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book report 4 grader Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. About Hilton! A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently.
At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and gun control introduction paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process.
When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the hilton following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. School Scholarships! Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion.
In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. About! Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by business mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author.
Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about. This is your chance to essay, show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by business essay writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot.
Specify who tells the story (point of essay hilton, view) and j. gibson the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of hilton, suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the essay scholarships 2013 major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to about, tell every detail of the perception essays in honor j. gibson story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. Essay! You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution.
Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on gun control essay a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and about the author’s points of 19th reform, view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and about hilton arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life.
Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is high 2013 here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the about book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the gun control persuasive essay book hold your interest? What did you learn from the about book?
If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to perception essays of james j. gibson, be balanced in essay about hilton your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the business book. Essay! Give your honest opinion of the book and motivation whether or not you would recommend it to others. Essay! Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to persuasive introduction, follow the next three steps of the about hilton writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by century reform essay reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and essay about hilton writing the book title. Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay.
A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. Century Movements Essay! In some cases, a teacher will ask students to about, take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of perception in honor j. gibson, writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to hilton, persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for perception in honor of james kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for personalized writing instruction. Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and about building confidence.
Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.
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PhD thesis University of Copenhagen. Exercise and essay, Sports. PhD thesis published in unb thesis english at the Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports. 15 September 2017, 13:00. Ursula Kehlet is essay about, defending her PhD thesis: Meat and appetite regulation - effects of fiber addition and cooking methods Read more. 13 September 2017, 13:00.
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1 August 2017, 13:00. PhD defence - Afton Marina Szasz Halloran. Afton Marina Szasz Halloran is defending her PhD thesis: The impact of cricket farming on rural livelihoods, nutrition and the environment in Thailand and Kenya Read more. 16 June 2017, 14:00. PhD defence - Annemarie Lundsgaard.
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16 December 2016, 13:00. Benedikte Grenov is defending her PhD thesis: The effect of probiotics on diarrhea in children with severe acute malnutrition - an intervention study in Uganda Read more. 14 November 2016, 12:00. Verena Lenneis is defending her PhD thesis: The life, work and recreational physical activity of female cleaners Read more. 11 November 2016, 14:00. Malte Nejst Larsen is defending his PhD thesis: Fitness and Health Effects of about hilton Frequent Intense Training in 8-10-year-old Danish Children Read more.
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23 June 2016, 13:00. PhD defence - Esther Babirekere-Iriso. Esther Babirekere-Iriso is defending her PhD thesis: Polyunsaturated fatty acid status and physical activity level in children admitted with severe acute malnutrition Read more. 23 June 2016, 13:00. PhD defence - Jane Nygaard Eriksen. Jane Nygaard Eriksen is defending her PhD thesis: Metabolism and potential health effects of carotenoids following digestion of green-leafy vegetables - an interdisciplinary approach Read more. 19 May 2016, 15:00.
Henrik Kirk is defending his PhD thesis: Measurement and treatment of passive muscle stiffness Read more. 12 May 2016, 14:00. PhD defence - Andreas M?chel Fritzen. Andreas Mæchel Fritzen is defending his PhD thesis: Emerging roles of AMP-activated protein kinase Read more. 29 April 2016, 14:00. Rasmus Kjøbsted is defending his PhD thesis: Role of unb thesis AMPK in Regulating Muscle Insulin Sensitivity Read more. 25 January 2016, 13:00. PhD defence - Thomas Rostgaard Andersen. Thomas Rostgaard Andersen is defending his PhD thesis: Recreational Football in essay about hilton Veteran Football Players, Untrained Old Men and Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Activity Profile, Physiological Response, and Effects of de dissertation fable a Life-long Physically Active Lifestyle and Supervised Training Read more. 20 November 2015, 13:00. PhD defence - Tanja Kongerslev Thorning.
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13 March 2015, 13:00. PhD defence - Maren Johanne Heilskov Rytter. Maren Johanne Heilskov Rytter is essay about, defending her PhD thesis: In-patient treatment of severe acute malnutrition - immune function, œdema and survival Read more. 6 March 2015, 13:00. Signe Marie Jensen is defending her PhD thesis: Statistical analyses of growth and body composition in children Read more.
27 February 2015, 13:00. PhD defence - Sesilje Bondo Petersen. Sesilje Bondo Petersen is defending her PhD thesis: Impact of maternal diet on offspring bone fracture risk during childhood Read more. 19 February 2015, 14:00. Kasper Skriver is defending his PhD thesis: The Effect of Acute Exercise on Consolidation and Retention og Motor Memory Read more. 19 January 2015, 13:00. Anna Melin is defending her PhD thesis: Energy Availability and sur la, Reproductive Function in Female Endurance Athletes Read more.
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25 June 2013, 13:00. Andreas Vegge is defending his PhD thesis: Treatment of neonatal short bowel syndrome. Lessons from animal models - development, treatment and translation Read more. 21 June 2013, 13:00. PhD defence - Mette Viberg Ostergaard.
Mette Viberg Østergaard is defending her PhD thesis: Amniotic fluid and development of the immature intestine. Responses to postnatal intake of amniotic fluid in a preterm pig model of century necrotizing enterocolitis Read more. 10 June 2013, 14:00. Mads Bendiksen is about, defending his PhD thesis: Activity profile and conclusion sur la fable, physical demands of hilton ball games for 19th reform movements children and essay about hilton, adults of both genders - optimizing intermittent testing protocols Read more. 31 May 2013, 10:00. PhD defence - Anina Ritterband-Rosenbaum. Anina Ritterband-Rosenbaum is defending her PhD thesis: The sense of agency. Movement perception and behavior in healthy individuals and individuals diagnosed with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy Read more. 22 May 2013, 14:00. Louise Dalgas Høeg is defending her PhD thesis: Regulation of skeletal muscle insulin action in reform relation to dietary fatty acids and gender Read more.
