules (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994), 28.  Jaroslav Pelikan, The Vindication of evidence Tradition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984), 60.  Kathleen Morner and essays human, Ralph Rausch, “Hermeneutics,” NTC’s Dictionary of Literary Terms (Illinois: NTC Publishing Group, 1991), 97.
This dissertation applies the hermeneutic circle in order to identify the false prophets in the Gospel of Matthew. Application of this principle of interpretation is adopted in chapter four, which sets forth the essay for communication whole of Matthew in on international resource management order to understand its individual components, especially Matthew 7:15; 24:11, 24.  See Robert H. Stein, A Basic Guide to Interpreting the Bible: Playing by the Rules (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994), 17, where Stein writes: “The term ‘hermeneutics,’ . . . . Of A Floating Life Essay! simply describes the practice or discipline of interpretation; Thomas H. Olbright, Hearing God’s Voice (Abilene, TX: ACU Press, 1996), 185, where he says, “In a large sense, hermeneutics constitutes a theory about how one person explains or communicates a text to another.”  See Morner and Rausch, “Exegesis,” Ibid., 72,73, where they say, “Originally, the essays on international detailed analysis, explanation, and for communication, INTERPRETATION of passages in the Bible, or, by extension, of any literary or intellectual text. The term carries with it a sense of human resource management digging out the english homework meaning of a difficult passage.”  See Gordon D. Fee Douglas Stuart, How to Read the Bible for All It’s Worth (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1993), 25.  L. Berkhof, Principles of Biblical Interpretation (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1962), 12.  John H. Hayes and Carl R. Holladay, Biblical Exegesis: A Beginner’s Handbook, Revised Edition (Atlanta, Georgia: John Knox Press, 1987), 23..  Cedric B. Johnson, The Psychology of Biblical Interpretation (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1983), 20. See Appendix V, Dallas Burdette, “Passover Traditions in the First Century,” for an example of the application of the above principles—“linguistic, cultural, and historical background.”  Berkhof, Interpretation , 28-29. Resource Management!  See Hayes and Holladay, Exegesis , 66, where they write:
The best guide to the meaning of a word is the context in which it is used. This means, first of all, the immediate context of the passage in which it occurs. If a word has several meanings, one should explore the range of meanings and see how they fit or do not fit in the context. Life Essay! A broader context is the on international resource whole of the document in which the terms appear. One should explore how a term is used and what it denotes elsewhere in the document.  Johnson, Interpretation , 45.  See Dallas Burdette, “My Pilgrimage of Faith” [ON-LINE]. Available from creative, http://www.freedominchrist.net [accessed 28 August 2003], located under PERSONAL, in which I develop the essays on international evolution of my thinking in my Christian journey.
This article is evidence law essay informative in that I discuss basic principles of how to interpret. This essay discusses many of the “pit falls” that I encountered on essays management my spiritual journey as a boy preacher. To a great extent, my earlier spiritual journey could be described as “Gullible’s Travels.”  Stanley Fish, Is There A Text in This Class? (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1980), 172.  Fish does not use “interpretative community” but “interpretive community.”  Ibid. Writing! I disagree with Fish’s philosophy of the text being unstable. If I understand Fish correctly, he is a deconstructionist in his philosophy.
See Morner and Rausch, “Deconstructive Criticism,” NTC’s Dictionary , 50-51, where they explain “deconstruction”: An approach to LITERARY CRITICISM based on the views and procedures of the French thinker Jacques Derrida. Deconstructive criticism utilizes reader-centered theories of meaning that ignore reference to the author’s intention and deny the possibility of a terminate meaning or “correct” interpretation for any text. Deconstructive criticism makes possible innumerable contradictory but “undecidable” meanings. Essays Human Management! First becoming prominent in the 1970s, deconstructive criticism is central to POST-STRUCTURALISM.  See Justo L. Gonzalez and Catherine G. Gonzalez, Liberation Preaching: The Pulpit and the Oppressed (Nashville: Abingdon, 1980), 48-68. School Essay!  For an insightful article on the differentiation between Revelation and interpretation, see Leroy Garrett, “It Means What It Says,” Restoration Review 17, no. 4 (April 1975) : 68-71.  See Johnson, Interpretation , 42, where he captures, in concise language, the subjective biases of all interpreters: My contention is essays on international resource management that conflicting theological positions are in school homework part due to the fact that we all approach a text, sacred or secular, with our strong subjective biases. Even though we have a commitment to read the Bible on its own terms: and even though we want the Divine and human authors to speak for themselves, somehow we still come up with contradictory views on some issues.  For an excellent presentation of this concept, see Gonzalez and Gonzalez, “Difficulties in Hearing the Text,” in essays on international human management Preaching , 29-47.  Frederick W. Essay For Communication! Farrar, “Religious Hatred,” quoted in Carl Ketcherside, Mission Messenger 27, no. 6 (June 1965): 92.  Sidney Greidanus, The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1988), 71.  Garrett, “It Means What It Says,” 69.  Bernard Seeman, Man Against Pain: 3000 Years of Effort to on international, Understand and Relieve Physical Suffering (Philadelphia: Chilton Company, 1962), 96. See also Andrew D. White, A History of the creative writing programs Warfare of Science With theology in Christendom , vol., 2 (New York: George Braziller, 1955), 62, 63. Volumes 1 and 2 are combined in one volume.
See also Dr. Donald T. Atkinson, Magic, Myth and Medicine (New York: The World Publishing Company, 1956), 271-272, in which he too recounts this tragic story: Looking down on the new beautiful Princes Street of Edinburgh, Scotland, is Castle Hill. Here in 1591 a crime was committed which illustrates the old-time psychology. Up this hill, one bleak morning, was forcibly dragged Eufame MacLayne, a lady of rank and essays human management, refinement. A few minutes before, she had clung desperately to homework, her twin babies, but these had been torn from her by the crown bailiff. At the summit a stake had been driven in the ground and around it wood had been piled. As she knelt, chains were wrapped around her body and in less than an hour ashes was all that remained of Eufame MacLayne. This execution was not the result of mob violence, for the victim had been tried by due process of law and had been convicted. Evidence was advanced which proved that she had employed a midwife, “one Agnes Sampson to administer unto her a certain medicine for the relief of pain in childbirth contrary to resource management, divine law and in evidence contempt of the crown.” Eufame MacLayne’s fate had been sealed by precedent. Convention had make it an insult to the Deity to assist a woman in labor.
This was a crime which always drew the essays on international human management extreme penalty in medieval Europe. In 1521 Viethes, a Hamburg physician, was arrested for attempting to mitigate the pains of labor. By nature Viethes was generous and kind, and his patient, a frail woman, begged for relief. For Communication! Her entreaties reached the heart of this good man and he complied with her request. Immediately the wheels of the law began to turn and essays on international resource management, a conviction was soon obtained for school essay homework the crown. A few weeks later an unusual light shone one night over essays resource management Hamburg. They were burning Dr. Viethes.  Ibid., 122-125. See also Andrew D. White, Ibid., 62, 63.  See Monica Winefryde Furlong, “Anesthesia,” in Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2003 (CD Deluxe). © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation. High Scholarships!  Seeman, Man Against Pain , 122.  Andrew White, A History of the Warfare of Science With Theology in human resource management Christendom , Vol., 2 (New York: George Braziller, 1955), 63.  Donald T. Atkinson, Magic, Myth and Medicine , 274.  All citations are from the New International Version (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1996, c1984), unless stated otherwise.  For examples of hyperbole (bold exaggeration for 2013 emphasis), see Dallas Burdette, “Divorce Sayings in the Synoptics and Paul,” and “Biblical Situation Ethics and Graded Absolutism” [ON-LINE].
Available from http://www.freedominchrist.net [accessed 29 August 2003], located under caption SERMONS AND ESSAYS and then under the essays on international resource subheading DIVORCE AND REMARRIAGE.  See Goebel Music, “The New Testament Commands Us to Use Old Testament Psalms,” The Spiritual Sword 10, Number 1 (October 1978): 22-27.  Kevin Giles, “A Critique of the ‘Novel’ Contemporary Interpretation of 1 Timothy 2:9-15 Given in programs the Book, Women in the Church. Essays On International Human Resource! Part II,” The Evangelical Quarterly LXXII, No. 3 (July 2000): 207.  Robert H. Stein, A Basic Guide to Interpreting the Bible: Playing by the Rules (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1994), 57.  Kevin Giles, The Trinity Subordinationism: The Doctrine of God the Contemporary Gender Debate (Downers Grove, Illinois: Intervarsity, 2002), 206, 207.
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cobra law essay This guide is written for students who are following GCE Advanced level (AS and A2) syllabuses in English Language. This resource may also be of essays human management, general interest to language students on university degree courses, trainee teachers and anyone with a general interest in language science. On this page I use red type for evidence law essay, emphasis. Brown type is used where italics would appear in print (in this screen font, italic looks like this , and is unkind on most readers). Headings have their own hierarchical logic, too: Main section headings look like this. Sub-section headings look like this. Minor headings within sub-sections look like this. What do the human resource, examiners say about story friendship, this subject? In preparing this topic area candidates should study: conversational analysis; stylistic analysis of texts; historical and contemporary changes, as appropriate.
In particular they should examine: influential power (e.g. advertising, politics, media, culture) instrumental power (e.g. law, education, business, management).. One obvious feature of how language operates in social interactions is its relationship with power, both influential and instrumental. Neither rule nor law, neither discipline nor hierarchy sanctions influential power. Essays On International Resource Management! It inclines us or makes us want to behave in certain ways or adopt opinions or attitudes, without obvious force. It operates in such social phenomena as advertising, culture and the media. (Strictly, we are not coerced into buying what the advertiser shows us, nor will we suffer any penalty for our sales resistance.) Instrumental power is explicit power of the sort imposed by the state, by its laws and conventions or by the organizations for which we work. It operates in business, education and school english essay homework, various kinds of management. (In many, but not all cases, if we resist instrumental power, we will be subject to some penalty or in essays resource management, trouble.) Note: instrumental here does comes from the same root as the instrument we play to make music - they are related etymologically. Law Essay! But it has a quite different meaning today from instrumental as used to describe music. In your studying instrumental power, please do not for a moment think it has anything to do with the power of music.
In some spheres of social activity, such as politics or law, both kinds of power may be present at the same time: we are subject to laws (enforced by essays on international resource management penalties), but some legal processes, such as trial by creative writing jury, rely on attempts to persuade. Politicians impose laws, taxes, and bureaucratic systems (instrumental power) but seek to essays human management, influence us to endorse their policies or turn out to vote for them (influential power). They may wish to influence us to use our collective power to return them to office, where they will use their executive power to direct some aspects of school essay, our lives - a curious paradox of on international human resource, our system of parliamentary democratic representation. (That is they get us to give them the power to tell us what to do and how to live. And we really do have the choice, collectively, as we show when we vote for a change of government.) In looking at how power is exercised through language, you should be able to refer to real examples you have found, and explain these texts. But you should also have a theoretical approach that will enable you to interpret language data you are presented with in school essay homework, an exam. Among other things, you should look at pragmatics and speech act theory, lexis and semantics (forms and meanings), forms that include or exclude (insiders or outsiders), structures (at phrase, clause and discourse level), forms of address, phatic tokens , as well as structural features of speech, which may be used to exercise or establish power.
And in human, some contexts, you will need to be able to show how rhetorical devices are used to influence an six records life audience. Consider, for example, how conversational maxims may be adapted for reasons of expedience, rather than integrity. Does all power corrupt in language, as (according to Lord Acton) it does generally? Persuasive techniques in language. This guide looks at the different subjects that examiners specify, but there are many techniques that are common to various contexts.
In this section you will find some guidance on essays, these. As well as looking for them in texts that you study, you may try to use them in school essay scholarships 2013, texts that you produce - for example in original writing or editorial writing tasks. You may think of these primarily as devices in poetry, but they abound, consciously or unintended, in almost all spoken and many written texts, as when political reporters talk of a raft of on international resource management, measures. Satan (Andy Hamilton) in an episode (from 2001) of Old Harry's Game (a radio sitcom set in Hell) remarks of one of the school english essay, characters that he is shaking like a Millennium Bridge and of another that he has the willpower of Bill Clinton at a cheerleaders' convention. The first is a simile, the second a metaphor. Both were topical in human resource management, 2000, and exploit assumed attitudes in the audience - that we know (and are amused by) the six records of a floating essay, engineering problems of the Millennium Bridge (good to look at, perilous to walk on) and the reputation of President Clinton. George W. Bush uses it for on international human, more serious effect when (in a State of the Union address) he describes the American faith in freedom and democracy as a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. High School Essay! You will find these techniques not only in grand and serious contexts.
If you want to collect metaphors, listen to soccer reports on Radio 5 #45; some of the summarizers even have their own favourite stock of images. Stuart Hall can be relied on for these, whether he is resource management, using the dead metaphor School of Science for Everton FC or likening the soccer player Emile Heskey to a wildebeest. Careless speakers or writers may mix metaphors inadvertently, but some authors do it intentionally. 2013! Even Shakespeare does this, as when Hamlet proposes to management, take arms against a sea of troubles #45; presumably both the playwright and the Prince realize that this is essay for communication, a strange action. The audience sees it as a metaphor of an impossible struggle. (W.B. Yeats used this idea in a poem called Cuchulain's Fight With the essays, Sea ) Mixing metaphors can have comic effects, as when a character in Mel Smith's 1989 film, The Tall Guy , remarks of an attractive woman that: She's like a hungry leopard in full bloom.
In fiction, mixing metaphors in dialogue is a stock way to make the reader question the intelligence of a character. In other contexts it may come from the creative, attempt to compare or relate things others have said. Many years ago, the late Enoch Powell, warning about the essays on international human resource management, future effects of large#45;scale immigration referred to six records, rivers of blood running in the UK. On International! In January 2003 the UK Home Secretary David Blunkett referred to Britain as a coiled spring. In Any Questions (a radio programme in which various experts answer questions from the evidence, audience), Jonathan Dimbleby, the on international human management, host, first said, (summarizing others' comments), the country's like a coiled spring and this could spill over. Essay! then asked, [is] David Blunkett's coiled spring a tributary of essays human management, Enoch Powell's river of blood? Mr. Dimbleby appears to have seen that this is an of a floating inelegant mixing of metaphor, but his main purpose was, in posing the question, to relate the statements of others, who chose the original images. In rhetoric, a speaker may return to or develop a metaphor, to make an argument seem more compelling.
In John F. Kennedy's 1961 Inaugural Address to the American people, we find an extended metaphor of lighting a fire to give light to the world: The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and the glow from on international resource, that fire can truly light the world. Another powerful technique is to refer to, or even quote, a powerful phrase that the audience may already know. There is 2013, some risk in on international human resource management, this, as the creative, author needs to essays human resource, be sure that enough of the essay for communication, audience will be aware of the allusion or reference, unless the quoted phrase works well even if its origin is not known. In the on international resource management, lines quoted above, Kennedy seems to allude to the image, in St. John's gospel, of Jesus as the light of the world. Ronald Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, borrowed an image from John Gillespie Magee's poem High Flight to school english, explain the disaster in essays on international resource, 1986 when the essay, Challenger space shuttle exploded:
We will never forget them (the crew), nor the last time we saw them this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye, and slipped the surly bonds of earth, to touch the face of God. (Magee's poem begins: Oh, I have slipped the surly bonds of earth and ends . I've. Put out my hand and essays, touched the face of God.) In commenting on language data, you may find it hard to detect allusion #45; in a way it is almost impossible unless you know what it is to which the speaker or writer alludes. On the other hand, there are many contemporary texts in which a young person has more chance of detecting a reference than an older one. A good example is creative programs, a short feature (in the Guardian newspaper's tabloid supplement) that purports to on international management, be an essay short story about friendship extract from essays on international human, a chat forum, but is really a spoof.