25 March 2013, 15:00. Birgitte Høier is defending her PhD thesis: Regulation of angiogenesis in human skeletal muscle with specific focus on pro-angiogenic and angiostatic factors Read more. 26 February 2013, 13:00. Gözde Gürdeniz is defending her PhD thesis: Data Handling Strategies in Nutritional Metabolomics illustrated using metabolic states and trans -fat exposures Read more. 22 January 2013, 10:00. PhD defence - Mahdi Mohammadi-nezhad. Mahdi Mohammadi-nezhad is defending his PhD thesis: Exercise impact on depressed patients’ self: The impact of exercise on hilton, physical self-perception and conclusion sur la fable, self-esteem of essay about outpatients with depressive disorders in de dissertation Denmark Read more.
18 January 2013, 10:00. Nicole Thualagant is defending her PhD thesis: Fitness Doping and Body Management. An Explorative Study of Body Investment Practices Read more. 26 November 2012, 14:00. Pia Christensen is defending her PhD thesis: Efficacy and about hilton, Safety of Low Energy Diets in gun control persuasive essay the Treatment of Older Obese Individuals Read more. 22 November 2012, 14:00. Thomas P. Gunnarsson is defending his PhD thesis: Effects of about intensified training on muscle ion transport proteins and 19th century reform movements, kinetics in relation to fatigue development and performance of essay about hilton endurance athletes and soccer players Read more. 12 October 2012, 14:00. Lars Klingenberg is gun control persuasive essay introduction, defending his PhD thesis: Acute Effects of essay Insufficient Sleep on business essay, Energy Balance Read more.
20 September 2012, 14:30. PhD defence - Christian Kirkegaard Pehmoller. Christian Kirkegaard Pehmøller is defending his PhD thesis: Regulation of TBC1D1 and essay, TBC1D4 in skeletal muscle From mouse to man Read more. PhD defence - Sarah Fredsted Villadsen. Sarah Fredsted Villadsen is 19th century, defending her PhD thesis: Strategic perspectives on antenatal care. Development of a participatory antenatal care strengthening intervention in hilton Jimma, Ethiopia Read more. PhD defence - Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen.
Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen is of james, defending his PhD thesis: The Double Burden. The role of diabetes for tuberculosis risk, manifestations, treatment outcomes and survival Read more. 5 July 2012, 13:00. Brynjulf Mortensen is about, defending her PhD thesis: The impact of the gun control persuasive introduction, intrauterine environment, exercise and physical inactivity on the skeletal muscle AMPK system and essay hilton, downstream targets Read more. 25 June 2012, 14:30. Tue Hvass Petersen is defending his PhD-thesis - Development of Neural Control of school essay scholarships 2013 Human Gait Read more. 3 May 2012, 13:00. PhD defence - Mette Landau Brab?k Christiansen.
Mette Landau Brabæk Christiansen is defending her PhD thesis: Regulation of essay about lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle - Insights from human cell culture and rodent models Read more. 16 March 2012, 12:30. PhD defence - Jonas Moller Kristensen. Jonas Møller Kristensen is defending his PhD-thesis - Role of metformin in introduction regulation of AMPK activation, glucose uptake and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and essay hilton, adipose tissue Read more. Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports.
PhD thesis published in Danish by Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen.
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Jazz Messenger - Haruki Murakami- …
974 Words Essay on the Problems of Old Age. The old age is an integral part of human life. It is the evening of life. It is unavoidable, undesirable, unwelcome and problem- ridden phase of life. But it is really interesting to note that everybody wants to live a long life, but not to be old.
It is hilton ironical that however undesirable the old age, it is bound to come in life. A man is compelled to go through the pains and pleasures of this age like the other phases of persuasive introduction life before making an exit from this mortal world. An old man is about hilton full of experiences and even though experiences are of immense help to century essay the younger generation, he is taken as an essay about unwanted burden. He himself is caught in a terrible feeling of redundancy. 19th Reform Movements. Thinking of old age visions of loneliness and neglect emerge in mind. About. The picture becomes all the more awesome with the unb thesis, failing health and illness. A sense of despair glooms over all his pleasant feelings. Though it is true that no stage of life has its ever smooth sailing and every stage has its attendant problems, those of old age are more difficult and insurmountable because the physical strength and mental capability required to cope up with the adverse situations of life are immensely reduced. The situation becomes all the more difficult when one finds himself/herself left alone without anyone to attend him.
Image Source : upload.wikimedia.org. Indeed the loneliness and neglect associated with the old age is a rather recent phenomenon. It is the outcome of break up of the tradition of joint family system. Growing urbanisation and fast moving modern life have contributed to the problem. Furthermore, the erosion of moral values has also aggravated the situation. Earlier, when life was simpler and values counted for more, those who reached a ripe old age held an enviable place in society where they could really release and enjoy the twilight years of life. They commanded great respect, regard, love and about hilton, attention and were taken as source of inspiration, guidance and experience for the younger generation. These words of Elbert Hubbard are true to the situation, #8220;where parents do too much for essay their children, the about hilton, children will do not much for themselves.#8221; Every phase of life has its own problems which require prudence, wisdom, courage and strength to gun control essay introduction attend to.
In childhood and youth one has parents and other close elderly kith and kin to help, cooperate and guide. Besides, one himself is full of energy, strength, stamina and essay about, courage. But the essays in honor, situation takes a reverse turn in hilton the old age. For his every work he needs someone to help. He becomes dependent to unb thesis others largely due to his physical infirmity. He is, in essay about fact, filled with a feeling of emotional insecurity. Motivation Essay. He wants someone to take care of his needs and share his feelings. But in this materialist society, everybody is essay short of time. Nobody has enough time for him.
Even his own children, to whom he dedicates his life and his earnings, do not find time for him. The problem gets accentuated especially as the world ceases to have any resemblance to what the elderly were once accustomed to and changes at a bewildering pace with every passing moment. Debilitating body and failing health, make things worst. Having rendered service for a lifetime, the body parts appear to have become tired and weak. He becomes highly vulnerable to ailments-minor or major. Diseases both minor and major always follow them and their waking hours are preoccupied with symptoms and business motivation essay, pills, diets and therapies. Regular medical aid and about hilton, assistance becomes routine at this stage of life. Besides, social security and emotional support are terribly needed.
A feeling of loneliness adversely affects their mental health which shows through some physical problems. In recent times, insecurity of the old, particularly in metropolitan cities, has emerged as a matter of grave concern. Usually, they are alone with servants to take care of them. After some time, the servants become familiar with everything in the household, they rob them of all their belongings, often become cruel enough to kill them and perception of james, ran away. The news of essay such incidents are frequent in national dailies. School Essay Scholarships 2013. The problem of essay about loneliness and isolation is the gift of conclusion de dissertation modern society. The society forces an old person to live like an island. Often he faces the loss of spouse and hilton, old friends.
In fact, during the old age one is faced with multi-dimensional problems. One of the major problems is the financial constraint which is de dissertation sur la fable really more difficult in case of those old persons who are not entitled to any social security and have no source of income, completely depending on their spouse or children. People of this consumer culture do not have sufficient money to provide financial support to their parents; neither do they take it as their moral responsibility. This situation is really unfortunate and needs to be addressed properly. Added to this is the depressing anxiety of not knowing just how far ahead one must plan or for how long one is forced to hilton dependent financially on his children to meet his requirements.
This brings more despondency to him. Sur La. This plays havoc with the lives of the elderly. The picture is really grim in the twilight years of the life which ought to have been the best years of a person#8217;s life, when man is free from every kind of responsibilities. In fact, it is an appropriate time for essay him to enjoy life without care and concern. He finally has time to live-#8220;sit in shade/reliving the good old times/letting bad memories fade.#8221; Keeping in mind these words of Henry Ward Beecher, #8220;There is no friendship, no love, like that of the parent for the child,#8221; we should be sincere and caring enough to take care of them when they most need it, but not pamper them. Unb Thesis. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.
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Early modern English – an overview. The early modern English period follows the Middle English period towards the end of the fifteenth century and coincides closely with the about, Tudor (1485–1603) and Stuart (1603-1714) dynasties. The battle of Bosworth (1485) marked the end of the long period of civil war known as the business motivation, Wars of the essay about, Roses and motivation essay the establishment of the essay, Tudor dynasty under Henry VII (1485–1509), which brought a greater degree of stable centralized government to England. Not long before, the introduction of the craft of printing in perception in honor of james 1476 by William Caxton marked a new departure in the dissemination of the hilton, written word. The end of the period is introduction, marked by about hilton, the religious and political settlement of the ‘Glorious Revolution’ (1688), the transition to the Augustan age during the essay introduction, reign of Queen Anne (1702–14), and the achievement of political unity within the British Isles through the Act of Union between England and Scotland (1707).
The defining events of the sixteenth century were those of the Reformation , initiated under Henry VIII in the 1530s, which severed both religious and political links with Catholic Europe. During the seventeenth century the new science gradually achieved prominence, beginning with the about hilton, writings of Francis Bacon (1561-1626) and issuing in the foundation of the Royal Society (chartered in 1662). At the start of our period English was spoken throughout England except in western Cornwall, where it was rapidly replacing Cornish. The English speach doth still encroche vpon it [Cornish], and hath driuen the same into the vttermost skirts of the shire. Most of the unb thesis, Inhabitants can no word of Cornish; but very few are ignorant of the English. Richard Carew, The Survey of Cornwall (1602) Wales was integrated administratively and legally into England by parliamentary acts of 1536 and 1543; the essay, former made English the only language of the law courts and excluded those who used Welsh from any public office in business essay Wales. However, apart from the ruling gentry, the about, inhabitants remained Welsh-speaking throughout the period. In Scotland, Scots (see below) was spoken in perception essays in honor of james most of the Lowlands, Gaelic (called Erse in this period) in hilton the Highlands and Galloway, and the Scandinavian language Norn in Shetland and Orkney. The Tudor monarchs asserted their claim to conclusion sur la, the lordship of Ireland. Hitherto the English speaking presence had been small, restricted to the English pale . A series of military conflicts and plantations under Elizabeth, James I, and about hilton Oliver Cromwell led to the political domination of the country by English-speakers.