In a January 2003 edition, one of the chatroom guests was supposed to be Kim Howells, a junior minister who has been in the news for attacking modern art. He rebukes the other users of the chatroom for their non#45;standard spelling, adding: I blame Mrs. Dynamite. The author intends the high school scholarships, reader to be amused by the way Kim Howells tries to show an awareness of youth culture, yet reveals his ignorance in changing the title from essays human management, Ms to Mrs (Ms Dynamite, as younger readers will know, is the stage name of the rap singer Niomi McLean#45;Daley.) Three#45;part structures and lists are memorable and resonant in many kinds of text. Here are some examples:
And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three. St Paul, 1 Corinthians 13.13 (King James Version, 1611) The grandest of these ideals is an unfolding American promise that everyone belongs, that everyone deserves a chance, that no insignificant person was ever born. George W. School Essay Scholarships! Bush, Inaugural Address, 2001 If you're a daring designer, a budding botanist or simply green#45;fingered, we want to hear from you. Alan Titchmarsh, Gardeners' World Live , BBC TV, June 2001. Lists of essays human resource, three are not so common in unprepared speaking, but you should look out for them in any language data you have to essay scholarships, study. A useful rhetorical device is to repeat a key idea or phrase #45; this may seem crude, but it may lodge in the minds of the audience. Management! We see it in a speech made by high school essay 2013 Harold Wilson, during the 1974 UK General Election campaign: This election is not about the miners; not about the militants; not about the power of the unions. Many writers, especially those who write for public speaking, will divide a sentence or clause into two balanced parts.
This was the basic principle of poetry in much of the ancient world. There are almost limitless examples in the pages of the King James Bible, which was translated to be a version for public reading. Sometimes the on international human resource management, second half echoes or develops the first half #45; this is synonymous parallelism . For Communication! Sometimes the two halves are opposed or contradictory, and essays on international human, this is life essay, antithetic parallelism or simply antithesis . We see this in some lines from George W. Bush's Inaugural Address, where he refers to human, US history as: . the story of a power that went into the world to protect but not possess, | to writing programs, defend but not to on international human resource management, conquer. In this example the thought of to protect but not possess, is carried further by to defend but not to conquer. Essay! In speaking these lines, there will be a pause after possess. For a more familiar example, look at resource, the British National Anthem: God save our gracious queen, | long live our noble queen.
Antithetic parallelism or antithesis. The first example comes from a speech of Winston Churchill, in which he challenges the Luftwaffe (the German air force): You do your worst #45; and we will do our best. A celebrated example comes from Kennedy's Inaugural Address (quoted above): And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for for communication, you. | Ask what you can do for your country. And we can see antithesis in George W. On International Management! Bush's images of America's faith in evidence, freedom and resource management, democracy, first as a rock, then, by school scholarships contrast, as a seed:
Through much of the last century, America's faith in on international resource, freedom and democracy was a rock in high school essay scholarships 2013, a raging sea. | Now it is a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. If you wish to make a statement, it may be a good idea to ask a question or series of questions to introduce it. This is a common technique in information leaflets, which often pose the question from the essays on international resource, reader's viewpoint #45; How can I protect my baby from high, common infections? and so on. It can also be powerful in on international resource management, political rhetoric #45; How can a Labour government raise standards in education? leading to an exposition of the writing programs, party's policy. For example, Welcome to the Labour Party , a booklet which gives information to new members, contains pages where statements are introduced by questions, each set out as a section heading, such as: How can I get involved?, What happens at essays human management, local policy forums?, Do I have to go along to a local policy forum to have my say? and What is the future?
Using the same initial consonant is a common ploy of poets and advertisers. It can be irritating if it's overdone, but makes lines quotable or memorable. In George W. Bush's inaugural speech we note f aith in f reedom and school english, r ock in a r aging sea. Winston Churchill, in his speech about the Luftwaffe addresses the management, Nazi leaders and refers to the Nazi party as the g risly g ang who w ork your w icked w ill. You can create some good effects by using similar words but with slight differences of form and of a floating life essay, meaning. Andy Bodle in a listings article for the film Rancid Aluminium does this by describing the film as part arthouse, part shithouse. Here are a couple of on international human, examples.
The first comes from Dorothy L. Sayers' Introduction to homework, her translation of essays on international human management, Dante's great narrative poem, Purgatory : Between the bishops who assure us that the family is the one and only seedbed of all the virtues, and story about friendship, the psychiatrists who warn us that it is essays resource management, a hotbed of all the vices, we hardly know how to advise any child to enter upon essay short story the hazard of existence. The second comes from essays human, Vladimir Nabokov's essay On a book Entitled Lolita . This is an appendix to his novel of the same name. In the essay, Nabokov claims (or pretends) that he can admire but cannot emulate: . the accuracy of judgment of those who pose the fair young mammals photographed in magazines where the essay for communication, general neckline is on international human management, just low enough to provoke a past master's chuckle and just high enough not to essay short story about, make a post#45;master frown. Broadly speaking, advertisers persuade their audience to adopt attitudes to lifestyle, products and services. It is essays on international human resource, rare to find advertising that seeks to influence explicitly or directly. Less rare are advertisements in which the link to writing programs, a product or service is human resource management, implicit or ambiguous. Consider a TV advertisement (May 2000) which depicts Aimee Mullins a model (who is writing programs, also a paralympic athlete, sprinter, and double below#45;the#45;knee amputee) preparing for the finale of a fashion show for Alexander McQueen #45; the advertisement was made for an Internet service provider, FreeServe, but did no more directly to advertise FreeServe than show the company name and logo. On International Human Resource Management! There is an oblique link to english homework, the name of the company in the idea of the model's freedom to run with the wild animals depicted in the fashion show. At the same time the advertiser skilfully links a possibly un#45;sexy technical service with ideas of beauty, fashion and positive discrimination. Advertising has a lexicon, which may change over time, but is fairly stable #45; new, improved, proven and other qualifiers are seen as reliable.
David Ogilvy in on international resource, Confessions of an Advertising Man (quoted by essay for communication Shirley Russell; Grammar, Structure and Style , Oxford, 1994, p. 177) identifies a basic lexicon of qualifiers such as: new, good, crisp, better, fresh, natural, fine, free , and essays human resource, of verbs such as: buy, give, taste, go, look, feel and for communication, use . Special registers (technical, scientific or pseudo#45;scientific) may be used for appropriate products. Torque, BHP, valve, ABS for cars or keramides, pro#45;B, hypoallergenic in essays on international management, personal hygiene products. Look out for special lexical uses according to product, image and target market. Pot Noodle #45; everything else is just pants. Pants is (or was in 2000) fashionable as a mild term of disapproval among young people (especially young men) who may be supposed to want food which is inexpensive, quick to make, and needs no special preparation or utensils. Advertising borrows and evidence, adapts structures and forms from texts of all kinds. Many broadcast advertisements are dramatic, with a narrative conducted through dialogue. Others may show a narrative by essays on international human management images alone, to the accompaniment of music and/or a voiceover. Can you think of school, examples? Puns, alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, rhyme and other kinds of comic or poetic wordplay are common in advertising. Ambiguity, irony and essays on international human, allusion (reference) are also powerful techniques.
Advertising often makes use of short texts #45; whether in print or broadcast media #45; where every word has to work hard (in this respect very much like poetry). It is six records of a floating essay, very common for on international human resource management, the advertiser to use words that belong to some other special lexicon, as if to establish a rapport with the school english essay, target audience. So a 2002 television advertisement for essays human, John Smith's Bitter (beer) opens as if it were a broadcast of an programs international diving event (the advertisement appeared shortly after the 2002 Commonwealth Games). After divers from other countries execute technically perfect dives, the British diver jumps in, making a great splash and almost losing his trunks, to rapturous applause and perfect marks from the judges. The commentator utters the phrase, which is the essays resource management, slogan of the campaign: top bombing. The non#45;standard noun, bombing , suggests something which is essay, typically male, fun and demotic #45; it is human resource management, unpretentious, aimed at people who have traditional ideas of bitter as a down#45;to#45;earth and blokeish drink, in contrast to continental lagers or drinks with other social pretensions. It is very easy to find special lexis in any advertisement. But in explaining how it works, you will need to creative writing programs, think about how far the copywriter is using a particular register, or feature of style, which in essays on international human resource, turn is six records of a life essay, related to essays human resource, the product brand and programs, image, and the attitudes or values of the essays on international human resource, audience. Evidence! Look at the following examples of extracts of text from adverts, culled from resource, a quick look through a selection of newspapers and magazines (the product and school, the producer appear in parenthesis after the advertisement text): The British Airways Sale. Go on.
Take off. Essays Human Resource! (Reduced#45;price flights/British Airways) Imagine a healthier fitter you. (Tanita body fat monitor) Move Mountains. (Sim City 4 PC/Dixons) Not so much a price as an creative writing invitation. (Flights to Spain/Iberia Airways) Every year 39,200 women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer. (Medical insurance/AXA PPP healthcare) Go Mobile. (Voyager laptop computer/Evesham Technology) A win, win, win, win, win, win situation. (6 months' free business banking/Barclays) Demon slashes all broadband set#45;up fees. (Broadband Internet service/Demon) Not even the taxman can catch it. (Saab 95 saloon) We don't need your tears we need teachers urgently (Voluntary Service Overseas) Lose weight, the healthy herbal way. (Weight Loss Aid/Herbal Concepts) Great tasting nutritious supplements. (Build#45;Up Nutrition/Nestle) Helps reduce and overcome smoking at your own pace. (NicoBloc) Always on call. (Day Night Nurse) Technology with style. (DWF614SS dishwasher/Smeg) It only takes a few seconds to realize a diesel can have Va Va Voom. (Renault Clio) Kurt Geiger for her. Essays Management! Paul Smith for him. Tax#45;free prices for you. (Airport shopping/BAA) Authentically French mellow cheese. (Cheese/Port Salut) Having your own ringtone saves you answering someone else's call. (Call Sign/BT) Look for the lexical words ( nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs ). What ideas do they suggest? Does the text suggest the ideas of good value (low price), of homework, style, status, sophistication, convenience, fitness and so on? The Iberian Airways advertisement repeats the idea found in many airline ads of good value, while at on international resource, the same time suggesting something personal about visiting Spain, through the high scholarships 2013, noun invitation #45; which we associate with parties and celebrations. The advertisement for BAA's Airport shopping works in a similar way: it refers to the low (tax#45;free) prices, yet targets its audience very precisely by naming the fashionable brands on sale #45; if we do not know what Kurt Geiger or Paul Smith makes, then the advert will pass us by. There is also an assumption that the brands appeal to the different sexes, which works in that the writer of this guide recognizes Paul Smith as a designer of formal clothes, but does not know Kurt Geiger. (The advertisement also has a three#45;part structure to point up the special lexis .) The advertisement for BT's Call Sign service will appeal to a wide audience, but until we know what a ringtone is, we are not likely to wish to have our own.
The meaning of the noun is self#45;explanatory #45; but here it moves from its original context of use (mobile phones) to the related context of fixed telephones #45; so the human, advertisement targets householders rather than predominantly young people with spending money. The Barclays advertisement uses a phrase that is a cliché or buzzword among business people: a win#45;win situation implies an arrangement that benefits people at essay 2013, either end, and challenges the received wisdom that if X gains then Y loses. So in using the essays, phrase, the advertiser keeps to a register familiar to high 2013, the business customer, while printing the adjective six times to indicate the number of months for which the free offer runs. Technology with style is one example of essays human resource management, a pattern familiar here #45; that suggests that the product has two things that the audience may think to high school essay scholarships 2013, be normally contradictory or oxymoronic (the idea of on international management, having your cake and eating it). Essay For Communication! Sometimes the opposition is of price and quality (as in the claim that good food costs less at Sainsburys). Here the advertiser contrasts functionality and on international human resource, aesthetic appeal, and claims that the brand in question (Smeg) has both of these at once. Essay! Similarly the advertisement for NicoBloc combines the idea of management, efficaciousness (it works) with that of its not being too difficult for the would#45;be non#45;smoker to stop smoking. This appears in the suggestion of reducing (consumption) before stopping altogether. The verb overcome has connotations of evidence, victory in battle, rather than the breaking of a habit or a simple change in behaviour. These is probably very apt, since the target audience for this advertisement may well have an extreme view, and see the attempt to stop smoking as akin to a great military action. (The advertisement comes from Healthy Times a magazine distributed, free to on international human resource, readers, by the retail chemists UniChem #45; so the school essay homework, audience has already been targeted.
Advertisements for products that help people stop smoking do of course appear in essays on international management, more general contexts, as in TV advertising.) This same contrast also appears in the Renault Clio advertisement #45; but here the lexis is more explicitly making the distinction, in diesel and Va Va Voom . The adjective diesel has immediate denotations of the essay short about friendship, known properties of this engine type #45; the engine has a longer life, is more dependable and gives better fuel economy, but takes longer to human resource, reach high speeds. The advertiser wants to suggest that the law essay, car nonetheless has a combination of style, flair, power and youth appeal (not normally associated with diesel engines). Rather than use any of these words, Renault has invented its own compound abstract noun #45; Va Va Voom . This is alliterative, and has an interesting sound #45; being quite memorable. The advertisers develop the image by association with, for example, the soccer player Thierry Henry #45; who is French, but lives and works in England, and is exceptionally talented and athletic. At the same time, M. Henry is shown in situations that suggest a caring and feminine side #45; with pets, sitting at home among soft furnishings, for instance. Essays Human! In this way the advertisements appeal to potential drivers of both sexes, and are highly specific to one make and model of car. Short About! By inventing the word, the advertisers are able to adapt it so that it carries exactly the essays on international human resource, suggestion they wish to make to the audience #45; it should have no prior negative connotations . One of the advertisements playfully suggests that the new term is part of the standard English lexicon by asking what is the French for Va Va Voom ? Does advertising have distinctive grammar ? Yes #45; in several ways. First, advertising, like poetry, often allows the high school essay scholarships 2013, author more licence to depart from standard forms than in other kinds of text. And second, it makes use of short forms, of essays on international human management, what Professor Crystal calls minor sentences . There is a connection with pragmatics , therefore, in that the advertiser makes very great assumptions about the audience.
It is acceptable to puzzle or intrigue in ways that would not be at all appropriate if the audience really depended on the advertisers' information. One very common technique is for the author to set nouns and noun phrases or verbs on high, their own, where the reader or listener supplies the missing elements by conjecture #45; rather as in interpreting notes, so that, for instance, does what it says on the tin is understood as this product meets the claims that are printed on on international resource, the side of the evidence, tin. This form may sometimes but not always resemble the forms used in headlines, so that it is especially suitable for adverts in essays resource management, newspapers. Here are some examples taken more or less at random from a trawl through some daily newspapers (January 2003): Happy New Rate Deals to remember Currys sale/Free delivery plus Buy now pay 2004 EMAIL, INTERNET TEXT MESSAGES Winter welcome Free servicing for 3 years Summer seats on sale new year new fares The confidence to succeed Precious metal for precious little. On their own, these do not tell you how typical they are.
A casual mental count suggests that, in these newspapers, the advertisements in which the first line (or text nearest the top of the display box) is not a grammatically complete structure (sentence or main clause) outnumber those that are complete in a proportion of at least three to one. But a more complete survey from a bigger sample would be a suitable task for about, research. Among the few complete structures are: i want extra MONEY Apply now How do you see yourself? Look at essays on international, the clues Travel with Eurotunnel from english essay, just £5. In the 1960s advertisers would often use grammatical conversion , taking a brand name (a noun) and using it as adjective, adverb or verb . This tendency has recently returned as in these examples: There is no attempt to resource management, alter the form of the word to correspond to its grammatical category, such as by adding an affix like #45;ish, #45;ic or #45;esque , nor of using an extra word: that's so like Suzuki how like Heineken. In the writing programs, UK, there are some state controls on what advertisers may or may not claim about essays on international human resource, their products.
Advertisers, therefore, often exploit the possibilities of connotation (suggested meaning) rather than strict denotation (stated meaning) and high scholarships 2013, imply that products have various merits, without saying so explicitly. One common way of doing so is to use pseudo#45;technical lexis or scientific names for everyday things. However, this is not desirable in on international management, all contexts. In cosmetic and pharmacological products, most advertisers will use scientific lexis to suggest efficacy, as in these examples: Perle de Caviar draws the essential elements of long#45;lasting beauty and a youthful complexion from the depths of the ocean. trace elements, amino acids, mineral salts, iodine and plankton. Combining a perfect balance of these precious elements, each Perle de Caviar product provides an intense thalassotherapy treatment designed to hydrate and regenerate. Regime elevates the use of six records of a, cosmetics to something complex, while the ® symbol suggests that there is essays on international human resource, something technically sophisticated in the product. It may really simply denote the registration of the trade name to protect against misuse. This pseudo science is not simply found in the advertisements proper but in evidence law essay, the joined#45;up marketing, so that people who apply and demonstrate the products are beauty therapists #45; which may imply similar learning, academic qualifications and status to, for example, speech therapists or physiotherapists.
The beauty therapist wears a white garment like a lab coat, implying some kind of likeness to a pharmacist. Compare the examples above with one designed for a scientifically qualified readership. Essays On International Human! This is an advertisement for Xalatan a 0.00#37;5 eye drop solution of law essay, latanoprost, licensed for on international human, use in evidence, March 2002, and advertised in The Pharmaceutical Journal of human resource, November 2002. The advertisement includes details of nine references to the product in writing programs, published scientific sources, followed by detailed prescribing information, divided under standard headings such as Presentation, Indication, Dosage and Administration, Contra#45;indications, Precautions, Side Effects, Interactions, and information about the drug's effects in Pregnancy, Lactation and for Driving, Overdosage, Pharmaceutical Precautions, Legal Category, Packaging Quantities and Basic NHS price and details of the resource management, Product Licence Number and school english essay homework, Holder . This degree of information distinguishes licensed pharmaceutical products from beauty treatments. In the latter case, the advertisers might wish us to believe that Laboratoires Garnier and essays human resource, the Ponds Institute are comparable to medical research institutions. In the essay, west, Ponds appears to have dropped references to management, the fictitious institute #45; a search on the Web leads to some amusing spoofs, though the Ponds Institute is still used in advertisements in the developing world. A register of pharmaceutical laboratories in evidence law essay, France (at www.pharmaxie.com) does not show Laboratoires Garnier under entries for the letter g. In relation to food and essays on international, drink, however, advertisers are usually keen to stress its naturalness. So while the product packaging will list all additives, flavourings and law essay, colourings, advertisements will identify the essays human resource, brand and basic food content, as in Filippo Berio/The World's Finest Olive Oil/Filippo Berio/Olive Oil/Pure Genius #45; the brand name and the principal ingredient appear twice, along with the adjective pure, to suggest the six records of a floating, idea that there is essays management, nothing but the natural oil in the bottle that the advertisement depicts.
A full#45;page advertisement for Cobra beer, in Sainsburys Magazine for evidence law essay, January 2003, shows lots of blank space, a small photograph of essays on international, two bottles of Cobra, the Web site address, and law essay, this text: If you like Cobra,/drink Cobra and The less gassy bottled beer that puts you under no pressure. There are some exceptions to this rule of thumb, however #45; vitamins and mono#45;unsaturated fats, for management, example #45; which advertisers do sometimes mention. Advertisers occupy the spaces where we are typically attending to other things #45; watching television, reading or browsing a magazine on the way to work, looking at posters on an underground train, platform or escalator, or from essay for communication, a car, bus or bicycle. They will try to appeal to all our senses and different language processing faculties at the same time. It is quite common for a TV advertisement to human management, feature any or all of these at the same time: musical track, sound FX, voiceover, dialogue spoken by character or celebrity in or out of role, static text, moving text or text spelling out letter by for communication letter on screen, with or without extra graphic embellishment . What we do, if anything with these, may vary from person to on international resource management, person #45; but is writing, something one can research. You can do this, for example, by showing advertisements to people (categorizing the people by on international management whether they have seen the advertisement before, and how often, as well as by other things like sex and age), then asking them whether they think the advert contains an example of each of the kinds of text that the researcher has identified. (It is possible to add some that are not there, as distractor questions, to eliminate some kinds of respondent.) A very good pragmatic approach is to consider the position and floating life, viewpoint that the audience is being asked to adopt. This can be something very simple, as in an assumption that we all want to save money. This assumption is very widespread among advertisers and marketers.
Regularly someone telephones me to ask if I would like to save a given figure on essays on international human management, my utility bills. My stock response is to say that I do not wish to save this amount (or even a lot more) to change something with which I am currently content, thinking it a fair price for a reliable service. For Communication! This often leads the caller to question whether I really mean what I say, and to revert to a script that stresses this potential saving. By no means all advertisements make this assumption. Others assume that the reader or listener has anxieties about his or her self#45;image, and that he or she can become more attractive by wearing the watch or clothes advertised, or driving a different car. On International Resource! An extreme (and offensive) example was a TV advert that featured a young man mounting a supermarket trolley and racing it around a supermarket. A female voiceover spoke the phrase: Inadequate car. (The advert is offensive in suggesting that the choice or ownership of a marque of car is the measure of a human being.) Various advertisers of mobile phones try to high school scholarships 2013, persuade existing owners that they need to replace a model that is not stylish and a likely cause of ridicule, as in essays human resource management, an advertisement series (shown on UK television) for Phones4U. In these adverts the comedian Paul Merton speaks a voiceover: We'll find the right phone for you. Does the advertiser consider how far the audience may resist the notion that there is a right phone for us? A more objective approach to pragmatics might be to consider what grammatical person or form of for communication, address advertisers use, if they try to speak directly to us.
Do they use imperatives (Look at the clues), do they make statements (We don't serve lobster in the directors' dining room) or do they plant noun#45;phrases (Free servicing for 3 years) and leave us to work out what to do about these? Discourse structures in advertising. Advertising is essays human management, highly derivative and imitative (if not parasitic or plagiarizing) in the genres, text types and structures it uses. In effect, any kind of essay for communication, text that exists for any other purpose may be the blueprint for an advertisement. (This is not a one#45;way relationship: dramatic narratives and on international human resource, comic animations often borrow structures and high essay scholarships 2013, techniques that first appeared in advertising. And there are many examples of resource, television or print fiction that started life as advertisements #45; the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles in the 1990s or Torchie the Battery Boy in the 1960s.) A very common general approach (for any broadcast medium and cinema) is to create narratives #45; which may be self#45;contained or episodic. While the advertiser may not wish to point out that these are narratives, this is not always the case.
A series of advertisements for the BMW Mini car uses the format of writing, stories with a plot consisting of three or four statements, read as voiceover with accompanying action #45; the subject of each sentence is usually New Mini, and each example ends with: The end. It's a Mini adventure. At the opposite extreme would be a series of advertisements produced by the agency McCann Erickson for Nescafe's Gold Blend brand of instant coffee. This campaign ran from November 1987 to 1993, containing twelve episodes released at the rate of one or two a year. The agency produced a compilation of the first eleven episodes before screening the conclusion. The story was adapted as a romantic novel, entitled Love Over Gold . An even longer#45;running series featured the OXO couple Katie and Philip, in a series of essays human management, domestic scenes. The Gold Blend series may have prompted the advertisers of the school essay homework, Renault Clio to make a series of advertisements featuring a French father and daughter (Papa and Nicole) into a more coherent narrative, ending with a wedding, which sends up the classic film The Graduate . In this advertisement, two entertainers, then at the height of on international human resource, their popularity (Vic Reeves and Bob Mortimer) played the jilted groom and the successful old flame who runs off with the girl. A Channel 4 poll showed this series to be the most popular of floating, all UK TV adverts, while other studies have claimed that the series was the most successful in terms of the audience's ability to identify the essays human, product advertised. As styles of TV broadcast have developed (say lifestyle programmes or reality shows), so advertisements have moved to essay, emulate them. So we see the home makeover and DIY show mirrored by on international advertisements for Homebase, in which Neil Morrissey and Lesley Ash appear as a couple (loosely resembling the characters they played in the sitcom Men Behaving Badly ) while post#45;watershed documentaries about sexual behaviour clearly have inspired the campaign (starting in 2002) for Pot Noodle (It's dirty but you want it) in which a young man visits various clubs and asks young women in underwear or bondage gear whether they do Pot Noodle, or in which a young woman (seemingly a girlfriend) accuses the young man of indulging in essay, his Pot Noodle habit. You can find many advertisements by going to the Web sites of the various agencies, or looking for named directors of commercials.
But two big portals worth visiting are: As a critique of advertising, you should look at Adbusters , at adbusters.org/home. The features of political language vary, as do its purposes. Where politicians interact with society generally, their purposes may be, to persuade voters with a party loyalty to turn out to vote; to resource, move a floating voter's party allegiance, or to make us adopt general political or social attitudes, so we support a given policy. Politicians may also use particular language forms when answering journalists' questions. Where politicians engage in language interactions with other politicians, they may use other particular forms #45; either loosely or under the rule of an school english essay arbiter, such as the Speakers in the UK House of Commons and the US House of Representatives. Resource! And finally, a contemporary feature of political language use is what is known as spin #45; providing information to six records life, the media in such a way as to favour a desired interpretation, not explicitly stated. Persuasive language techniques, especially in speech, take their name from the Greek noun for a professional speaker, rhetor (the Latin equivalent is on international human, orator ). Many of six records of a floating essay, these techniques are found in on international human resource management, written records of speeches in the ancient world #45; such as Jesus' use, in Matthew's and Luke's gospels of parable, antithesis and patterned speech which even survive translation into English: Blessed are those who mourn, | for they shall be comforted.
Blessed are the pure in heart, | for they shall see God. We have similarly ancient records of political speeches, such as those of Demosthenes, that show the use of techniques that are as effective today, as they were in the past. Max Atkinson, of Oxford University, suggests that political speechwriters consistently rely on a range of powerful techniques: alliteration, allusion, antithesis (inversion), asking questions and suggesting answers, lists (especially of short about, three items), metaphor (especially extended metaphor), parallelism, parenthesis, repetition and redundant questioning. To see these in on international human management, action, you should look at examples of speeches written for politicians, and of a floating life essay, find out how these work. Obtaining example data for on international human resource, this purpose is essay short story about, very easy. You can use the official record of the UK House of on international human resource, Commons. Creative Writing Programs! (This is called Hansard after Thomas Curson Hansard, who began producing reports unofficially, and put his name to the record in 1829.
Hansard's reports were so accurate that they became the standard record on merit. At the start of the 20th century the UK government established an Official Report. It dropped the essays on international human, Hansard name, but popular usage preserved it, and in 1943 the floating life, name was officially reinstated, even though the report now has no connection with the Hansard family.) Hansard 's reports are available in print and on the World Wide Web, as are records of proceedings in the parliaments of many other countries (which also use the name Hansard ). In the UK, the BBC has a digital television channel ( BBC Parliament ) that broadcasts debates and meetings of select committees #45; from which you can make recordings and on international human, transcripts. The federal government and english homework, state governments in the USA also publish the text of speeches, such as the President's Inaugural Address and essays human resource management, State of the short story friendship, Union speeches. Once you have found your transcript, what can you do with it? One exercise is to look for rhetorical techniques in action. Consider this extract from a speech made by on international human resource the late Harold Wilson, the scholarships, Labour leader, before the 1974 UK General Election: This election is essays management, not about the miners; not about the militants; not about the power of the unions: it's about the school english essay, disastrous failure of three and a half years of Conservative government which has turned Britain from the essays, path of prosperity to the road of ruin. What is Mr.
Wilson doing here? We find. repetition of the floating, formula not about, and antithesis between is essays human, not about and it's about. Path of prosperity and road of ruin repeat the same form, use alliteration and are related metaphors. In John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address from January 20, 1961, we find an extended metaphor (of lighting a fire to high, give light to the world) and a concluding antithesis: The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and on international management, the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country.
The last two sentences use many of the same lexemes , but transpose (switch) the short, subject and the indirect object. (You can find the whole text of the speech and an audio recording [Real Audio] to download at the JFK Library and Museum, hosted by the University of Massachusetts Department of essays human, Computer Science at: For a humorous allusion, consider Margaret Thatcher's: To those waiting with bated breath for that favourite modern catchphrase the floating, 'U#45; turn', I have only one thing to say: You turn, if you like; the lady's not for turning! There is wordplay on the homophones U#45;turn/you turn, and a reference to Mrs. Thatcher's Iron Lady nickname, while the final phrase is a painful pun on the title of Christopher Fry's play (about a witch): The Lady's Not for Burning . Ronald Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, borrowed an image from John Gillespie Magee's poem High Flight to explain the essays on international human resource, disaster in 1986 when the Challenger space shuttle exploded: We will never forget them (the crew), nor the last time we saw them this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye, and slipped the of a floating life essay, surly bonds of essays on international management, earth, to touch the face of God. Now look at these longer extracts (from which some of the examples above come), and see if you can find other ways in high 2013, which the writer (not the same person as the speaker, usually) uses specific techniques to achieve particular effects. In the long history of the world only a few generations have been granted the essays on international human, rle of defending freedom in school essay 2013, its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility; I welcome it.
I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and on international human management, all who serve it, and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. Evidence Law Essay! Ask what you can do for your country. I'll tell you what happens with impossible promises: you start with far#45;fetched resolutions; they are then pickled into essays on international human management a rigid dogma cold. And you go through the years, sticking to that: outdated, misplaced, irrelevant to the real needs. And you end in the grotesque chaos of a Labour council #45; a Labour council #45; hiring taxis to scuttle round a city, handing out redundancy notices to its own workers. Law Essay! I'm telling you now: no matter how entertaining, how fulfilling to short#45;term egos #45; I'll tell you and you'll listen #45; I'm telling you, I'm telling you #45; you can't play politics with people's jobs and people's services. Parliamentary and unparliamentary language. In the essays, UK Parliament, a range of school essay, special language features marks proceedings.
These include: a special lexicon and forms of address, disallowing personally abusive epithets use of special structures Parliamentary privilege #45; freedom from essays on international human resource, liability for slander rules for taking and essay, holding turns procedures for supportive and essays on international resource management, explicatory interventions submission to the arbitration of the chairman or woman, the Speaker and Deputy Speakers. David Crystal ( Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language , p. 378) suggests also that maxims of conversational theory do not apply to parliamentary dialogue. Other participants or commentators do not assume that speakers are telling the truth, are speaking clearly or with relevance. This may need some clarification. In some ways, debate is like social conversation #45; people speak in evidence, sequence, respond to essays human resource management, each other and develop ideas. And outside of occasions when MPs adopt ritual enmities (Prime Minister's Question Time or the presenting of a new draft bill, say), the speakers may follow cooperative rules and observe conversational maxims. But they have other motivations than the success of the essay for communication, conversation #45; and essays resource management, (in pragmatic terms) may want the exchange not to be successful, that is in coming to an accommodation. For an exhaustive discussion of how different theoretical models usefully explain parliamentary discourse, have a look at Chris Christie's Politeness and the Linguistic Construction of floating essay, Gender in Parliament: An Analysis of Transgressions and Apology Behaviour at www.shu.ac.uk/wpw/politeness. In this article, Chris Christie effectively qualifies Professor Crystal's assertion, as she does see what happens if one uses models from Pragmatics (specifically politeness theory) to essays on international management, explain Parliamentary exchanges. The UK parliament has a s pecial lexicon #45; something you will find in the political systems of many states. This includes terms denoting the institutions, practices and officials of the parliament #45; things like bench (back bench, cross bench, front bench), Black Rod, speaker, under#45;secretary, whip (noun and essay short about, verb).
This lexicon is very extensive (there are many guides available to explain the meanings of terms). Some are descriptive and more or less self#45;explanatory, such as: Committee of Selection, Disclaiming a Peerage and Prime Minister's Questions (though here we need to know that the questions are asked of or to, but not by, the Prime Minister, who gives the answers). Others are opaque #45; we need to know more information in order to understand the meaning, as with: 1922 Committee, Another Place, Chiltern Hundreds, Hansard and I Spy Strangers . On International! You can find explanations of short friendship, these and other terms on various A to essays human, Z guides, but if you want to know the meaning of essay scholarships 2013, these particular terms they are as follows ( Hansard is explained above): Below is on international human management, a list of for communication, further words and phrases which have a special meaning in essays on international human resource management, the context of Parliament. How many do you know? Check the BBC's, or Parliament's own, A to Z guide to find out essay about what they mean. Go to: Any hours motion. Below the gangway.
Cabinet Office Secretariat. Chairman of Ways and Means. Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Chancellor of the exchequer. Chief whip (government) Clerk of the Parliaments. Contempt of Parliament. Crossing the Floor.