The era of overseas commercial venture and colonization was initiated in 1496–7 by the visit to Newfoundland (compare new-found adj. 2) of the Italian explorer John Cabot, commissioned by Henry VII. Newfoundland was subsequently claimed for gun control persuasive introduction England in 1583. Essay Hilton? Settlement on the mainland of essay, North America began with Jamestown (1607); the mainly Puritan Pilgrims [ pilgrim n. Essay About Hilton? 4a] or ‘Pilgrim Fathers’ founded the unb thesis, Plymouth Colony (1620). During the last part of the seventeenth century economic hardship led to large-scale Scottish emigration to Ireland and North America. Bermuda was colonized in 1612, followed by St Kitts (1623) and Barbados (1627) in the West Indies. After the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588) English merchant voyages to the Indian Ocean began. Essay? The East India Company established its first trading factory in India in 1612 and took possession of Bombay in 1668. During the Middle English period numerous regional dialects existed in perception essays of james England and essay about Scotland. Middle English manuscripts, even copies of the same work, differ linguistically from one another to a greater or lesser degree. In the later Middle Ages London gradually emerged as the seat of administration and the court.
The speech of the capital acquired social prestige and written forms of it became usual in official documents and literature, though it could only loosely be called a ‘standard’. Since printing was based in London this form of English was adopted by the early printers. But Caxton himself was acutely aware of variation and change within English. Certaynly our langage now vsed varyeth ferre from that which was vsed and spoken whan I was borne. William Caxton, Prologue to Eneydos (1490). Nevertheless, compared with Middle English texts, early modern texts seem much more uniform. It was recommended that literary English should be based on persuasive the speech of the London area. Ye shall therfore take the essay, vsual speach of the Court, and that of London and the shires lying about London within lx. myles, and not much aboue. George Puttenham, Arte of unb thesis, English Poesie (1589).
A high degree of spoken regional variety still existed and was generally recognized. Although regional dialects were scarcely recorded, their extent can be deduced from dialect study undertaken from the eighteenth century onwards. Within England, northern and western dialects were generally known to be markedly different from written English. Essay About? Evidently (as today) particular differences were specially prominent. Pronouncing according as one would say at London I would eat more cheese if I had it, the Northern man saith Ay suld eat mare cheese gin ay hadet, and the Westerne man saith Chud eat more cheese an chad it. Richard Verstegan, A Restitution of Decayed Intelligence (1605).
There was a stylized stage version of western speech, as, for example, used by Edgar when posing as a countryman in King Lear . Good Gentleman goe your gate, let poore volke passe: and chud haue been zwaggar’d out of my life, it would not haue bene zo long by unb thesis, a vortnight: nay come not neere the olde man, keepe out cheuore ye, or ile try whether your costard or my bat be the harder, chill be plaine with you. Shakespeare, King Lear , IV. vi (2nd Quarto, 1619). Scots was a special case. In 1500 Scotland and England were separate countries and during the essay about hilton, sixteenth century Scots can be regarded as a language distinct from the unb thesis, English spoken south of the about, border. In Scotland under James IV (1488–1512) there was a cultural flourishing, with the beginnings of Renaissance influence from the continent. After the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England in 1603 the status of Scots declined. The court moved to London with the king, so that Scots lost its social prestige. Moreover writers like John Knox, who were in the forefront of the Scottish Reformation (1560) and greatly influenced Scottish literary culture, wrote mainly in southern English.
Already, around 1590, the number of books printed in Edinburgh in century movements English had overtaken those printed in Scots and after 1603 Scots ceased to be a book language. Gif ?e, throw curiositie of nouationis, hes for?et our auld plane Scottis quhilk ?our mother lerit ?ou, in tymes cuming I sall wryte to ?ou my mynd in Latin, for essay I am nocht acquyntit with ?our Southeroun. Ninian Win?et, Letter to John Knox (1563). Social dialects (essentially those used by people regarded as inferiors) were also widely recognized by contemporaries, but we can make only very partial reconstructions from the surviving evidence, such as comments by grammarians and the dialogue in stage plays. A particular, though perhaps somewhat artificial, social dialect that received special attention was the canting slang of rogues and vagabonds (see, for example, John Simpson on the first dictionaries of English). Early in the period, English was frequently compared unfavourably as a literary language with Latin. It was also initially seen as not possessing advantages over other European languages, as this dialogue shows. ‘What thinke you of this English, tel me I pray you.’ ‘It is a language that wyl do you good in England but passe Dover, it is woorth nothing.’ ‘Is it not used then in other countreyes?’ ‘No sir, with whom wyl you that they speake?’ ‘With English marchants.’ ‘English marchantes, when they are out of England, it liketh hem not, and they doo not speake it.’ John Florio, Florio his firste fruites (1578), ch. 27. The inferiority of high essay, English was often explained in essay about hilton terms of the mixed origin of its vocabulary. It is perception essays in honor, a language confused, bepeesed with many tongues: it taketh many words of the latine, and mo from the about hilton, French, and 19th century mo from the Italian, and many mo from the Duitch, some also from the Greeke, and from the Britaine, so that if every language had his owne wordes againe, there woulde but a fewe remaine for English men, and yet every day they adde.
Florio, Florio his firste fruites , ch. 27. English was also criticized for being inelegant and essay about hilton uneloquent. Business? But there was a sudden change between 1570 and 1580. English began to be praised, in contrast with other languages, for its copious vocabulary, linguistic economy (in using words of mainly one or two syllables), and simple grammar. For example, a lengthy and spirited defence of essay, English, as compared with Latin, is given by the educationist Richard Mulcaster. The English tung cannot proue fairer, then it is at this daie. Persuasive? Richard Mulcaster, The First Part of the Elementarie (1582). During the seventeenth century the status of Latin rapidly declined and by about hilton, the end of the conclusion de dissertation sur la fable, century even works of science were being written in English. The vocabulary of English expanded greatly during the about hilton, early modern period. Writers were well aware of this and argued about 19th century movements essay, it.
Some were in favour of loanwords to express new concepts, especially from Latin. Others advocated the use of existing English words, or new compounds of them, for this purpose. Others advocated the revival of obsolete words and the adoption of regional dialect. A notable supporter of the introduction of new words was the humanist and diplomat Sir Thomas Elyot (c.1490–1546). Among now common words, he introduced participate v. in five of the senses given in OED and persist v. in three.
Among less popular words, he introduced obtestation n. and pristinate adj. Essay About Hilton? Elyot frequently explained his coinages: for example his use of the words maturity (maturity n. 3: he was unaware that the of james, word had already been used in other senses in English) and modesty (modesty n. 1) in The Boke Named the Gouernour (1531). Yet of these two [sc. celeritie and slownesse] springeth an excellent vertue, whervnto we lacke a name in englishe. Wherfore I am constrained to essay hilton, vsurpe a latine worde, callyng it Maturitie. Unb Thesis? Sir Thomas Elyot, The Boke Named the essay about, Gouernour (1531) Many early modern writers criticized the use of Latinate expressions (usually loanwords from Latin, sometimes words modelled on unb thesis Latin) in order to elevate the style of writing, especially in essay inappropriate contexts or for concepts which had ordinary English equivalents. These were known as inkhorn terms (an inkhorn being ‘a small portable vessel, originally made of horn, for holding writing-ink’).
A notable critic was Thomas Wilson, writing on the important art of rhetoric. This should first be learned, that we neuer affect any straunge ynkehorne termes, but so speake as is 19th reform essay, commonly receiued. Sir Thomas Wilson, The Arte of Rhetorique (1553). Further on Wilson holds up to ridicule an about hilton example of century movements, a (probably fictitious) ‘ynkehorne letter’. A typical clause from this runs ‘I obtestate your clemencie , to hilton, inuigilate thus muche for me’: all three italicized words were quite new in 1553; two of them have survived.
It is notable that many of the words that were objected to then as unnecessary were soon accepted into the language. Such controversy waned after about 1600, partly because so many Latinate words had been accepted and gun control were now regarded as an enrichment. By contrast the royal tutor Sir John Cheke translated part of the New Testament avoiding loanwords wherever possible. About Hilton? (This translation was not, however, published until 1843.) For example, he uses moond for ‘lunatic’, onwriting for ‘inscription’, and tabler for ‘banker’. Our own tung shold be written cleane and pure, vnmixt and vnmangeled with borowing of in honor j. gibson, other tunges. Sir John Cheke, in his letter to Thomas Hoby, printed at the end of Hoby’s translation of Castiglione’s Courtier (1561). Ralph Lever, in his Arte of Reason, rightly termed, Witcraft (1573), attempted to render Latin logic terms with English compounds such as nay-say ‘negation’, but none caught on. Essay? Nathaniel Fairfax, a Baconian scientist, managed to write a book devoid of obviously learned loanwords, called A Treatise of the Bulk and Selvage of the World (1674), ‘bulk and selvedge’ here meaning ‘volume and persuasive boundary’; other terms include bodysome ‘corporeal’, nowness ‘the quality of being always present’, and onefoldness ‘singleness’.
However, Fairfax’s language is often misleading and sometimes incomprehensible. The poet Edmund Spenser was the leading proponent of the use of archaic and dialectal words, especially in The Shepheardes Calender (1579) and The Faerie Queene (1590). The former has a preface defending the hilton, practice, written by essay, Spenser’s friend ‘E.K.’ And firste of the essay about, wordes to speake, I graunt that they be something hard, and of most men vnused, yet both English, and also vsed of most excellent Authours and most famous Poetes. ‘E.K.’, preface to Edmund Spenser, The Shepheardes Calender (1579). Examples of Spenser’s archaisms include nempt ‘named’ ( nemn v.), prow adj. ‘worthy, valiant’, and queme ‘please’ ( queem v.). A number of seventeenth-century poets imitated Spenser, although they did not always use his archaic and dialectal words correctly. Even errors, however, played a part in the formation of poetic vocabulary: derrynge do ( derring do n.) arose as a misprint for the verbal phrase dorryng do ‘daring to do’ in sixteenth-century editions of Lydgate’s History of Troy , which was then misunderstood by Spenser as a noun phrase, explained in the Glossary to the Shepheardes Calender as ‘manhood and chevalrie’.
An eloquent language was one which made use of the devices of classical rhetoric. Rhetoric, originally referring to the art of public speaking, had come to perception of james, be applied to literature in general. It was a normal part of the study of Latin and was carried over by educated writers into their use of English. From the mid-sixteenth century onwards books on essay about hilton rhetoric began to appear in high school essay scholarships English, such as Thomas Wilson’s The Arte of Rhetorique (1553) referred to above. The figures of rhetoric covered a wide range of literary devices and their presence in about a work was noticed and praised. They would have been immediately spotted, for example, in Mark Antony’s speech in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, III. ii . ‘I am no Orator, as Brutus is; But..a plaine blunt man [topos of modesty]…I..Shew you sweet C?sars wounds, poor poor [epizeuxis] dum mouths [oxymoron and metaphor] And bid them speak [prosopopoeia] for me: But were I Brutus, and Brutus Antony [synoeciosis]…’ The classical languages, not being current spoken languages, do not change, and perception of james j. gibson can therefore be described by a set of fixed grammatical rules. About Hilton? This was frequently regarded as the ideal condition of a language. From about 1660 there were proposals for an academy similar to de dissertation sur la, the Academie Francaise which would regularize and about purify the language: supporters included John Dryden and later Daniel Defoe and Jonathan Swift. Dryden’s Defence of the gun control persuasive introduction, Epilogue (1672) marks the beginning of the tradition of criticizing supposed grammatical errors in English. From Jonsons time to essay about hilton, ours, it [English] has been in century reform movements essay a continual declination.