Disclaiming a peerage. Early Day Motion. Father of the human resource management, House. I Spy Strangers. Journal of the essay, Commons. Leader of the House. Early Day Motion. Father of the House. I Spy Strangers. Journal of the Commons.
Leader of the House. Lord Privy Seal. Orders in Council. Orders of the Day. Parliamentary Private Secretaries (PPSs) Points Of Order. Prime Minister's Questions. Printed Paper Office. Private Bill Office. Private Member's Bills. Private Notice Question.
Public Accounts Committee. Public Bill Office. Readings of Bills. Recesses and Recalls. Serjeant at Arms. Ten Minute Rule Bill. Forms of address may confuse the outsider. Simple forms include my honourable Friend, the human management, honourable Gentleman/Lady or the honourable Member for Finchley . These denote an MP simply #45; other members are supposed to six records of a floating life, know who represents each constituency (electoral area). A friend is resource, usually of the same parliamentary party as the person who uses this epithet.
If the MP is a Privy Councillor (usually a former minister), then he or she is the right honourable Lady or Gentleman . If the essay for communication, MP is a barrister (as many are) he or she may be a learned Lady or Gentleman . The Speaker and essays on international human, Deputy Speaker chair debates. Remarks should be primarily addressed to them, using the formula Madam/Mr. Short Story! Speaker or Madam/Mr. Deputy Speaker. For example, here is a comment from Hansard for 21 January 2003, in which Mike O'Brien (Parliamentary Under#45;Secretary of State for essays on international resource management, Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs) refers to Ann Clwyd: I pay tribute to the work of my hon. Friend the Member for creative writing programs, Cynon Valley. Human Resource! (In Hansard hon. is the standard abbreviation for honourable.) Directly addressing another person with the second person pronoun (You) is law essay, disallowed and may earn a rebuke from the Speaker, as in this exchange: Mr. Prescott: You might be #45; perhaps that is new new Conservatism #45; but you should have a chat to your mate on the Front Bench. Mr.
Deputy Speaker: Order. I am sorry to stop the Secretary of State's speech, but I would be grateful if he would use the correct parliamentary language. In this case the Speaker signals his disapproval and on international resource management, calls Mr. Prescott to attention with the evidence, call: Order. Essays Human Resource! This is technically a command , even though on occasions a rowdy House ignores it initially. Interestingly, he says nothing about the mate on high essay scholarships, the Front Bench #45; so Mr. Prescott might have escaped rebuke, had he said, the honourable member for North Wiltshire should have a chat with his mate on the Front Bench, the [right] honourable member for X. Mr. Prescott's error is to use second person you, and essays resource management, speak directly to Mr.
Gray. However, in choosing among possible alternative forms in a given context, speakers may illustrate pragmatic rules or principles #45; perhaps using a polite formula to cover hostility or aggression, while in essay, a naturally friendly exchange a less explicitly courteous form may be acceptable. Also, even when a speaker refers to his or her honourable friend, he or she is technically addressing the Speaker, while the honourable friend is in the third person. In the on international human resource, House of Commons speakers may assert things which elsewhere would allow others to sue them for libel #45; this is Parliamentary Privilege . On the other hand swearing (of almost any degree) and calling other speakers liars are formally disallowed. The Speaker asks any Member who breaches these rules to withdraw the remark. If he or she persists, the Speaker may ban the offender from the House for a given period. Short About Friendship! The Commons has other rules defining contempts, such as giving false evidence to a Select Committee, threatening MPs about how they vote , and offering bribes . To vote, members go through a lobby. If they support a motion, they go through the Aye (yes) lobby ; to oppose it, they enter the No lobby . To give the essays on international management, result, the Speaker states the essay homework, number of votes for essays management, Aye and No , and says that either the Ayes or the Noes have it. In a debate, the Speaker of the House calls MPs to essay for communication, take a turn . The holder of the turn may allow another speaker to essays human resource management, interrupt his or her speaking. The new would#45;be speaker may ask, Will you give way? The MP who is speaking may agree to for communication, this, using the form: I will give way.
Etiquette dictates that the new speaker should make a brief contribution before allowing the on international human resource management, first speaker back. This is a highly formalized version of turn taking. Of course, on many occasions, the person who has the floor will refuse to allow the interruption, for reasons of time or policy. MPs may not read aloud written speeches during debate, though they may use notes. They are not allowed to read newspapers, magazines and letters.
They may not make use of six records floating life, visual aids, such as diagrams and maps. Short slogans, like those in advertisements, often mark the speech of politicians answering questions from journalists (or their opponents). Essays Human Resource! These are repeated in such a way as to persuade the listener of their truth or reason. For example, in defending policies which apparently increased unemployment in creative writing programs, the UK but raised the value of the currency, Mrs. Thatcher coined the phrase: There is essays on international resource management, no alternative. There obviously were alternative suggested policies but denying their existence made them seem impractical.
Whether or not they were really impractical is not the linguist's concern: we are interested in six records floating essay, the linguistic means by which Mrs. Essays On International Human! Thatcher justified her dismissal of them. A very simple but effective sound bite is the name New Labour . New is well known as an effective qualifier in school english, advertising, and the UK Labour Party in the 1990s was keen to distance itself from the (supposedly unelectable) Labour Party of the on international human management, 1980s. Constant repetition of the name made it stick. The Conservative Party, then in government, attacked New Labour in the 1997 election campaign with the slogan New Labour, New Danger. Arguably, this reinforced the idea that Labour had changed and helped the party win the election. (broadcast, print, new technologies) While any text may be influenced by the maker's preconceptions and world view, many media texts arise from an explicit intention of promoting given values or attitudes, whether sincerely, because the six records floating life essay, author believes in them, or cynically, to attract an audience. As students of language, you have no interest in this #45; your concern is the language features in which these attitudes are embodied or expressed . It may be helpful not to think of these preconceptions as bias, since this implies disapproval. They are, rather, the speaker's or writer's outlook, assumptions or editorial stance . You should be aware that certain media texts proclaim and resource, admit these underlying attitudes #45; opinion columns or current affairs broadcasts explicitly adopt such a stance.
But others, such as reporting, may aspire to neutrality, yet display the author's value systems by creative programs choices of lexis or current metaphors . For example: Do we read of refugees, economic migrants or asylum seekers ? Are they bogus , and are they passing through open (or about#45;to#45;be#45;open) floodgates ? (How often do you meet floodgates in a literal, rather than metaphorical sense?) Are those who resist the state guerrillas, freedom fighters or terrorists ? Does a writer introduce ideas of legality to confer (dis)approval, so legal intoxicants (alcohol, tobacco) are distinguished from those that are illegal, and on international human resource management, so referred to as drugs . New media texts may reveal very different attitudes, but in similar ways #45; they, too, have distinctive lexis and metaphors. Individual expression rather than central editorial control may permit greater language diversity. Perhaps influential power is less monolithic, but appears in trends and creative, fashions. There is plenty of space for critics #45; the World Wide Web abounds with sites that proclaim why X sucks , where X is on international resource management, a powerful business corporation.
Lexical choices reflect shifts in subjective meaning or connotation or contemporary attitudes, so that they carry a sense of approval (approbation) or disapproval (pejoration). They may also be euphemistic , appearing as an acceptable substitute for some word or phrase that the writer or speaker thinks too strong or direct #45; as when the inadvertent killing of school scholarships 2013, soldiers by essays on international human management their own allies or compatriots is friendly fire, and the killing of civilians is collateral damage. Political correctness (as a linguistic rather than social attitude) represents an attempt to find neutral terms. While PC language is often a subject for ridicule, it arises from a sensitivity to the connotations or implications of more common forms. It is worth paying attention to recurring forms #45; how often does anyone talk about addressing the issues (in the loose sense of talking about six records of a essay, things or sorting them out). Context is very important #45; some areas of the media will use traditional and resource, quite literary forms to suggest seriousness and dignity, as, say, on Alistair Cooke's Letter from America , broadcast on BBC Radio 4. Presenters of children's programmes on BBC1, BBC2 and CBBC will use forms closer to those of everyday speech among young people #45; or will they? Perhaps this is generally true, but they will have their own taboos #45; so they will not normally refer to sex, violence, gambling and alcohol, or swear and blaspheme. We can apply the theories of pragmatics to language use in evidence, the media #45; but should note some special features of how they work. Essays On International! A simple example might be a political interview, broadcast on essay, radio or television.
What the listener or viewer might miss is an understanding of essays, how far the speakers are aware of the wider audience , and writing programs, how far the questions and answers are, or are not, spontaneous, as the management, interviewee may have seen them before the interview is recorded. Another complicating factor is the effect of editing , where an interview is recorded for essay story about, later broadcast #45; this can remove the sense of on international human resource management, two or more people observing the cooperative principle or exhibiting politeness . In the case of broadcast texts generally, one should consider the relationship between the author or the publisher and the audience. Take news broadcasts, for example. We are familiar with the short about friendship, convention of a newsreader's sitting down at or behind a desk, but not all newsreaders do this. Some newsreaders greet the audience: Good evening, here is the news, while others say This is essays on international, [name of evidence, news organization] news or simply: The six o'clock news from the BBC. Even things like the newsreaders' clothes may be important #45; suits and ties are common (for men) in the west and in the developing world, but in some countries newsreaders wear traditional or culturally significant clothes. Human Management! This is something very easy to study: record a series of broadcasts on radio and TV over a day or two #45; if you have digital TV and radio, you can record bulletins from a much wider range. Then study each and note down how they do certain things.
For example: How many are there #45; one, two, more and for communication, of what sex? What do they wear? Do they sit, stand, move, stay still and on international human resource, so on? Do they acknowledge each other? How do they introduce reports from other correspondents? How do they address the unseen audience? Do we see filmed footage (on TV news)?
Do we see any graphic images or captions? Do we see text giving people's names? These are just a few ideas #45; you should be able to think of of a life, many more. Once you have noted down the information, you might like to arrange it, say in a table. Now you can consider what, if anything, this tells you about the kinds of human resource management, interaction going on. To take one example Channel 4's seven o'clock (p.m.) news bulletin on Saturday February 8th, 2003 carried a report on the pay rise awarded to the Lord Chancellor, Derry Irvine. To show the value of this rise (£22,000), the broadcaster used on#45;screen graphics showing what this amount would buy (a teacher's salary, so many bottles of claret and other things), while displaying an animated image of a fruit#45;machine bearing the name: Derry's Jackpot. Leaving aside the question of how the evidence law essay, viewer may feel about the news story here, we may consider how the use of essays human, these techniques affects that view.
The image of the essay, fruit machine may be significant to management, some parts of the audience, but may give offence to others, who disapprove of gambling. We may ask whether the school essay, broadcaster should use any images or animations to suggest the essays on international resource, idea of an unmerited benefit and whether the fruit machine animation makes the story clearer. Should the story be left to speak for itself? Or is some kind of evidence law essay, editorial slant inevitable? We can apply similar considerations to essays on international resource, other spoken media texts #45; say the way in which a programme host talks to a guest on a phone#45;in quiz or similar activity. On a TV game show, for example, we may see the host's supporting the participants to avoid their being unduly humiliated or, worse, not keeping to the programme's format and structure. Recent broadcasts, of the so#45;called Reality TV genre, are quite different #45; in many of these, there is no such protection or nurturing of the participants. Of A Life! Instead they are subject to insult by the hosts or other participants. It is essays on international human management, relatively easy to study grammar , by looking at very specific features of language data such as verb tenses and pronoun choices #45; these can become conventional in essay short about friendship, certain forms or genres, and harden into a kind of essays on international human management, style.
So, with broadcast news, we will be familiar with the forms in: Fifty#45;three people died when their bus collided with a train in central China early this morning. The clause structure is subject + verb (past imperfect tense) + adverbial . This is an effective model or structure because the grammatical subject also signals the subject of the story (the victims of the crash), then says what happened, then gives information about how and why it happened, or further information about the circumstances of the event. Essay About Friendship! If we look at. The Prime Minister flew to France this afternoon for a meeting with President Chirac. On International Human Resource Management! we can see that this is school essay, more or less the same structure. Some kinds of text, like reportage, use formulas like this, because the writers work at speed and essays on international human resource management, are meant to essay short story, publish the story rather than create literary work. Do persuasive media texts have distinctive grammatical forms that reinforce their tendency to persuade? Perhaps.
What might these be? Well, I have just used one in the two previous sentences #45; taking what might be declarative sentences and recasting them as questions and answers . Qualifiers can be used, as their name implies to qualify the meaning of verbs and nouns #45; so that our view is affected #45; which really takes us back into semantics and stylistics . Are there distinctive structures for persuasive texts in the media? First, we may want to identify what such persuasive media texts might be. Some are easy to name, as they are explicitly intended to alter our view #45; as with party election or political broadcasts, editorials in essays on international resource, newspapers and campaigns, such as the campaign in evidence, 2001 by the News of the World (a UK Sunday newspaper) to on international human resource, introduce Sarah's Law (the equivalent of the essay, US Megan's Law, here named after murder victim Sarah Payne), such that families could know the identities of convicted paedophiles living near them. Other texts may have less obviously persuasive qualities #45; such as a documentary broadcast that leads the resource management, audience to some kind of high school essay 2013, position or view. Sometimes the on international human resource management, text will seek to persuade through ridicule, using the structure and style of some other kind of creative writing programs, text, but subverting it. What are the structures for these texts?
Editorials may be a few hundred words in length #45; a headline, a simple introduction, an elaboration of essays on international, argument with examples, leading to a simple conclusion. While the lexicon and style may vary according to the target readership of the six records floating life, newspaper, the human, structure is more or less the same for different kinds of newspaper. The party election or political broadcast in the UK is limited in time to a few minutes #45; so the writers have developed structures like extended advertisements. The extract below comes from a 1994 party political broadcast for the Labour Party, which had a running time of 4 minutes 40 seconds: [Opening shot: Time#45;lapse photography of the high school, sun rising over essays human management, the Palace of Westminster] TONY BLAIR: [voice#45;over] It is an honour to lead this party. Essay Scholarships! I accept it with excitement.. [cut to shots of Blair reviewing papers in the back seat of a car] .. Essays On International Resource! but also with humility, and with a profound sense of the responsibility that is placed upon me. [cut to school, someone adjusting the rear#45;view mirror to show Blair] [Cut to Radio Two studio] VOICE#45;OVER: [station identifier] Radio Two #45; Jimmy Young.
JIMMY YOUNG: And in the studio with me now, the new Leader of the Labour Party, Tony Blair. Good Morning Tony. TONY BLAIR: Good Morning Jim. [Cut to vox pops] VOX POP 1: Tony Blair has a sense of vision. VOX POP 2: You know what they say about politicians, they never look you in the eye. He certainly does. VOX POP 3: I feel I can trust him. [Cut to Blair talking to camera; caption The Rt.Hon. Tony Blair MP Leader of the human resource management, Labour Party]
This is more complex than a newspaper editorial. The editorial has a common theme, but also may have a reasonably clear argument, using examples to illustrate it. In the broadcast, there is law essay, still the common theme, but there is not a simple or clear line of argument, rather a series of elements that are assembled loosely. The writer relies on the audience to supply the connections, so that we do not have an obvious sense of someone's telling us what to think. The image of the sunrise and the recording of Tony Blair's accepting the leadership of the party both suggest the idea of change #45; in 1994 the Labour Party was trying to essays on international resource, persuade the British electorate to return Labour to power.
We can see how the scholarships 2013, writer first shows Tony Blair or has him speaking on a voice#45;over, but does not have him speaking straight to camera until some way into human resource the broadcast. The party political broadcast must have quite a distinctive style, since it lends itself to comic treatment. Evidence Law Essay! A search on the World Wide Web will turn up many spoof broadcasts, including several Monty Python Sketches. Essays On International Human! The extract below comes from a broadcast (November 2001) of the for communication, ruling People's Action Party of Singapore and published on the party's Web site at www.pap.org.sg. It is far simpler than the Labour broadcast above: In two days' time, you will be casting your votes. Before you vote, ask yourself this question: in human, this economic downturn, who can help you find jobs? Nobody can say when our economy will recover. The US is fighting a war against terrorism #45; in Afghanistan and in the US itself.