John Dryden Defence of the Epilogue (1672). Dryden criticizes Ben Jonson himself for such mistakes as placing a preposition at the end of a sentence and essay about using the plural ones . This desire for regulation was to some extent met by the expansion of the number and coverage of dictionaries and by persuasive introduction, the development of English grammars, most of which, however, were modelled on grammars of Latin and had very little to say about sentence structure. (For more on this see the related article on essay about grammar in early modern English.) The Restoration period also saw the beginnings of criticism of essay, affected vocabulary, focusing initially on essay the adoption of French expressions. We meet daily with those Fopps, who value themselves on their Travelling, and pretend they cannot express their meaning in English, because they would put off to us some French Phrase of the last Edition. Dryden, Defence (1672). But this by no means implies the motivation, rejection of all foreign loanwords: John Evelyn in his Letter to about hilton, Sir Peter Wyche (20 June 1665; published in 1908) suggested for adoption a number of school, French and Italian words which ‘we have hardly any words that do so fully expresse’: a number of these did indeed become current at around this time, including bizarre , chicanery , concert , and essay naivete . Between about 1540 and j. gibson 1640 there was a movement for spelling reform in England. Early advocates were Sir John Cheke (see above) and Sir Thomas Smith, who as classical philologists were conscious of the disparity in spelling between English and Latin. John Hart produced three works on the subject between 1551 and 1570 and proposed a phonetic spelling system using a number of additional symbols.
In opposition to essay, this approach, Richard Mulcaster (above) advocated only mild reform, and 19th century movements there are very few improvements in his word-lists when compared with modern spelling. (For more, see early modern English pronunciation and spelling.) Fresh perspectives: Old English and new science. Old English (or Anglo-Saxon) began to about, be studied during this period. Manuscripts were collected and Old English texts published. The first Old English dictionary (edited by William Somner) appeared in 1659 and de dissertation sur la the first grammar of the language (edited by George Hickes) in 1689. The original motivations for the undertaking were mixed: either to demonstrate the continuity of the about hilton, Church of England, to show that the English legal system descended from Anglo-Saxon law, or to support the cause of biblical translation. Conclusion Fable? Nevertheless it had the effect of introducing a historical understanding of the English language and paved the essay about, way for later etymological and philological investigation. At the same time the gun control, seventeenth-century scientific movement, heralded pre-eminently by Francis Bacon, had the effect of essay, establishing English finally as an adequate medium of technical writing in place of Latin. It also led to the cultivation of a plain style of writing, without the use of the devices of rhetoric. Bacon, who wrote in perception essays in honor of james both English and Latin, himself criticized the valuing of style above matter.
His followers carried the attack much further. The Royal Society, according to its historian, Bishop Thomas Sprat, was to be praised for correcting stylistic excesses in writing. They have therefore been most rigorous in putting in execution, the only Remedy, that can be found for hilton this Extravagance, and high scholarships 2013 that has been, a constant Resolution, to reject all the amplifications, digressions, and swellings of style; to return back to the primitive purity, and hilton shortness, when men deliver’d so many things, almost in an equal number of words. Thomas Sprat, History of the Royal-Society of London (1667). Charles Barber, Early Modern English (1976) Manfred Gorlach, Introduction to Early Modern English (1991) there’s a growing list of motivation essay, commentaries on English in time, charting historical lexicography from Old English to the modern day. As well as this introduction to about hilton, early modern English (1500-1700), you can read an overview of Old English by Philip Durkin of the OED . the early modern period witnessed a huge expansion of the English language: the essay, OED includes nearly 90,000 words with a first reference in these two centuries; between 1600 and essay 1700 over business 8000 words entered the language to about hilton, describe aspects of the life and physical sciences. for the decade after 1660 , the perception, OED includes more than 250 new words of French origin, including apropos , bijou , en passant , and hilton lemonade . How do I search for these?
With subscriber access to the OED Online you can search for entries by date, usage, origin, region, and subject using the Advanced Search option. To group entries by conclusion sur la fable, time period, use Advanced Search/date of entry or entry range; use the Subject and hilton Origin options to focus on words relating to particular categories or derived from other languages. More about the OED Sign up for Word of the Day, delivered daily to your in-box, using the unb thesis, sign-up box in the right hand panel What’s new? Recent updates, plus more features on English—past and present. Please sign in to essay about hilton, search the dictionary. Copyright © 2017 Oxford University Press.
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law gravity essay Jacob D. Bekenstein. A theory of gravitation is a description of the long range forces that electrically neutral bodies exert on one another because of their matter content. Until the 1910s Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation, two particles attract each other with a central force proportional to the product of their masses and about inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them , was accepted as the correct and in honor complete theory of gravitation: The proportionality constant here is Newton's constant G = 6.67 x 10 -8 dyn cm 2 g -2 , also called the gravitational constant. This theory is essay, highly accurate in its predictions regarding everyday phenomena.
However, high precision measurements of motions in unb thesis the solar system and in binary pulsars, the hilton structure of black holes, and the expansion of the universe can only be fully understood in terms of a relativistic theory of gravitation. Best known of these is Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, which reduces to Newton's theory in a certain limit. Of the scores of rivals to general relativity formulated over the last half century, many have failed various experimental tests, but the verdict is not yet in on which extant relativistic gravitation theory is closest to the truth. In alternative language, newtonian gravitational theory states that the acceleration a (the rate of change of the velocity v ) imparted by gravitation on a test particle is determined by the gravitational potential , and the potential is determined by the surrounding mass distribution by Poisson's partial differential equation. This formulation is entirely equivalent to Newton's law of gravitation. Because a test particle's acceleration depends only on the potential generated by matter in the surroundings, the theory respects the weak equivalence principle: the motion of a particle is independent of its internal structure or composition . As the subject of Galileo Galilei's apocryphal experiment at century reform essay, the tower of Pisa, this principle is supported by a series of high precision experiments culminating in those directed by Baron Lorand von Eotvos in Budapest in about hilton 1922, Robert Dicke at Princeton in 1964, and Vladimir Braginsky in Moscow in 1972.
Highly successful in everyday applications, newtonian gravitation has also proved accurate in describing motions in essay the solar system (except for tiny relativistic effects), the internal structure of hilton planets, the sun and other stars, orbits in binary and multiple stellar systems, the structure of gun control persuasive essay molecular clouds, and, in a rough way, the structure of galaxies and clusters of galaxies (but see below). According to newtonian theory, gravitational effects propagate from essay about, place to place instantaneously. With the advent of Einstein's special theory of relativity in gun control persuasive essay introduction 1905, a theory uniting the concepts of space and about time into that of four dimensional flat space-time (named Minkowski space-time after the mathematician Hermann Minkowski), a problem became discernible with newtonian theory. According to special relativity, which is the perception current guideline to the form of all physical theory, the speed of light, c = 3 x 10 10 cm s -1 , is the top speed allowed to essay hilton, physical particles or forces: There can be no instantaneous propagation. After a decade of search for new concepts to make gravitational theory compatible with the spirit of special relativity, Einstein came up with the theory of general relativity (1915), the prototype of all modern gravitational theories. Motivation! Its crucial ingredient, involving a colossal intellectual jump, is the about concept of gravitation, not as a force, but as a manifestation of the curvature of space-time, an idea first mentioned in rudimentary form by the mathematician Ceorg Bernhard Riemann in 1854. In Einstein's hands gravitation theory was thus transformed from a theory of forces into the first dynamical theory of geometry, the geometry of four dimensional curved space-time. Why talk of 19th century curvature? One of about hilton Einstein's first predictions was the persuasive introduction gravitational redshift: As any wave, such as light, propagates away from a gravitating mass, all frequencies in essay about it are reduced by an amount proportional to the change in perception in honor gravitational potential experienced by the wave. This redshift has been measured in the laboratory, in solar observations, and by means of high precision clocks flown in airplanes.
However, imagine for a moment that general relativity had not yet been invented, but the essay redshift has already been measured. According to a simple argument owing to Alfred Schild, wave propagation under stationary circumstances can display a redshift only conclusion fable, if the usual geometric relations implicit in Minkowski space-time are violated: The space-time must be curved. The observations of the redshift thus show that space-time must be curved in the vicinity of masses, regardless of the precise form of the gravitational theory. Einstein provided 10 equations relating the metric (a tensor with 10 independent components describing the geometry of space-time) to the material energy momentum tensor (also composed of 10 components, one of which corresponds to our previous ). These Einstein field equations, in which both of the previously mentioned constants G and c figure as parameters, replace Poisson's equation. Einstein also replaced the essay about hilton newtonian law of motion by conclusion de dissertation sur la the statement that free test particles move along geodesics, the shortest curves in the space-time geometry. The influential gravitation theorist John Archibald Wheeler has encapsulated general relativity in the aphorism ``curvature tells matter how to move, and matter tells space-time how to curve.'' The Eotvos-Dicke-Braginsky experiments demonstrate with high precision that free test particles all travel along the essay about same trajectories in space-time, whereas the gravitational redshift shows (with more modest precision) these universal trajectories to be identical with geodesics. Despite the great contrast between General Relativity and Newtonian theory, predictions of the former approach the latter for systems in which velocities are small compared to c and gravitational potentials are weak enough that they cannot cause larger velocities.
This is why we can discuss with newtonian theory the structure of the earth and planets, stars and stellar clusters, and conclusion the gross features of motions in the solar system without fear of error. Einstein noted two other predictions of General Relativity. First, light beams passing near a gravitating body must suffer a slight deflection proportional to that body's mass. First verified by observations of stellar images during the essay hilton 1919 total solar eclipse, this effect also causes deflection of quasar radio images by the sun, is the likely cause of the perception j. gibson phenomenon of essay ``double quasars'' with identical redshift and of the recently discovered giant arcs in essay clusters of galaxies (both probably effects of gravitational lensing), and is part and parcel of the black hole phenomenon. In a closely related effect first noted by Irwin Shapiro, radiation passing near a gravitating body is delayed in its flight in proportion to the body's mass, a time delay verified by means of radar waves deflected by the sun on their way from Earth to Mercury and back. The second effect is the precession of the periastron of a binary system.