If the war goes badly, the global recession could drag on. Singapore could then take one and a half to two years to six records of a, recover. This is why I have called for elections now, as I want your strong mandate for essays management, our programme to save and create jobs for you. JOBS TODAY, JOBS TOMORROW. I am especially concerned for older Singaporeans. They have families to look after. They find it harder to find and essay short friendship, fit into new jobs. This is true of most older workers, factory workers, office workers, professionals too. How do we help you? First, let us try to save existing jobs.
Next, let us help retrenched workers find new jobs. Thirdly, for the longer term, we must create more jobs. This broadcast is no more than a speech #45; we do not (on the Web document) have an indication of what might be shown on TV or if it is a radio broadcast only, but it seems to be the text of a speech by the leader. Essays On International Resource! In the Labour broadcast, Tony Blair eventually speaks about the economy and jobs #45; but here the speaker moves straight to these subjects, without any real preliminaries. There is no suggestion of essay short friendship, how to create jobs, but the noun is repeated many times. The notion of resource, a canon of classic works of art has not gone away, but is in creative tension with alternative contemporary visions. We cannot readily call these modern since this label has been appropriated for works from the early 20th century, and school essay 2013, post#45;modern smacks of the 1980s. Some works, hailed in the moment of publication or exhibition as masterpieces, are quickly forgotten. Nevertheless, most developed societies allow space for vigorous public debate about human resource management, art and culture.
And we are comfortable with a distinction between popular, lowbrow or commercial music, writing and so on, and serious, classical or highbrow art. Culture, especially popular culture, exerts a massive influence on how people think and see the creative, world. And this is reflected in essays human resource, a range of language forms. Essay! When we need comfort, our friends tell us that they are or will be there for us. Unless we are pedantic we do not ask where there is. Essays Management! Soap operas and high essay scholarships 2013, advertisements present us with tidy versions of real life scenarios and on international human resource, the language forms we need to understand or endure them: a lexicon for our troubles and short story friendship, problems, helpful phrases and even extended discourse structures or paradigms for coping. Have a good cry we are told, because we have to on international human resource management, grieve (a metaphor of high 2013, pressure which must be released before it does harm, often appears). You owe it to yourself or because I'm worth it express positively attitudes that seem far less attractive when called selfish or narcissistic. The fictional trial of a character for a topical crime (rape, wife beating, road rage) may provoke intelligent reflection leading to greater understanding. But it may be so plausible and convincing that it replaces proper public debate. What kinds of persuasive texts might there be in the general category of essays resource management, culture?
These would include satire, polemical writing, poetry and theatre . While some legal processes are used to enact power, others are devised to allow lawyers to persuade a judge or a jury, within an adversarial system of essay scholarships, persuasion. This has its own distinctive language forms, and on international resource, is much more constrained by rules than other kinds of creative writing, persuasion #45; so much so that failure to obey the rules can overturn the decisions of a court. David Crystal ( Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language , p. 374) distinguishes between the language of the legislature (Parliament) which institutes a legal text (sets down the law in written form) and human management, the language of the law essay, judiciary (law courts and on international resource management, judges) which interprets and evidence law essay, applies it. The law also has its own lexicon: this preserves archaic terms, perhaps to promote respect for its processes or intimidate. While this continues to be acceptable in criminal law, in April 1999 civil courts saw a change in their lexicon.
A Mareva injunction (which prevents the essays human management, sale of floating life essay, assets during litigation) became a freezing injunction , in camera became in private , a minor or infant became a child , a plaintiff became a claimant , inter partes became with notice , ex parte became without notice , while pleading was replaced by statement of case . These changes were made on the recommendation of Lord Woolf, the Master of the Rolls , whose own title reflects the archaic origin of much legal lexis. The Norman Conquest established French (which included many Latin loanwords) as the management, language of law and politics. Later, Latin was used, and English only replaced Latin as the of a floating essay, language of English law in the 17th century. For this reason Latin phrases abound ( mens rea, ab initio, certiorari, ex parte ) as do French loanwords ( lien, plaintiff, tort ). To show the difference between areas where one is under obligation and those where one has some room to choose, the law makes use of modal verbs such as may, must, shall . To establish its general applicability the law uses pronouns such as all and whoever or generic nouns such as vehicle or person . To simplify or modernize the language of the law seems desirable, but may be problematic. Ordinary people may have a better sense of understanding and therefore more respect for laws expressed simply and plainly. But some apparently obscure terms may have been coined precisely to express subtle or unusual meanings or distinctions. And if the law uses the common register, then an essays human resource management updated term may itself become obsolete, as its common meaning misleads people about its legal sense. Fiona Kerr, who used to practise law, gives this example of what she calls the difference between lawyer#45;speak and normal language: The general public use murdered interchangeably with killed, no#45;one ever says he manslaughtered him.
Consider also what most people mean when they refer to personal property as compared with my understanding of it as everything which isn't land (roughly speaking). When Mrs Bloggins does her own will and leaves her personal property to essay story friendship, the nice lady who looked after her cat whilst she was in essays on international human resource, hospital, she may intend to leave her collection of tin ornaments and a few skirts, but is she intending to also bequeath her savings to said nice lady or did she intend to leave them to her son, along with the house? Only a Judge can decide and by the time he has, there won't be any savings left for the winning litigant to english essay, spend #45; and the loser could be in debt. Law is often expressed in lengthy sentences marked by resource management lists of items to ensure that nothing is creative writing, missed out on international human resource management which the law should cover, so we know later whether or not it applies in a certain case. Parentheses or subordinate clauses appear frequently to clarify a preceding clause. Programs! Alternatively a number may refer to on international, a footnote, where a phrase is more extensively or unambiguously defined. Legal documents are notorious for hyper#45;complex syntax , with several degrees of subordination of clauses . They also allow, often without clarifying punctuation, lengthy adverbial phrases , such as: And any such release settlement discharge shall as between you and the undersigned be deemed to have been given or made upon the express condition that it shall become and essay homework, be wholly void and of no effect if the assurance security or payment on the faith of which it was made or given shall be void. While literary texts (such as Dickens' or Hardy's novels) suggest that in earlier times ordinary readers could process complex syntactic structures, and human resource management, understand their meaning, modern readers or listeners may find this troublesome.
Shorter and less complex syntax is easier to understand, while some features of punctuation, typography and layout can all aid comprehension. Evidence! It is essays management, not so much that lawyers in essay, the past did not know how to essays, make themselves understood. They perhaps never intended to do so. Advocacy , as practised by law essay barristers in criminal courts, can be contrasted with advertising. In one case, there are no rules, while approaches change and essays human resource, are expedient #45; advertisers do whatever works. Advertisers are constrained by some standards and a code of six records of a floating essay, practice. But advocates in the law courts are subject to very precise rules about essays on international management, evidence, kinds of six records of a, argument and on international resource, turn taking, among other things, in a forum (the court) over which a judge presides. As regards sequence, barristers must outline a case and then present it, with the counsel (advocate) for the prosecution going before the defence counsel. The prosecution must prove its case beyond reasonable doubt; the defence, as barristers and judges often remind juries, does not have to prove anything #45; it is enough to discredit the essay story about, prosecution or show that the prosecution has not proved the case beyond reasonable doubt. Each side may question its own witnesses, but the other side may subsequently cross#45;examine (question) them. Each side must sum up its case, and human, the judge must also sum up the whole proceedings and advise the jury about how to arrive at its verdict.
In asking a question of a witness, an advocate is not normally allowed to invite the witness to creative programs, agree with a version of events the advocate has described #45; that is, by asking leading questions. Human Resource Management! In some state court systems of the USA the opposing counsel may call out Objection and the judge may direct the jury to disregard what they have heard. In the UK, judges make such rulings directly without the protest of Objection. In order to make the trial fair to the accused, the prosecution may not refer to any crimes of which he or she has been convicted in the past, though the defendant may voluntarily disclose this information. (This is floating life, changing in essays on international resource management, English law.) And each side must disclose to the other, before the trial begins, the evidence it intends to use in the trial. Unlike everyday argument or conversational disputes, each side makes its case largely without interruptions from the other side.
Each may take as long as the essay, evidence it presents allows #45; it is up to the judge to essays on international resource, decide if something is not relevant and stop a line of questioning or argument. The closest thing to interruption is the chance to challenge a witness's testimony in cross#45;examination. The advocates do not at any point interrupt each other. But both sides may, in examining a witness, interrupt the witness where an six records essay answer is not forthcoming or seems open to challenge. The witness may be intimidated, but is not obliged to essays, respond instantaneously. The judge may restrain an advocate who uses an school essay 2013 inappropriate manner or asks questions that seem not relevant to a line of questioning. The fundamental principle of advocacy is so familiar that its strangeness is often overlooked #45; that is, that experts in argument (advocates) compete, under known rules, to secure conviction or acquittal for another person. Essays On International! On occasions, in both criminal and civil trials, people do represent themselves #45; but this is very rare. Thus David Irving (2000) presented his own (civil) case in suing another historian who had called him a Holocaust denier. (He lost the case, so anyone may now describe Mr.
Irving as a Holocaust denier, without risk of libel.) A jury has a difficult task, in programs, attending both to the detail of a witness's evidence or an advocate's interpretation, as well as to the whole case presented by essays on international human management either side. Although the jury ultimately decides on matters of fact, the judge will help them by explaining matters of law. Thus, a verdict may depend not only on what the accused did or did not do, but also on the offence of of a floating, which he or she is accused. Human Management! In England and Wales, for most criminal offences, a verdict of guilty is represented as beyond reasonable doubt. The presiding judge may help the jury with the meaning of reasonable. Essay For Communication! In Scotland, as well as verdicts of guilty or not guilty, a jury may bring in a verdict of not proven. This allows them to indicate their uncertainty #45; the accused is not convicted, but does not walk away clear of suspicion. According to Fiona Kerr: A guilty verdict means that the conduct complained of must have matched the conduct covered by the charge and that the essays human resource, conduct must be proved beyond reasonable doubt. In studying the language of the high essay, law, you may think primarily of those who speak and essays human, write it, but be aware also of listeners or readers.
In the case of a jury, a very unusual kind of school english, listening (and reading) is required. The jury is essays resource, able to make requests of the judge, for example, to look again at a record of some part of a trial, but its discretion is limited by what the judge allows or thinks appropriate. Jurors may make notes, and essay for communication, keep these with them for the duration of a trial #45; these notes stay in court or the jury retiring room (a special room where jurors meet to consider a verdict, or in some kinds of break during a trial). Once the jury reaches a verdict, these notes are destroyed. One interesting expression of courtesy is the legal fiction that every judge knows all the law. A barrister who wishes to correct a judge on a point where his or her knowledge is essays on international human, not complete may use a form such as, As your lordship well remembers.
Fiona Kerr notes that: the Barrister may well be supplying the Judge's ignorance but everyone pretends that every Judge has an encyclopaedic knowledge which is frankly unrealistic. Their Lordships have to creative writing programs, deal with every aspect of essays on international resource management, Law and there's no way they know that much, so Counsel tells them the high essay scholarships, arguments and the law as if they know it already, even if they don't. The barrister supplies the relevant information but effectively offers it to the judge for endorsement in a manner that signals deference. This may be the origin of with respect. At some point in the past it may have been necessary for human, a speaker to exhibit real deference while correcting a superior - since discourtesy would have led to a loss of honour or reputation, as well, perhaps, as advancement that would be in the gift of the person to whom the respect in question was due. Nowadays the function of with respect (an implied correction by one with better information) remains, but its literal denotation (showing respect to one who deserves it) may be lost. Beneath the explicit or official rules that govern the essay, way barristers present a case, are some common tactics (some of on international resource management, which you may have observed in fictional representations as well as any real trials that you have attended). Creative Writing Programs! Fiona Kerr observes:
There's the day#45;to#45;day code of essays on international resource management, insults with which you are probably familiar, such as with respect (i.e. you're wrong), with great respect (i.e. you are completely wrong) and, ultimately with the greatest respect (i.e. you are an utter fool). There are power structures in education, from nurseries to universities, but these are often concealed from those who are subject to them. Evidence! Schools often produce codes or summaries or lists of on international resource, rules, but these may have only a local or relative force, since the school itself is subject to laws that protect the interests of different groups. We can perhaps helpfully distinguish educational institutions (other than officer training colleges for the police and school scholarships 2013, armed forces) from the armed services, which have explicit published regulations, a clear hierarchy of command, and tribunals to resolve the few disputed cases that defy this system. In recent times some UK schools and universities may have required parents or students to on international human resource management, give assent to of a life essay, a code of rules or home#45;school agreement, but there is no universal model for human management, these, and few parents or students would accept that attending a school has the same force in imposing rules, as joining the army or police service. Educational establishments have some powers of last resort, such as temporary or permanent exclusion but otherwise have very much to derive their power from the consent of those who are governed. Traditionally, schools have exerted power on life, their students, but we can also see how power lies with the pupils in many situations #45; at the least because most of essays human resource, what teachers and parents expect to happen can do so only with some assent from the students. What happens if one adult (usually one, though in story about friendship, classrooms today there may be several adults present) spends an hour #45; or several hours in a primary classroom #45; in the company of between twenty and thirty young people? Experience suggests that there is a massive variety of results. In one case, the resource management, adult imposes his or her will by various means on the students, who comply with the adult's lead or, if they defy it, find themselves excluded or subject to essay story about, some kind of sanction. In another case, the human resource, children react to the adult in subversive and confrontational ways (sometimes more actively than the short story, same children would be if left unattended in a classroom).
In yet another case, the adult and children achieve a kind of equilibrium, where each takes turns, gives way or takes the lead, and management, all work productively towards an agreed set of goals, or give outward assent to the majority who wish to essay, do so. There will be other situations, and essays on international management, maybe the same group will at different times approximate more to one position than another #45; so a class that meets a new teacher for the first time may do things to evidence, test his or her character; while over time, a class may come to like and respect a teacher, so that he or she can, on occasion, appeal to a perceived obligation. Students can be very effective in nurturing and supporting an adult, where they judge that this is appropriate. Many of the causes of these relationships are found in essays on international human resource, the personalities of the teachers and the learners #45; but they also lie clearly in the nature of the six records floating essay, language interactions that occur between adult and pupil. Essays On International! And we can study these objectively. Evidence Law Essay! For example, we can investigate. the frequency with which a request takes a given form #45; direct imperative (do X) or question (would you do X?), whether the person making the request uses a name or other form of address , whether there is a please and thank you and so on. We could also measure objectively whether use of direct commands is essays human resource management, more or less efficient (in the programs, time it takes) than use of requests. We might wish to relate these things to the age, ability, prior social experience and on international human, so on, of the learners. Another thing we might like to observe, and possibly quantify, is the ability of a student, by speaking in certain ways, to provoke a given response from the teacher. That is, how far each (student or teacher) is school scholarships 2013, ready to adopt ritualised or predictable and practised rôles in an interchange: the student presses a particular button, and essays on international, the teacher reacts in the expected way.
Of course, such ritual exchanges need not be confrontational or hostile. They may be playful in creative writing programs, tone, but serious in an underlying dialogue. Or they may be very friendly interchanges, in which all parties are reinforcing an existing social relationship #45; the teacher tells a weak joke, the pupils tell him how unfunny he is, then ask about his sick cat or whether the new baby is essays on international human, still keeping him awake. Study of classroom discourse may differ from conversational analysis, in school english, that one person is trying to establish a rapport with a complete group at some points, with sub#45;groups at other points, and individuals at human resource management, other times. In any one lesson it is almost impossible to achieve this, but over a series of lessons it is possible #45; though without any objective method, even the best#45;intentioned teacher may not give a fair allocation of time to all. School Homework! Are there devices that, addressed to a group, can make individuals feel that the comment is for them in particular? Almost any of the methods of essays, analysis of spoken utterances that come under the general heading of pragmatics may be fruitful when used to study language exchanges in the classroom. Instrumental power #45; business and management. There are useful general approaches that we can take in analysing and explaining language interchanges in various social contexts, but some features are relevant to one social context more than another. Private enterprise (in much of the English#45;speaking world) is regulated by some laws that, for example, describe and defend the human rights and welfare of employees, but it is not organized into a universal system, so that language use can emerge rather as a fashion #45; and power may come partly from using the current or the most novel special forms. Like any social context, business and management have their own distinctive lexis . This includes both useful and for communication, necessary names for things that are peculiar to the way business works, as well as buzzwords . These are neologisms and phrases that disguise more familiar things or give them a temporary sense of novelty or mystique.
In time they may become seen as cliches or otherwise ridiculous. Essays Resource Management! Let's look at of a floating, some real examples. Guru , which denotes a religious teacher famed for great wisdom, has become compounded into other forms such as Internet#45;guru, management#45;guru, business#45;guru and on international, so on. One such management guru is Charles Handy, who has invented a special set of names for management structures, derived from the gods and goddesses of classical Greece. He describes four cultures: the Zeus Culture , the Athena Culture , the Apollo Culture and the Dionysian Culture . (It is not clear why he uses the high school essay, noun form as attributive adjective for three of these, but uses an established adjectival form in Dionysian.) So what do the on international human, names mean?
Zeus Culture: an organization dominated by the personality and power of one person, often the founder or owner, after the ruler of the writing programs, gods. Apollo Culture: an organization dominated by rules and procedures, after Apollo the God of harmony and order. Athena Culture: the project organization that dominates consultancies, advertising agencies and, increasingly, all innovative businesses, after Athena, the warrior goddess. Dionysian Culture: an organization in which the individual has the freedom to develop his or her own ideas in the way they want #45; an artists' studio, perhaps, or a university. They are hard to manage, these Dionysian places, but increasingly necessary if you want to employ really creative people. In an interview with the BBC, Charles Handy continues: What interested me, however, was not the downsizing or the re#45;engineering itself, as others began to essays on international human, call it, but the school homework, consequences for our individual working lives.
Organizations, it seemed to me, would increasingly dispense with our services in our mid#45;lives as they concentrated on fewer and essays on international resource management, younger people in evidence, their cores, with only a few wise heads to keep the show on track. You can find the interview at. In this short extract we see the business#45;specific terms: downsizing, re#45;engineering and keep the show on human management, track. Downsizing is now quite well established as a verb that means reducing the number of essay for communication, employees, and perhaps other features of the organization (physical premises, costs and so on). It is self#45;explanatory but has rather odd morphology, being a compound of adverb, and noun (size) converted to verb. Re#45;engineering is human resource management, a metaphor whereby the reorganization of six records life, people is likened to human, a change in six records floating life, a mechanized process #45; it is therefore rather impersonal. Essays Human Management! Keep the show on essay for communication, track is essays human resource, not confined to business, but used in many kinds of human activity #45; it is a metaphor derived from travelling stage shows.
More commonly people say they try to keep the show on the road. Charles Handy's use of track may come from mixing the phrase with the life essay, ending of back on track. Business terms may be more or less well assimilated into the common lexicon. You can test this by looking for on international management, them in different dictionaries and seeing whether or not they appear as an entry, as with blue chip (a common stock that has consistently paid dividends over a long period of time); bundling (the grouping of several products and/or services into one package. It benefits buyers by condensing several purchases into one. Evidence Law Essay! Companies benefit by reducing the ability of consumers to compare individual product prices with those of competing companies.) The term is very common in relation to resource, computer software, bundled with a machine for consumers to buy; cherry picking (purchasing products individually from a variety of companies rather than as a bundle from one company)
At a series of presentations from bidders to supply products to the Yorkshire and Humberside Regional Broadband Project (October 2000), each presenter in turn referred to his or her product as best of essay, breed and most described a mutually advantageous arrangement as a win#45;win situation. The former metaphor is taken from the Crufts annual dog show, but none of the presenters gave any hint of on international human resource management, knowing this provenance, of relating their presentations to it, or even that breed is a biological term, which they were applying to computer networks, hardware and software products. More recently, at a conference (February 2003, East Riding of law essay, Yorkshire), I heard almost every speaker refer to important things as key. A frequent collocation was key drivers #45; where drivers are influences or causes (key drivers of change and so on). Later I heard reference to key players which mixes metaphors from essays human resource management, music (or locks) and sport: The early involvement of key players has enriched the curriculum. High School Essay Scholarships 2013! Speakers several times mentioned routeways in resource, a metaphorical sense: All the routeways that they [learners] want and open up the routeways. Creative! Another image to suggest the idea of causing things to happen is trigger, so we heard of essays management, something that would be a trigger for partners collectively.
Deliver is a verb that has become fashionable to express the idea of making something happen or simply doing something #45; so one speaker referred to those who are actively engaged with delivering the concept. Since the late 1990s issues has become an all#45;purpose noun for abstract things, in contexts where earlier we might have seen matters. It is frequently joined by short about the verb address so that people address the human resource management, issues #45; which usually means to talk, think or do something about some other things. Now issues has come also to denote things that concern one or call for essay short story, special attention, in the simple phrase have issues, as in I have or she has issues around that. Less common but no less interesting are event horizon and hedgehog concept.
As we sit on essays on international resource management, the brink of this 'event horizon' for equity markets, you should ask whether this 'black hole' we are entering will deliver us to english essay homework, a new dimension where bulls run freely, or will it tear the market, destroying what we've built up? The term comes from astrophysics, but entered popular use after the publication of Professor Stephen Hawking's A Brief History of Time . In the example above Don Wellenreiter continues the astrophysical theme with black hole and new dimension, then mixes it with the traditional bull image (as contrasted with a bear market) and on international, finally a third idea of six records of a life, tearing something up. Hedgehog concept appears to be derived from Isaiah Berlin's essay The Hedgehog and the Fox (1953). Berlin writes: There is a line among the fragments of the Greek poet Archilochus which says: 'The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing'. The hedgehog concept is one that, if done extremely well and to the exclusion of almost everything else, can help a person's career or a company's business achieve its full potential. Here's an human example:
Walgreens' hedgehog concept is to run the best, most convenient drug stores with high profit per customer visit, Jorndt continued. We know who we are and law essay, what we are all about #45; running drug stores. We work like crazy to essays on international resource management, execute it in our stores. The notion of buzzwords arises from a wish to subvert or ridicule the evidence law essay, pretentiousness and inelegance of much special lexis in business and management: . drones and peons are slyly mocking the new corporate culture #45; and essays resource management, their cliche#45;spouting bosses. One of their weapons is an underground game called buzzword bingo, which works like a surreptitious form of writing, regular bingo. Buzzwords #45; 'incent,' 'proactive, 'impactfulness,' for example #45; are preselected and placed on a bingo#45;like card in random boxes.
Players sit in meetings and conferences and silently check off buzzwords as their bosses spout them; the first to fill in a complete line wins. But, in deference to essays human, the setting, the winner typically coughs instead of shouting out 'bingo.' Buzzwords are particularly opaque when combined into phrases or longer structures #45; as in these examples from a satirical Web site. These use a basic structure and a range of for communication, metaphors: filter it though the cappuccino machine and see if it comes out frothy; run it up the flag pole and see who salutes it; throw a crumb in the cage and see if the budgie bites; let's put that in the lift and see which floor it stops at. It is on international human resource management, hard to imagine anyone's using these phrases without a sense of their playfulness #45; and it is possible for people to invent new versions, following this basic formula: do X and see if/who/what/which etc. About! Here are some more words and phrases: assets#45;based assessment or approach best practices model democratising of information grass roots initiated if you'd like to essays on international resource, climb into your helicopters so we can look at evidence, that from above inclusiveness infrastructure leave it up to the man on the coalface management bandwidth measurable outcomes multi#45;sector need based or deficit assessment or approach non#45;duplicative/reduces duplication one stop shops outsourcing quality of life reflects cultural diversity/culturally sensitive scuba in on international resource management, your think#45;tank singing from the same hymn#45;sheet systems change awareness window of life, opportunity.
Are these words or phrases useful? Can you think of simpler or more direct alternatives? Why might people use these buzzwords in preference to essays on international resource management, more basic forms? In the armed services and some other organizations there may be defined rules for addressing someone by english homework rank, title or name. In business, the practice may vary according to the organization's culture and the relative status of essays on international resource, two speakers. High School! Two modes of address that may be distinctive to business and management is the use of descriptive titles and of initials.
In some cases the title may reflect some kind of deference by the speaker, or recognition that the holder of the office is somehow dignified by it. Thus we speak of the Director or the Chairman and address them directly as Director or [Mr./Madam] Chairman. Some people like to use their initials rather than name or title, as with M. Gerbeau, the chief executive of the essays on international human, Millennium Dome, who liked to be known as P#45;Y: Pierre#45;Yves (he is always called P#45;Y) Gerbeau is a remarkable man. BBC profile, December 2000. We can also think of the fictitious oil baron J.R. in creative writing, the TV series Dallas or CJ, the communications officer in The West Wing . The implication is that people in on international resource, the organization know who he or she is, so that use of the essay, initials is a form of respect or recognition. On International! If one speaker uses title and last name (TLN), and the other first name (FN) only, we infer difference in status. The social superior (the FN speaker) may invite the inferior to use FN in response. In some occupations holders of particular offices may use their job title: coach (in the USA), chairman and high school 2013, so on. Resource! Generic titles to indicate status are not as common as they were, especially in business, where we may speak about the boss but are less likely to address him or her directly as boss (chief and english homework, guv are even less common). On International Human Resource! Business does not have a series of honorary titles in the way that the courts and political institutions to, or ranks as in the armed services #45; sir may still be used, but does not have a very specific reference.
The guidance below is summarized from an article in the Guardian's Rise jobs supplement and a Web site (www.speakfirst.co.uk), which gives guidance on effective presentations: Fiddling with your tie is distracting and this, along with the essay for communication, stuttered 'ums' and 'ers', 'you knows 'and 'I means', will devalue your message and make you seem less confident.. On International Human Management! When you're making a point, keep to it and don't digress. If you're a newcomer in a meeting do not become too cosy. Deal with interruptions. Short Story! For example, say: Let me just finish this section, then I'll come back to on international management, that point. Ask questions How often have you. Can you remember a time when. Use bridge words and phrases as well as; consequently; in creative, closing.
Reiterate #45; repeat and go over important points. You can preface this with a rhetorical question: So what have I covered so far? Pausing can be very effective. It gives the audience a chance to think about what is being said. It also gives the speaker an opportunity to essays on international human resource management, breathe and think ahead. Michael Begeman, an anthropologist and computer scientist of the 3M Meeting Network, suggests that meetings should follow different structures, according to their purpose.
He suggests that meetings can be built around three kinds of essay for communication, conversation: for possibility, opportunity and for action . Conversations for possibility: The group acknowledges that it has come together to essays resource, generate ideas, not to evidence law essay, make decisions. Its goal is to maximize creativity. Conversations for opportunity: The goal is not to reach a final decision but to narrow down a range of options. People gather information, do some analysis, and take positions. Conversations for action: The goal is to essays on international, decide, to commit: We want to leave this room with our four development priorities for 2004. Begeman suggests that the meeting should have what he calls rules of engagement #45; and translate implicit expectations into high essay scholarships explicit agreements, about timing, and progress. You can even create rules of engagement about individual behavior. For example: Before anyone makes a point, that person has to find merit in the point made by the previous speaker. Or, the senior people in the meeting can speak only after the junior people have had a chance to express themselves. It's a pretty simple idea, really.
All you are trying to essays, do is to make the six records floating, invisible visible, to make the automatic deliberate. These. rules of engagement give people a chance to design how they treat one another in meetings. Michael Begeman suggests, too, that though social talk may seem inefficient or a distraction, it can be fruitful in essays human resource management, helping people relax or think creatively when the meeting proceeds to serious business. You can find his article at: According to Mr. Nik at www.btinternet.com/ mr.nik/business, corporate language is fundamental to business communication principles. Programs! These principles include: Stating things in a way that makes them hard to argue with. Stating things in a way that makes you seem important and knowledgeable. Resource Management! Making sure what you say can't come back to haunt you. Repeating what your boss said, but trying to disguise it. nventing as many phrases for very good as possible.
Using warm, fluffy words to fool employees into being happy and fulfilled. This rather facetious description includes ideas familiar from pragmatics #45; such as conversational maxims and politeness or mirroring other people's speech. What Mr. Nik does not make clear #45; but pragmatic analysis does #45; is programs, how one does these things. In fact, one need not try to disguise a repetition of what another says, either in content or manner #45; since this often is very effective in securing other people's cooperation.
It is possible to make some employees more contented at on international human resource management, work, without any extra expense to law essay, the organization, by a change of human resource management, job title #45; ideally one that suggests a more elevated status, without significant extra workload. Stating things in a way that makes you seem important and knowledgeable is more problematic. Novel lexis can intimidate those who assume that their ignorance of the special forms or buzzwords is a mark of weakness. But it can easily excite ridicule among those who see it as pretentious, and are ready to cut through the creative writing programs, vagueness or to challenge the speaker to use plain or direct forms #45; or who play buzzword bingo. As a technique for establishing some temporary advantage by confusing others, verbal inflation may work. But it does not help real understanding and essays human management, collaboration, and impedes exchanges where people are trying to agree on a course of school english essay homework, action to follow. Specimen exam questions from past papers.
I have not shown the texts used in on international resource management, some of the evidence, example questions #45; for two reasons: they come from sources which are protected by copyright, and teachers may want to use the essays on international human management, questions (from real past papers) for practice exams in school - so they won't want me to have shown them here. Text D is a transcript of part of a lesson at a primary school. The teacher is discussing a visit made by for communication an animal expert to the class on the previous day. Show by detailed reference to the transcript how both teacher and pupils demonstrate power in this discourse. The following text is essays on international human management, a transcript of the first part of a BBC Radio 4 interview by John Humphrys on 5 May 2000. He is questioning Margaret Beckett MP about the local by#45;election results. Show by detailed reference to the transcript how both interviewer and interviewee demonstrate power and control in school essay, their discourse.
Note: JH = John Humphrys; MB = Margaret Beckett; () indicates a brief pause; underlining indicates emphasis in speech; italicised words between vertical lines indicate simultaneous speech; [laughs] in square brackets indicates that speaker laughs. The text printed on pages 6 and essays human management, 7 is the first two pages from Our Children's Education #45; The Updated Parent's Charter , issued by the Department for law essay, Education and essays on international resource, sent to evidence law essay, every home in essays human, England. Show by detailed reference to the text how it demonstrates power and authority in its use of language. In your answer you should refer to any relevant research and to evidence law essay, any frameworks you consider appropriate. The following text is a page from a leaflet published by Plan International UK, providing information about how to sponsor a child. Show by detailed reference to human, the text how it tries to evidence, make the management, reader feel powerful. In your answer you should refer to relevant ideas from language study and to any frameworks you consider appropriate. Example texts with interpretation. Transcript of an advertisement for english, Head and essays on international human, Shoulders shampoo, broadcast on television in the early 1990s. WOMAN: Richard! (She is expressing surprise at writing, his arrival #45; perhaps he is late #45; and on international human management, his appearance.)
RICHARD: (Explaining both at once) The car! Richard goes to for communication, bathroom to wash oil from hands. He turns the essays on international human management, tap with his elbow and looks in the mirror, noticing the Head and Shoulders shampoo bottle on the shelf beneath it. RICHARD: Head and Shoulders? (Half turns to address her over his shoulder) But you don't have dandruff! WOMAN: (Shakes hair to short friendship, let it hang down; smiles to the camera) No #45; but I do have great looking hair! This advertisement has the essays on international resource, discourse structure of TV dramatic narrative #45; it resembles a scene from a soap opera (appropriate, given the product).
The advertisement must be brief, so the narrative is about, compressed, and carried by the images as much as the on international human resource management, dialogue. We can look at english essay, pragmatics within the narrative (how the characters speak to each other) and between us as the audience and the advertiser. In the former case, we see that Richard suggests surprise and mild disapproval. His going into the bathroom without asking suggests that he is on friendly terms with the woman, though his surprise at the bottle of Head and Shoulders shows that he does not live with her. The car alone means nothing, but as a response to Richard, and coupled with the oily hands, it suggests some unspecified mechanical problem which Richard has put right, since he has now arrived. Moving out resource of the advert and looking at its relationship with the story, audience, we see that the writer expects us to know the conventions of naturalistic television drama, so we know how to read the scene. The writer uses the common lexicon of everyday speech #45; with the exception of the proper noun for the brand name, Head and Shoulders. The last line of essays on international human resource, dialogue, however, includes the three#45;word slogan (great looking hair) that runs through the whole campaign #45; which included similar stories featuring other characters.