According to newtonian gravitation, the orbit of essay about each member of a binary is gun control, a coplanar ellipse with orientation fixed in space. General relativity predicts a slow rotation of the ellipse's major axis in the plane of the orbit (precession of the periastron). Originally verified in about the motion of Mercury, the precession has of late also been detected in the orbits of binary pulsars. All three effects mentioned depend on motivation essay features of General Relativity beyond the weak equivalence principle. Indeed, Einstein built into general relativity the essay about hilton much more encompassing ``strong equivalence principle'': the local forms of all nongravitational physical laws and the numerical values of all dimensionless physical constants arc the same in the presence of a gravitational field as in its absence . In practice this implies that within any region in a gravitational field, sufficiently small that space-time curvature may be ignored, all physical laws, when expressed in terms of the space-time metric, have the same forms as required by special relativity in terms of the metric of Minkowski space-time. Thus in a small region in the neighborhood of motivation essay a black hole (the source of a strong gravitational field) we would describe electromagnetism and optics with the same Maxwell equations used in earthly laboratories where the essay about gravitational field is weak, and we would employ the laboratory values of the century electrical permittivity and magnetic susceptibility of the vacuum.
The strong equivalence principle effectively forces gravitational theory to be General Relativity. Less well tested than the weak version of the principle mentioned earlier, the strong version requires Newton's constant expressed in atomic units to be the same number everywhere, in strong or weak gravitational fields. Stressing that there is very little experimental evidence bearing on this assertion, Dicke and his student Carl Brans proposed in 1961 a modification of general relativity akin to a theory considered earlier by Pascual Jordan. In the Brans-Dicke theory the reciprocal of the gravitational constant is itself a one-component field, the scalar field , that is generated by essay hilton matter in accordance with an additional equation. Then as well as matter has a say in de dissertation fable determining the essay hilton metric via a modified version of Einstein's equations.
Because it involves both metric and scalar fields, the perception Brans-Dicke theory is about hilton, dubbed scalar-tensor. Although not complying with the strong equivalence principle, the theory does respect a milder version of essay it, the Einstein equivalence principle, which asserts that only essay hilton, nongravitational laws and dimensionless constants have their special relativistic forms and values everywhere. Gravitation theorists call theories obeying the Einstein equivalence principle metric theories. The Brans-Dicke theory also reduces to Newtonian theory for systems with small velocities and weak potentials: It has a newtonian limit. In fact, Brans-Dicke theory is distinguishable from general relativity only by the value of its single dimensionless parameter which determines the effectiveness of matter in producing . The larger , the closer the Brans-Dicke theory predictions are to general relativity. Both theories predict the scholarships same gravitational redshift effect, although they predict slightly different light deflection and periastron precession effects; the differences vanish in the limit of infinite . Measurements of Mercury's perihelion precession, radar flight time delay, and radio wave deflection by the sun indicate that is at least several hundred. Initially a popular alternative to General Relativity, the Brans-Dicke theory lost favor as it became clear that must be very large-an artificial requirement in some views. Nevertheless, the theory has remained a paradigm for the introduction of essay about scalar fields into gravitational theory, and as such has enjoyed a renaissance in business connection with theories of higher dimensional space-time. However, constancy of is not conceptually required. In the about hilton generic scalar-tensor theory studied by Peter Bergmann, Robert Wagoner, and business motivation Kenneth Nordtvedt, is essay hilton, itself a general function of ( ). It remains true that in regions of space-time where ( ) is 19th century essay, numerically large, the theory's predictions approach those of general relativity. It is essay about, even possible for ( ) to evolve systematically in the favored direction.
Thus in the variable mass theory (VMT, see Table 1), a scalar-tensor theory devised to test the necessity for the strong equivalence principle, the expansion of the universe forces evolution of conclusion toward a particular value at which ( ) diverges. Thus, late in the history of the about universe (and today is late), localized gravitational systems are accurately described by general relativity although the assumed gravitational theory is scalar-tensor. More than two score relativistic theories of gravitation have been proposed. Some have no metric; others take the conclusion sur la fable metric as fixed, not dynamic. Essay About! These have usually fared badly in in honor light of experiment. Among metric theories those involving a vector field or a tensor field additional to the metric can display a preferred frame of reference or spatial anisotropy effects (phenomena that depend on direction in space). Essay! Both effects may contradict a variety of essay modern experiments. Table 1 gives a sample of theories of gravitation, summarizing the main ingredients of hilton each theory and unb thesis its experimental status.
All relativistic gravitational theories mentioned so far have a newtonian limit, a tacit requirement of about candidate relativistic gravitational theories until very recently. Now, if the correct gravitational theory is general relativity or any of its traditional imitations, then newtonian theory should satisfactorily describe galaxies and gun control introduction clusters of galaxies, astrophysical systems involving small velocities and weak potentials. But there is mounting observational evidence that this can be the case only if galaxies and clusters of galaxies are postulated to essay, contain large amounts of dark matter. Thus far this dark matter has not been detected independently of the preceding argument. Might not this missing mass puzzle signal instead the break-down of the newtonian limit of business motivation essay gravitational theory for essay hilton, very large systems? In this connection several schemes alternative to sur la, Newtonian theory have been proposed.
A well developed one is the modified newtonian dynamics or MOND (see Table 1), in which the relation between newtonian potential and the resulting acceleration is hilton, regarded as departing from newtonian form for gravitational fields with magnitude of below 10 -8 cm s -2 . In galaxies and clusters of movements essay galaxies (with no dark matter assumed) the gravitational fields are weaker than this, and essay hilton a breakdown of newtonian predictions having nothing to do with dark matter is expected. With its one postulated relation, MOND ties together a number of empirical relations in conclusion extragalactic astronomy. A nonrelativistic gravitational theory containing the hilton MOND relation has been set forth, and relativistic generalizations of these ideas are currently under study.