This is not a transcript of natural speech, and thus avoids irrelevant or incomplete utterances #45; if these were real people, then their conversation would be exemplary in observing the cooperative principle . Evidence Law Essay! It is, of course, scripted dramatic dialogue. The grammar is marked by essays resource minor sentences #45; one of of a essay, one word and another of two, though with more implied #45; so Richard may suggest Richard, you're late and essays on international human management, your hands are covered in oil while The car suggests I'm sorry I'm late, the car had a problem but I've fixed it now. The last two lines of dialogue are more literary #45; especially the short story friendship, but before you don't have dandruff where Richard is effectively responding to the idea that the essays on international human, woman might have suffered from dandruff, since she is using Head and Shoulders. Second example - political rhetoric. From President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address, Friday, January 20, 1961. We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans #45; born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and essay about friendship, bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage #45; and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty.
To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of faithful friends. Essays Human Resource! United, there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do #45; for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at creative writing, odds and split asunder. To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge #45; to convert our good words into on international resource good deeds #45; in a new alliance for progress #45; to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of hope cannot become the prey of six records of a, hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to remain the master of on international human resource, its own house.
Many familiar rhetorical devices mark this text: antithetic and creative, synonymous parallelism , lists of three and complex patterning (structures within structures). Essays On International Human Management! There are metaphors, imperative verbs and parentheses . The speech opens with a direct address to some special guests and the audience more generally #45; both locally present and listening to the broadcast #45; it will end by including all of these together as my fellow Americans. For Communication! So the President first shows respect for essays on international resource management, the status of the essay 2013, distinguished guests, then cleverly reduces them all to the common level of citizens of the essays on international human management, great republic #45; making them seem all equal, as they are before God. Six Records Floating Essay! At once we see uses of antithetic parallelism. Essays On International Human Resource! The first antithesis is in a not. but structure. School Essay! (There are several in this extract: can you find them all?) . we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom.
while the next comes in two pairs (end and beginning; renewal and on international human, change) . symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning #45; signifying renewal, as well as change. Conjunctive for is used almost adverbially . The written text gives an indication of the scholarships 2013, pauses in speech #45; and President Kennedy completes sentences (twice) before starting others with for, that serves as comment on essays human management, what precedes it: For I have sworn. and school 2013, For man holds in essays resource management, his mortal hands. We see how the high school 2013, President begins a series of sentences with the object of the on international human resource management, main verb, where the subject is always we (as in the American people) #45; so each sentence follows the pattern: To X we say or do A, B and school english essay, C . In this section we find a list of on international resource, six groups of people whom the President apostrophises: old allies, new (friendly) states, people in huts and villages (the developing world), sister republics (in Central and South America) and the United Nations . But the sixth group differs #45; these are the potential enemies to whom the President offers a warning. It appears that he is speaking to essay, these various groups, but this is only a secondary concern (insofar as his speech will be reported in these places). In reality he is speaking to on international management, the people of the USA here #45; and evidence, letting them know his view of these other places in the world.
The language has a stately allusive quality that comes from echoing the style of the on international human resource management, English bible #45; so we read four times imperative verb clauses beginning let #45; reminding us of how God said Let there be light, while the word has an echo of the opening of programs, Saint John's Gospel. Essays On International Management! (Later in the speech, Kennedy uses the gospel image of the light of the creative writing programs, world.) Let the word go forth and let every nation know could almost (though they do not) come from the Bible #45; the lexis is timeless here, and both forth and nation are words we meet throughout the Old Testament in versions in the King James tradition, such as the American Revised Standard Version of the essays human management, Bible. As well as the Bible, the President alludes to the Declaration of Independence in referring to the rights of man that come from the hand of God. (Note how he speaks of God without hesitation, in vivid Old Testament terms, as having a hand #45; whether this is a metaphor or meant literally.) And he alludes to Rousseau's famous statement (that man is school english, born free but everywhere in chains), and slightly alters its application so that the chains do not come from simple political or legal oppression, but from being poor. He promises: . to resource, assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. The President uses simple verbal embellishment in the repetition of sound ( alliteration ) in lines like: writ may run and dark powers of destruction. Frequently the evidence law essay, lines have a metrical scansion : For man holds in his mortal hands the power. and essays resource management, . Story About Friendship! have far outpaced the instruments of peace. are both true iambic pentameters. Essays Resource! We find other metres in for communication, . Essays On International Resource! born in this century, tempered by war. and . to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak. Six Records Life! The lexis of the speech comes from everyday speech #45; there are no specialist or obscure terms. And most are simple structurally #45; like a good poet he uses monosyllabic and two#45;syllable words: Let the word go forth. opens a sequence of twenty monosyllables and management, a solitary two#45;syllable word (alike). His images are vivid and concrete #45; the hand of God, riding the tiger, handing on essay for communication, a torch, casting off chains and strengthening a shield. Third example - courtroom dialogue. Extract from the essays, transcript of David Irving's High Court action against Penguin Books and Deborah Lipstadt.
MR JUSTICE GRAY: I saw the report. I did not read it. What about law essay, it are you concerned? MR IRVING: Very well, my Lord. Clearly, it would be improper for on international human resource, any of the parties in this case to start putting hand outs to the press in writing programs, the way I appreciate the law is on contempt which would disadvantage the other party.
MR IRVING: #45; for the next hour, shall we say? Firstly, there will be no more traps being sprung. I am sure that the Professor will appreciate advance notification. On International Resource! There are no more hidden booby#45;traps or mines, but I am going to be dwelling briefly on short, crematorium No. II still for essays on international human resource management, a while because I believe the Professor wishes to make certain comments on what I said yesterday. In this part of the trial before Mr. Law Essay! Justice Gray, David Irving attends to human resource management, two kinds of business: first, to essay about, question the reporting of the trial in human resource, newspapers, to ask the judge to consider the about, possibility that this may influence the outcome of the essays human management, process, and second, to outline the part of his case that he will present next.
The exchange is marked by formal expressions of courtesy #45; and, on David Irving's part, deference to the judge, yet these do not really interfere with an high scholarships efficient taking of turns, and a high degree of relevance in the way the exchanges proceed. If we can call this a conversation, then it observes the maxims of quality, quantity and relevance very well. On International Human! (Usually, if an creative programs exchange in court does not observe one or more of essays, these, the judge will intervene. Relevance is perhaps most important; quality and quantity may depend more on the judge's discretion and writing programs, attitude to the speaker.) Beneath this, we can see a struggle for power. David Irving invites Mr. Justice Gray to essays on international, make some allowance for reporting of the case (which Irving believes to be hostile to for communication, him) #45; in effect, he attempts to direct the judge in his conduct of the trial. Essays Resource! Mr. Justice Gray, firmly but courteously, tells David Irving that his particular plea is six records floating life essay, of no account, but in doing so also reasserts his own direction of the legal process.
How does this work? Irving identifies a connection between mischievous and inaccurate reporting and public hostility to himself. (This is plausible: he may be a Holocaust denier or a racist, but it is possible for the reporters to on international human, exaggerate or distort the true account of his racism.) From this premise he moves to the conclusion: This clearly disadvantages me. But at essay story about friendship, once he contradicts this apparently firm statement with the recognition that the judge is trying the essays human resource management, case without a jury, so the only public opinion that affects the outcome is his (the judge's) own. Mr. Law Essay! Justice Gray's reply is, on the surface, a firm rebuttal of the possibility of his being influenced by the reporting: Really, what matters here for my purposes is on international human management, whether I am going to be influenced by it and, as I have not read it, I will not be.
There is a hint of ridicule or sarcasm here #45; as the essay short story about friendship, judge points out what appears to be a truism or statement of the obvious: he cannot be affected by what he has not read. In saying this, he is saying rather more #45; that it is essays on international human resource management, not for David Irving to alert him (the judge) to possible abuses or contempts of the court. It is precisely the judge's rôle (among other things) to decide such matters, with the benefit of his expert knowledge of the legal process. In saying . that really is school essay, a sort of fact of essays on international management, life that you just have to put up with. Evidence! Mr. Justice Gray is drawing a distinction between a kind of rough treatment that anyone in essays on international human management, such a case can expect to suffer from the essay, press and a serious contempt or indiscretion in the reporting that might in some way interfere with the process of the law. (This has happened notoriously in many high#45;profile jury trials.) The judge is effectively telling David Irving to be a bit tougher, and making clear that it is for him (the judge) to say when any unfair play may affect the trial. Perhaps he is aware of his robustness in dealing with David Irving's expression of worry, as he attempts some mitigation #45; inviting Irving, should anything appear that really does disturb him, to mention this. This is formally polite #45; but seems insincere, as he has just dismissed Irving's existing account of on international human resource, what really disturbs him. Evidence! It allows the judge to move onto the real business of the trial.
When David Irving offers to outline the next part of essays on international human management, his case, Mr. Justice Gray responds very differently from what has gone before. Essay Short Story! I would find that very helpful is formally polite and may really be so (it seems sincere). Now that David Irving is falling into his appointed rôle in on international management, the trial, then the judge is happy #45; not least because the whole process moves on, whereas the protests about the reporting have threatened to delay the essay, trial proper. Given the nature of this trial and on international management, the excited reporting of which David Irving has earlier complained we may be struck by the formal politeness of the outline, in which Irving expresses a concern to treat his opponent in the case (the defendant, Professor Deborah Lipstadt) with fairness. There seems, however, to evidence law essay, be some history implied in what he says. In mentioning no more traps being sprung, he evidently appeals to shared knowledge at least between himself and the judge (but probably also by resource the defendant) of some earlier traps. Since he gives the judge this reassurance, we may ask why? Why deprive himself of a potential stratagem? One possible reason is that the judge has rebuked him previously for presenting evidence without giving the short story friendship, defendant's counsel notice of essays on international human, this.
So now he is really reassuring the evidence, judge that he will follow the proper procedures and etiquette #45; or asking the judge for an endorsement of the way he proposes to present the next part of his case. The judge's approval is essays human resource, not, of course, in any sense an approval of David Irving's case. It is an approval of six records of a, his complying with the expected procedure in presenting his case. Irving moves to a very specific outline of points of essays on international human management, detail, identifying particular people whose testimony forms part of the accepted record of the Holocaust. Finally (in this extract) he refers to alleged gassing facilities at Auschwitz. Given that part of his case relies on questioning the historic accuracy of accounts of genocide at Auschwitz, this seems logical, if shocking to the ears of people who do not question the Holocaust.
But it may not help influence the judge's opinion in homework, his favour, as it is likely to excite a strong emotional reaction. That is, here his argument is not there was a Holocaust and Professor Lipstadt is wrong in saying I denied it but I cannot have denied what never happened #45; in essays on international management, effect, he is short friendship, repeating the denial in on international resource management, court. We refer to an alleged crime or misdemeanour while a defendant is on trial, because we presume him or her to scholarships 2013, be innocent until proved otherwise. And if he or she is found not guilty, then, had we referred to the crime (without any alleged) we would have slandered the innocent suspect. But the gassing of Jews at Auschwitz is not something that we attribute to anyone on on international human management, trial now. (There were historic trials, and people were found guilty of war crimes.) So Irving's use of alleged here is intended to challenge the common belief that gassing really happened in Auschwitz. It may be enough, of course, for evidence, David Irving to show merely that it is resource management, not absolutely certain that the Holocaust happened #45; as this would make Professor Lipstadt's accusation seem libellous, as if she has called him a denier whereas he is really a doubter, only. So the evidence, surface courtesy may conceal the momentous nature of the trial. Essays On International! Professor Lipstadt has called him a Holocaust denier because she wants people to be aware of of a life, denial as a technique of historical interpretation, and, in a real sense, pass a moral judgement or condemn those who do it. David Irving, meanwhile, intends to submit statements about history to the same kind of legal scrutiny which applies in on international human management, trials where the witness statements are made in court and refer to the conduct of those being tried. In representing himself, David Irving does not (apparently) understand how to conduct his case in evidence, all respects. He has a rather shallow sense of how to do so, by aping the formal address he has noticed from counsel in observing trials #45; so we note how he calls Mr.
Justice Gray my lord rather easily, and twice in successive answers uses the formula very well, my lord. Fourth example - parliamentary exchanges. This is an extract from Hansard. It is a report of Oral Answers to resource, Questions on Foreign and Commonwealth affairs. The questions are put to Mr. English! Jack Straw (Secretary of on international human resource management, State) and Mr. Mike O'Brien (Parliamentary Under#45;Secretary) Richard Ottaway (Croydon, South): Does the creative writing programs, Foreign Secretary agree that dialogue is the best way to combat terrorism?
Bearing that in essays on international management, mind, why did he decline to meet Mr. Netanyahu when he was in for communication, London? 21 Jan 2003 : Column 151. Mr. O'Brien: I will pass on my hon. Friend's thanks to resource management, the high commissioner.
We are following closely the circumstances in Bangladesh and particularly the arrests of school essay, some journalists and opposition leaders. Essays Human Management! We welcome the release of Hussein Chaudry and others. Democracy means allowing disagreement and debate, and in school, Bangladesh that means that the Awami league as well as the essays, Bangladesh Nationalist party must have the right to floating life, voice their opinions. We have raised our concerns informally with the Bangladesh authorities, and will continue to do so. On International! I will write to essay for communication, my hon. Friend on the issue of the indemnity Bill.
Surat Miah, who was killed at Dhaka airport, was a British resident but not a British national. On International Management! We have let the of a essay, Bangladesh authorities know that there is widespread concern about the case in this country, and we have made representations in that regard. The transcript here uses some conventions, such as hon. where the speaker says honourable. All the participants observe the convention of indirect speech among themselves, mediated through the Speaker #45; so they always use the third person pronouns or a title : not Do you agree that. Human Resource! but Does the Foreign Secretary agree that. Where there is a choice of a pronoun (he/him) or a title, we find the speakers mostly use the latter. You can check this for yourself. How often does anyone say he/she/him/her?
How often does anyone use a descriptive title in referring to another #45; Foreign Secretary, (right) hon. English Homework! Friend, Minister and so on? We note that the questioners often open their questions with a subordinate clause , expressing some condition or qualification of the question: Given that the military wing of the Palestinian Authority. Essays On International Human Management! claims responsibility . and Following the reported human rights abuses. We note, too, how some of the school english essay, questions are not really requests for new information, but an invitation to endorse a statement that the questioner makes: does X accept that/agree that. Mr. Ottaway asks two questions.
But the second presupposes that Mr. Human! Straw has answered the first by law essay agreeing with the management, suggested statement #45; which Mr. Straw plainly has not done. Creative Programs! So in Mr. Ottway's Bearing that in mind, that refers to the suggested maxim that dialogue is the best way to combat terrorism. Mr. Straw does not endorse the suggestion, nor does he refute it.
Instead he evades both questions by saying that he did not meet Mr. Netanyahu (on the later occasion) because he had done so already on an earlier occasion. In doing this, Mr. Straw mitigates the suggestion of discourtesy to the Israeli Minister (Mr. Netanyahu), by producing evidence of essays human management, earlier courtesy.
At the same time, he avoids giving any recent or continued indication of short about, approval of Mr. Netanyahu. In this respect, the mention of the very good lunch becomes relevant. We do not need to on international human resource, know that there was a lunch (of whatever quality) to six records essay, establish whether Mr. Straw did or did not meet him. But the on international resource, mention of the lunch will appear as a tangible proof that the meeting happened, and writing programs, that Mr. Straw recalls this circumstantial detail #45; whereas he cannot, or will not, say anything about the on international, content of the school scholarships 2013, meeting in terms of who said what to whom. The junior minister supports this account by recalling the essays human resource, lunch. He appears to be giving evidence to the House that this is what indeed happened.
But, once more, they do not need someone's recollection of a meal to prove it. Mr. O'Brien is creative writing, not so much telling the House about what happened, but signalling solidarity with his boss, the Secretary of on international, State. Mrs. King initially asks an open question about the Minister's assessment. of the situation in Bangladesh. She does not (as earlier questioners do with Mr.
Straw) immediately invite Mr. O'Brien to essay short about, agree with some statement of hers. Essays On International Human Resource! In allowing him to give an essay answer that she has not suggested to him, she may be establishing trust in the conversation #45; he can see that he is not having words put into his mouth. Next Mrs. King secures even more cooperation, in resource, expressing gratitude to the servant of the crown, the British Ambassador. This is in question form , but is essay, really a statement (to the question, May I thank. no answer of yes or no is possible, except as a comic non#45;sequitur).
Having secured, Mr. O'Brien's cooperation, Mrs. King moves to a series of three questions #45; of which the first is on international human resource management, open, but which she effectively reduces to the two specific requests that follow. That is, she may seem to ask what (which may be anything at all) the evidence, Government is doing about democracy in Bangladesh. But really she is asking whether Mr.
O'Brien will do two very specific things: to ask the Bangladesh government about the killing of a British resident, and whether he will write to resource management, her on a particular bill (a proposed piece of new legislation). Mr. O'Brien answers both questions clearly and fully #45; observing conversational maxims of quality, quantity and relevance . Essay! He changes the order, as the second question needs only a yes or no (he says yes #45; he will write to essays on international human management, Mrs. School Homework! King). There is more to say about Surat Miah #45; and Mr. O'Brien appears to be well informed about the details of Mr. Essays On International Human Management! Miah's death.
This extract does not support a common view of Parliamentary exchanges. It does not appear to school homework, be aggressive or confrontational, and on international human management, we find Mr. Straw and Mr. O'Brien agreeing with some things, and not adopting a position on party lines. On the other hand, there is a huge difference between the very serious and informed answer to Louise Ellman and the seemingly facetious response to writing programs, Richard Ottaway.
Does Mr. Straw do this because he is speaking to a man, who can take this kind of humour? Or is it a device to on international, evade Mr. Ottaway's trap #45; which is to give Mr. Straw two choices, neither of which he can accept: If he says that he did not want to meet Mr. Netanyahu, he may offend the Israeli state.
If he expresses approval of Mr. Essay! Netanyahu, he may appear to support Israel's policy in Palestine and offend Arab and Muslim opinion. When the subject of the questions changes from Palestine to Bangladesh, the Secretary of State hands the speaking turn to his Minister #45; but Mr. O'Brien establishes some continuity with Mr. Straw in that, before answering Mrs. King's question, he backs up Mr. Straw's story about the good lunch. The exchanges are marked by essays on international human management frequent use of modal verbs may and will. Generally, the school essay, speech is quite expansive #45; whoever holds a turn is able to speak at some length without interruption. The comment on the good lunch is therefore rather untypical in essays resource management, its brevity.
Either Mr. School English! Straw has a gift for witty improvisation, or he has anticipated the question and prepared the essays, answer, whereas elsewhere he and Mr. O'Brien are developing their responses as he makes them #45; the component phrases are sometimes elegant, often familiar collocations , and they are arranged loosely without elaborate rhetorical patterns. We can see a string of such collocations in horror and repulsion. unnecessary and gratuitous. effective control. Creative! terrorist organizations. Mr.
O'Brien's made representations in human resource management, that regard is an example of a diplomatic or bureaucratic register #45; in more demotic speech this equates simply to a statement that the UK government has asked the Bangladesh government about Mr. Essay Short Story About! Miah's death. In fact, since it follows the human management, statement We have let the Bangladesh authorities know that there is widespread concern about the case in this country, it appears to be a repetition of the initial clause #45; how much difference is there between letting someone know a thing and making representations about it? Perhaps there is a slight distinction between informing Bangladesh that people in the UK are bothered about Mr. Miah's death and their asking the essay for communication, Bangladesh authorities to take some action. Ultimately, in that regard is ambiguous #45; since it may mean either that the UK government has made representations about Mr.
Miah's death in itself or about the management, widespread concern in school english essay, the UK over the killing. Can I print this guide and photocopy it? This guide is essays on international resource management, free for creative, individual users - for on international human management, example, teachers or students working from home - in any part of the school essay 2013, world. You can print out the essays human management, guide, but it is not ideal for printing and photocopying, and essay for communication, may run to many more pages than you expect. If you are working in a school or college, you may purchase a high-quality printed version optimized for multiple photocopying. Essays On International Human! The cost of the printed version includes permission for six records floating, unlimited reproduction within your institution - if you expect to make multiple copies, this will probably save on your bulk photocopying and printing costs. To obtain the printed guide, contact: ZigZag Education and Computing Centre Publications Greenway Business Centre Doncaster Road Bristol BS10 5PY Tel: +44 (0)117 950 3199. Click on the link to essays, go to the ZigZag Education Web site:
Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of creative writing, any pages you use, and/or include the essays human, copyright symbol. Suggestions for improvement are welcome. Thank you.
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International Human Resource Management Essay -…
Is it appropriate to staple together a two-page resume? Should I staple the essays on international management two pages together, or not? Are staples annoying or a necessary evil? Does it make a difference whether I’m mailing them or handing them over in essay short, person? The first thing that happens to a resume is that it is scanned. Staples impede that process. Leave the essays on international human resource staples out.
If you have to have 2 pages staple them. As an homework, employer I would think your resume was incomplete if page 2 got lost. (not all employers scan them. some still have file cabinets. Grisson is correct. My sister worked as the HR person at Symantec. A staple is a great way to human management get it thrown into the trash immediately. I have asked her about this in the past. Essay Short Story? Usually when a resume comes in they have to scan/copy it to essays on international resource send out to other people. A staple wouldn’t be a big deal if you were applying at a small place. Best would be to try and get the resume to fit on one page.
edit : And you should be using a cover letter too. Six Records Of A? A lot of the resume stuff can be pushed onto on international human resource management, that. One other alternative would be to use a handy paper clip. Keeps the resume together, but then if it is going to be scanned can be removed easily. I agree though that a one page resume might be best, if you can manage it. (Or maybe make a small footer with “Page 1 of 2…Page 2 of 2?)
I do plan to life essay use a cover letter. Try as I might, I just can’t get it down to essays management one page. I’ve even left off my earliest jobs, too! How does anyone of a very mature age (I’m 41) fit it all on one page. English Essay Homework? Perhaps I’ll staple those going to small businesses, and leave them loose for essays on international human management, the bigger companies. I third the trying to drop it down to a single page. It looks “cleaner” and gets rid of the for communication problem inherent to your original question…. Obviously this could be done w/ alteration of essays on international human resource, content, font, spacing, etc. EDIT Augustlan…sorry….you were posting the same time I was so I didn’t get a chance to read your answer first…. @Snoopy is right. I’m by floating life, no means an expert on this (though I’m sure others here are), but a single page resume that has “clean lines” is probably going to on international management be better for you than a more detailed but “difficult-to-get-through” two page resume.
However, I imagine that trying to cram it all in with tiny fonts and narrow margins will be unappealing to the eye. I found a number of resources outlining the six records of a essay utility of multi-page resumes, for instance, here and here. Good luck. According to on international human management Shilolo’s links, it is no longer considered necessary to essay short story friendship keep it to human one page in circumstances like my own. That made me feel better!
Thanks, Shi. I’m not “very mature” in programs, age or action but I do have what could be called “varied careers” in my past… One thing that always helps me keep it to a page is to tailor the on international resource management resume to the position I’m applying for. Instead of six records floating, experience, list relevant experience. I just keep a master copy I use as a template.
It has all my work history and essays on international human experience, then edit out the jobs that don’t apply to for communication the position I’m looking at on international resource management, and go from there. I usually end up making some slight wording changes to emphasize skills I think would apply and voila, custom resume. If you leave out irrelevant jobs, doesn’t that make it look like you’ve had a gap in your employment history? In any case, all my jobs have been administrative/accounting positions, so none of mine could be left out. Creative? Hmmm, maybe I’ll consilidate my skills/experience in essays on international resource management, one block and then just list the jobs. What about references?
Second page, or provide upon high school essay 2013, request? I got hired for my last two jobs with a two page resume. What I ended up doing was using one page to detail my skills and accomplishments and the other page for the biographical info. By organizing the skills/accomplishments into three sections (Organizational, Creative and Administrative) I was able to help my employer more easily visualize what kind of essays resource management, worker I would be. I do agree with shilolo on the paper clip. Essay? Buy a box and use them for small and large companies. edit: use “References available upon request” Good luck on your search! Handing them in resource, person I would use staples. Mailing them I would not use anything.
Do you have a cover letter and a two page resume? You guys are being so helpful! Thank you so much :) @tennesseejac Yes, I’ll have a cover letter and essay short story about a two page resume. Depending on essays human resource management the job and the point of contact for evidence, that particular job I think it’s acceptable to essays human management use staples (for all pages submitted). It may seem a little unprofessional, but I don’t think having a staple in the top corner of your resume is going to lose the job for you. One job that I surprisingly landed was because I included an extra page other than my cover letter and resume. It was for a live music promotion company and I added a page that listed my Top 10 concerts and what I would have done to make it a better experience for me as the programs “average customer”. The guy that hired me said this additional page and essays on international human resource management the first line of my Cover Letter was why I got a chance at the position. It should not be 2 pages.
If you have too much information, print double sided. I do agree that it should not be 2 pages, but I strongly disagree with printing double sided. The “References available upon request” is something I always included. Essay About Friendship? No need to have them call your old employers if they aren’t going to at least give you a interview. Resource Management? It has never been a problem. I know the standard wisdom is that it shouldn’t be more than one page long.
However, I don’t hold with that view. Remember the creative writing programs point of the human resource resume. It is to give a potential employer an school essay homework, idea of what your interests, skills, and accomplishments are. If you can’t get an employer to read on to the second page, you’re not going to essays on international resource management get the job anyway, even if you have a one-pager. In any case, you put the most recent, and the most important stuff on school english page one. These are the history and proof of skills that you believe will best help this employer. A resume is a story. It is on international human, your story. Creative Programs? If you have a one page story, people will think you are young and on international human resource management inexperienced. Evidence Law Essay? People of a certain age must have two pagers, or even longer, or it looks like they have been severely underemployed. And if you think a two-pager is too long, you should take a look at essays human resource management, academia.
I’ve seen fifteen and twenty page CVs. They have to list every publication they ever had. Now, that’s important, because that tells you not only how productive the person is, but also their interests and knowledge base. As to staples and what-not, I have to repeat, it’s worrying about nothing. If what’s on your first page doesn’t hook them, it won’t matter whether folks have to english essay homework take out a staple, or lose the second page. I think you should do what you’r comfortable with, and it sounds like you want to put a staple in.
I’m just letting you know what my experience has been. I hire two new people every year. Human Resource Management? I get a lot of resumes, some good, some horrible. Evidence Law Essay? I can tell right away who has a chance for the job. I’ve been hiring some extremely talented people, partly, I think, because people who hold this job tend to essays resource management get much better jobs when they get their degrees. They have a broad range of skills they would not get anywhere else. Never print double sided.
And remember to put your name on each page. If you use a paper clip, use a terrific one. Normal paper clips say “casual”. Keep it at two pages if that is what you need to get your skills, experience, and education across. The one page resume rule no longer stands. Just be sure to for communication have your name as a heading on the second page. I would not staple the two pages together. If you have to attach them to each other use a paper clip, but don’t paper clip the cover letter. I can’t believe we’ve had 22 posts about on international human resource, 1 vs 2 page resume, paper clips vs. School Essay Homework? staples! LOL!
I would rather have a paper clip, than a staple for the reasons stated. I would only staple the copies that I’m bringing with me to the interview (we all know to do that even if we’ve mailed or hand delivered resumes, right? ) But since we’re on the subject of resumes, here’s an AWESOME format for essays resource, Web developer types to use. http://ilovett.com/resume. This guy has managed to school english essay incorporate great design, usability, organization, informational anticipation into the functionality of essays on international human resource management, his resume. He has an FAQ to highlight his skills, search feature, and you could save it as a word doc or as a .pdf. Thank you all for six records of a floating life, taking the time to give me your input…I really appreciate it. Lurve for everyone!
I’ll let you know what I end up doing – 1 or 2 pages, and staple, paperclip or naked. :) @shadling21 ; those are great! You can find some classy ones at levenger too! @Judi – Nice! I think I prefer the levenger ones. I wonder where I can find jellyfish-shaped paper clips? I love Levenger!
One of my favorite places :) @shadling: no! aieee! if “paperclip” says “casual”, paperclips that say “bite me” are beyond the pale. Those levenger airclips are cool though…. Yes, all of this IS important. The best are the corner points. These from Target are pretty cool. What about printing it on heavier paper, and double-siding the resume portion? Alternatively you can create a summarized focused resume for your job application, and have a website with your full resume linked so that they can see it if they want to. My resume technique has been to include a cover letter, with only the letter on the page, and then a one page resume.
I tailor my resume to the position I am applying. So far I’ve only had to remove menial jobs, but if it gets to the point where I’m removing big chunks of essays human management, time, I’ll probably go the website-resume route. I like heavier paper resumes. With a two sided page it helps if it has a footer “1 of essay short about, 2 pages” “2 of 2 pages” like a press release would have. I say ABSOLUTELY staple the two pages. Most of the places I apply to on international human resource do NOT have an automated setup as described earlier.
Anything can be cut. (Try me!) You don’t have to put everything into the cover letter or the resume, either one. The purpose of the resume is to get you the interview, not to get you the job. Focus on what is most relevant to the position you’re applying for. Also remember that your cover letter and resume may never be seen by law essay, a hiring manager if they don’t get past a screener, who is going to look for resource, key words and may even be looking for exact matches to the language in a posted opening. 41 sounds very young to high school scholarships 2013 me! My career covers many employers, two professions (both freelance and on staff), and a wide range of experience, and I can summarize it on one page. I would think the essays on international resource only exception should be a resume that lists professional publication credits. I’m the high school scholarships 2013 head of HR for essays human, a worldwide software company and am part of high essay scholarships 2013, 3 HR networking/professional associations representing many different industries.
I literally can’t think of one single company that accepts resumes by fax or mail anymore. Essays Human Resource? Resumes are generally submitted electronically through either independent job boards like monster or directly to a company’s career site. The keys to an effective e-resume: clean format and appropriate key words that trigger e-scanning. If an applicant submits a resume/app by for communication, any means but electronic, we trash it – not to be callous but to enable us to essays on international human management search and collect stats efficiently. Good luck. I wanted to six records of a floating essay come back and let everyone know that I got it down to one page.
I left many things out, but also switched to human resource a bullet style format from a paragraph style. Thanks for all the floating essay advice! and keep your fingers crossed for me :) @baseballnut Around here (smalltown, USA) many companies still request resumes by essays on international human, snail mail. You’re right. Six Records Floating Essay? Sometimes the essays human management case. Isn’t it funny that this question has had 38 reponses? About stapling? It’s a great question! And we never even got into writing programs the real fundamentals of the act of stapling.
Do you staple parallel with the top of the essays on international resource page, parallel with the side of the page or do you staple it on a diagonal? And do you use colored staples? I do. At the evidence moment the staples in on international management, my stapler are purple, but I also have blue, red, green, pink, and of a floating essay yellow. Also do you set the stapler down and on international resource slide the high school essay scholarships 2013 paper into human it, do you press down with your palm or punch it with the heel of homework, your hand, and essays human resource management do you smack it hard or gently? OR do you pick it up and squeeze it? And finally, do you pull the staple out and redo it if you do not like the writing way it went in, not symmetrical enough or too crooked or too far from the edge? When we get through those, we will begin with questions about staple removal habits and techniques. Remember, this is all going into your psychological profile. If you notice there are a lot of posts on this subject….use the friggen paper clip. Everyone has a different opinion it it, why bother losing a shot at a job because they don’t prefer the essays on international “staple”.
Paperclip all pertinant papers together. While a one page resume is nice many in this argument have forgotten about the essay for communication cover letter. For those who think a long story for your resume is what an employer wants to essays resource management see, think again. Your resume is a glipse into what you’ve done. That glimpse will create the interview which is the most important part. Good luck to programs all, and again…just paperclip it and then you won’t have to worry! This question is in the General Section.
Responses must be helpful and on-topic.